Profile cover photo
Profile photo
PolySciTech Division Akina, Inc.
22 followers -
Polyscitech is your source for hard-to-find polymers and research products
Polyscitech is your source for hard-to-find polymers and research products

22 followers
About
PolySciTech Division Akina, Inc.'s posts

Post has attachment
PolyVivo PLGA used in nanoparticle development for contraceptives
PolySciTech Division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable polymers including PLGA. Recently, our PLGA product PolyVivo AP081 was used as part of development of a nanoparticle delivery system of male contraceptive FSHR vaccine to allow for reduction in spermatogenesis without causing side-effects. Read more: Xu, Pingping, Shuai Tang, Luping Jiang, Lihua Yang, Dinglin Zhang, Shibin Feng, Tingting Zhao et al. "Nanomaterial-dependent immunoregulation of dendritic cells and its effects on biological activities of contraceptive nanovaccines." Journal of Controlled Release (2016). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365916300396
“Abstract: Nanovehicles are promising delivery systems for various vaccines. Nevertheless, different biophysicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs), dominating their in vitro and in vivo performances for vaccination, remain unclear. We attempted to elucidate the effects of NPs and their pH-sensitivity on in vitro and in vivo efficacy of resulting prophylactic nanovaccines containing a contraceptive peptide (FSHR). To this end, pH-responsive and non-responsive nanovaccines were produced using acetalated β-cyclodextrin (Ac-bCD) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), respectively. Meanwhile, FSHR derived from an epitope of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor was used as the model antigen. FSHR-containing Ac-bCD and PLGA NPs were successfully prepared by a nanoemulsion technique, leading to well-shaped nanovaccines with high loading efficiency. The pH-sensitivity of Ac-bCD and PLGA nanovaccines was examined by in vitro hydrolysis and antigen release studies. Nanovaccines could be effectively engulfed by dendritic cells (DCs) via endocytosis in both dose and time dependent manners, and their intracellular trafficking was closely related to the pH-sensitivity of the carrier materials. Furthermore, nanovaccines could induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by DCs and T cells co-cultured with the stimulated DCs. In vivo evaluations demonstrated that nanovaccines were more potent than that based on the complete Freund's adjuvant, with respect to inducing anti-FSHR antibody, reducing the sperm count, inhibiting the sperm motility, and increasing the teratosperm rate. Immunization of male mice with nanovaccines notably decreased the parturition incidence of the mated females. Consequently, both in vitro and in vivo activities of FSHR could be considerably augmented by NPs. More importantly, our studies indicated that the pH-responsive nanovaccine was not superior over the non-responsive counterpart for the examined peptide antigen. Keywords: Nanoparticle; Peptide antigen; pH-responsive; Cyclodextrin; Dendritic cell; Intracellular delivery”
Photo

PLGA-PEG investigated for Chrysin delivery against gastric cancer
PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable block copolymers including PEG-PLGA. Chrysin is a hydrophobic flavonoid with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. However, when taken orally by humans, it has negligible bioavailability due to extensive degradation. Recently, tests involving delivery of Chrysin using PEG-PLGA have shown that it has increased potency when delivered using this system which results in down-regulation of marker genes involved with gastric cancer. Read more: Mohammadian, Farideh, Yones Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Mohsen Mofarrah, Mehdi Dastani-Habashi, and Nosratollah Zarghami. "Down regulation of miR-18a, miR-21 and miR-221 genes in gastric cancer cell line by chrysin-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles." Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology (2016): 1-7. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/21691401.2015.1129615
“Abstract: Chrysin were well-documented as having significant biological roles particularly cancer chemo-preventive activity. However, the poor water solubility of chrysin limited their bioavailability and biomedical applications. In this study, we encapsulate the chrysin into PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for local treatment. In regard to the amount of the drug load, IC50 was significant decreased in nanocapsulated chrysin in comparison with free chrysin. This was confirmed through decrease of miR-18a, miR-21, and miR-221 genes expression by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that PLGA-PEG-chrysin complexes can be more effective than free chrysin. Therefore, PLGA-PEG can be a better nanocarrier for this kind of hydrophobic flavonoid.”

Syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol delivery by PEG-PLGA polymers investigated for prevention of liver damage
PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of PLGA and related block copolymers. Recently a paper has come out using mPEG-PLGA to delivery anti-oxidant drugs syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol. Read more: Guan, Qingxia, Shuang Sun, Xiuyan Li, Shaowa Lv, Ting Xu, Jialin Sun, Wenjing Feng, Liang Zhang, and Yongji Li. "Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles co-loaded with syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol." Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 27, no. 2 (2016): 1-13. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10856-015-5641-x
“Abstract: This study investigated the therapeutic efficiency of monomethoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA) co-loaded with syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol as a drug with effective targeting and loading capacity as well as persistent circulation in vivo. The nanoparticles were prepared using a nanoprecipitation method with mPEG-PLGA as nano-carrier co-loaded with syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol (SH-NPs). The parameters like in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution in vivo, fluorescence in vivo endomicroscopy, and cellular uptake of SH-NPs were investigated. Results showed that the total encapsulation efficiency was 32.38 ± 2.76 %. Total drug loading was 12.01 ± 0.42 %, particle size was 91.70 ± 2.11 nm, polydispersity index was 0.22 ± 0.01, and zeta potential was −24.5 ± 1.16 mV for the optimized SH-NPs. The nanoparticle morphology was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, which indicated that the particles of SH-NPs were in uniformity within the nanosize range and of spherical core shell morphology. Drug release followed Higuchi kinetics. Compared with syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol mixture (SH), SH-NPs produced drug concentrations that persisted for a significantly longer time in plasma following second-order kinetics. The nanoparticles moved gradually into the cell, thereby increasing the quantity. ALT, AST, and MDA levels were significantly lower on exposure to SH-NPs than in controls. SH-NPs could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2.2.15 cells and could be taken up by HepG2.2.15 cells. The results confirmed that syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol can be loaded simultaneously into mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles. Using mPEG-PLGA as nano-carrier, sustained release, high distribution in the liver, and protective effects against hepatic injury were observed in comparison to SH.”

Post has attachment
Article highlights use of PEG-PLGA for antibiotic delivery to bone as osteomyelitis treatment
PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable block copolymers including PEG-PLGA type polymers. These have the benefit of being easily formulated into microparticles by simple emulsion techniques (effectively rapidly stirring the organic solvent dissolved polymer into a water bath). One useful aspect of these polymers is that the hydrophilic PEG-chain of the block copolymer naturally turns to the exterior of the microparticle upon emulsion. PEG has a very useful feature in that, due to its hydrodynamic structure, it is highly bio-inert and prevents protein absorption. This allows pegylated particles to resist immune system responses such as attack by macrophages and other forms of particle clearance that affect non-pegylated microparticles. In a recent study, a group for the University of Pavia in Italy generated a series of pegylated microparticles and investigated their application for delivery of gentamicin to bone structures to prevent postoperative orthopedic infections such as osteomyelitis. Read more: Dorati, Rossella, Antonella DeTrizio, Ida Genta, Pietro Grisoli, Alessia Merelli, Corrado Tomasi, and Bice Conti. "An experimental design approach to the preparation of pegylated polylactide-co-glicolide gentamicin loaded microparticles for local antibiotic delivery." Materials Science and Engineering: C 58 (2016): 909-917. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928493115303799
“Abstract: The present paper takes into account the DOE application to the preparation process of biodegradable microspheres for osteomyelitis local therapy. With this goal gentamicin loaded polylactide-co-glycolide-co-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) microspheres were prepared and investigated. Two preparation protocols (o/w and w/o/w) with different process conditions, and three PLGA-PEG block copolymers with different compositions of lactic and glycolic acids and PEG, were tested. A Design Of Experiment (DOE) screening design was applied as an approach to scale up manufacturing step. The results of DOE screening design confirmed that w/o/w technique, the presence of salt and the 15%w/v polymer concentration positively affected the EE% (72.1–97.5%), and span values of particle size distribution (1.03–1.23), while salt addition alone negatively affected the yield process. Process scale up resulted in a decrease of gentamicin EE% that can be attributed to the high volume of water used to remove PVA and NaCl residues. The results of in vitro gentamicin release study show prolonged gentamicin release up to three months from the microspheres prepared with salt addition in the dispersing phase; the behavior being consistent with their highly compact structure highlighted by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The prolonged release of gentamicin is maintained even after embedding the biodegradable microspheres into a thermosetting composite gel made of chitosan and acellular bovine bone matrix (Orthoss® granules), and the microbiologic evaluation demonstrated the efficacy of the gentamicin loaded microspheres on Escherichia coli. The collected results confirm the feasibility of the scale up of microsphere manufacturing process and the high potential of the microparticulate drug delivery system to be used for the local antibiotic delivery to bone. Keywords: DOE; Gentamicin; Osteomyelitis; Microspheres; Polylactide-co-glycolide; Polyethyleneglycol; Bone delivery. Highlights: To get a more effective therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteomyelitis. To exploit the local delivery of gentamicin to bone by a biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery system. Polylactide-co-glycolide-co-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) microsphere as biodegradable drug delivery system. Process variables affecting microspheres properties are investigated. Design Of Experiment (DOE) screening design as approach to scale up manufacturing step.”
Photo

Review article highlights usage of PEG-PLGA type polymers for drug delivery
PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable block copolymers. Recently, an excellent review article came out which covers the use of these types of polymers for drug delivery applications. This article touches on several applications of PEG-PLGA type drug delivery including delivery strategies for drugs such as ICU 189150, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide, rapamycin,17-AAG, bicalutamide, embelin, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, β-lapachone, pifithrin, sagopilone, and thiocoraline. There is also information regarding clinical formulations which have been tried previously in clinical trials including Genexol and Oncogel. Genexol is an mPEG-PLA based formulation with block sizes of 2000Da mPEG and 1750Da PLA. The most similar Polyvivo product to this one would be Cat# AK069. Oncogel is based off of Regel which is a PLGA-PEG-PLGA with overall molecular weight of 4200Da and a ratio of LA:GA of 3:1. The most similar PolyVivo product to this one would be Cat# AK091. Read more: Cho, Hyunah, Jieming Gao, and Glen S. Kwon. "PEG-b-PLA micelles and PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol–gels for drug delivery." Journal of Controlled Release (2015). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365915302674
“Abstract: Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-polyethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA) sol–gels have been extensively researched for systemic and localized drug delivery applications, respectively, and they have both progressed into humans for paclitaxel, an important yet poorly water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent. In this review article, preclinical and clinical research on PEG-b-PLA micelles and PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol–gels that has focused on paclitaxel will be updated, and recent research on other poorly water-soluble anticancer agents and delivery of drug combinations (i.e. multi-drug delivery) that seeks synergistic anticancer efficacy will be summarized. PEG-b-PLA micelles are a first-generation platform for the systemic multi-delivery of poorly water soluble anticancer agents. PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol–gels are a first-generation platform for the localized multi-drug delivery of water-soluble and/or poorly water-soluble anticancer agents. In summary, PEG-b-PLA micelles and PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol–gels may safely enable pre-clinical evaluation and clinical translation of poorly water-soluble anticancer agents, especially for promising, rapidly emerging anticancer combinations. Keywords: Block copolymer; Controlled release; Drug combination; Drug solubilization; Hydrogels; Polymeric micelles; Prodrugs”

PLGA from PolySciTech used for nanoparticle based docetaxel delivery system
PolySciTech Division of Akina, Inc (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable polymers including PLGA. Recently, PLGA (Cat# AP082) from PolySciTech was used, along with HS15 nonionic surfactant to generate nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel. These nanoparticles (~169 nm in size, about 250 times smaller than a typical 40 um human tissue cell) possessed good drug distribution throughout and other properties which indicated that they would have good capabilities for drug delivery. Read more: Cho, Hyun-Jong, Ju-Hwan Park, Dae-Duk Kim, and In-Soo Yoon. "Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) Acid/Solutol HS15-Based Nanoparticles for Docetaxel Delivery." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 16, no. 2 (2016): 1433-1436. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asp/jnn/2016/00000016/00000002/art00029
“Abstract:Docetaxel (DCT) is one of anti-mitotic chemotherapeutic agents and has been used for the treatment of gastric cancer as well as head and neck cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Poly(lacticco-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is one of representative biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, and polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate (Solutol HS15) is a nonionic solubilizer and emulsifying agent. In this investigation, PLGA/Solutol HS15-based nanoparticles (NPs) for DCT delivery were fabricated by a modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method. PLGA/Solutol HS15/DCT NPs with about 169 nm of mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical morphology were prepared. The results of solid-state studies revealed the successful dispersion of DCT in PLGA matrix and its amorphization during the preparation process of NPs. According to the result of in vitro release test, emulsifying property of Solutol HS15 seemed to contribute to the enhanced drug release from NPs at physiological pH. All these findings imply that developed PLGA/Solutol HS15-based NP can be a promising local anticancer drug delivery system for cancer therapy.”

Post has attachment
PCL-PEG electrospun mesh investigated for scaffold treatment of damaged periodontal ligament
PolySciTech Division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of block copolymers including PCL-PEG copolymers. One means of processing these polymers is using electrospinning. Electrospinning is a manufacturing technique based on applying a highly charged polymer solution onto a grounded metal collector. When this is done under the right conditions the polymer forms into an open mesh similar to woven fabric but with no particular weave pattern hence it is sometimes refered to as ‘non-woven.’ All the empty spaces in the micron scale work well for cell-permeation and so this is a popular technique for generating a tissue scaffold to help with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The drawback to this technique is that the scaffold is somewhat generic and does not typically serve for regrowth of tissue which has a particular orientation to it. For example, the periodontal ligament tissue, which connects the jaw-bone to the root surface of teeth must be formed in a particular arrangement for it to hold everything in place the way it should. Recently, researchers electrospun PCL-PEG-PCL triblock polymer into sheets and then compressed together with a chitosan based ‘glue’ to form a tissue scaffold. This scaffold worked well to regenerate this oriented tissue both in-vitro and in vivo. Read more: Jiang, Wenlu, Long Li, Ding Zhang, Shishu Huang, Zheng Jing, Yeke Wu, Zhihe Zhao, Lixing Zhao, and Shaobing Zhou. "Incorporation of aligned PCL–PEG nanofibers into porous chitosan scaffolds improved the orientation of collagen fibers in regenerated periodontium." Acta biomaterialia 25 (2015): 240-252. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1742706115300210 
“Abstract: The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a group of highly aligned and organized connective tissue fibers that intervenes between the root surface and the alveolar bone. The unique architecture is essential for the specific physiological functionalities of periodontium. The regeneration of periodontium has been extensively studied by researchers, but very few of them pay attention to the alignment of PDL fibers as well as its functionalities. In this study, we fabricated a three-dimensional multilayered scaffold by embedding highly aligned biodegradable poly (ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCE) copolymer electrospun nanofibrous mats into porous chitosan (CHI) to provide topographic cues and guide the oriented regeneration of periodontal tissue. In vitro, compared with random group and porous control, aligned nanofibers embedded scaffold could guide oriented arrangement and elongation of cells with promoted infiltration, viability and increased periodontal ligament-related genes expression. In vivo, aligned nanofibers embedded scaffold showed more organized arrangement of regenerated PDL nearly perpendicular against the root surface with more extensive formation of mature collagen fibers than random group and porous control. Moreover, higher expression level of periostin and more significant formation of tooth-supporting mineralized tissue were presented in the regenerated periodontium of aligned scaffold group. Incorporation of aligned PCE nanofibers into porous CHI proved to be applicable for oriented regeneration of periodontium, which might be further utilized in regeneration of a wide variety of human tissues with a specialized direction. Statement of Significance: The regeneration of periodontium has been extensively studied by researchers, but very few of them give attention to the alignment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers as well as its functionalities. The key issue is to provide guidance to the orientation of cells with aligned arrangement of collagen fibers perpendicular against the root surface. This study aimed to promote oriented regeneration of periodontium by structural mimicking of scaffolds. The in vitro and in vivo performances of the scaffolds were further evaluated to test the topographic-guiding and periodontium healing potentials. We also think our research may provide ideas in regeneration of a wide variety of human tissues with a specialized direction. Keywords: Periodontal tissue engineering; Biomimetics; Electrospun scaffold; Oriented regeneration; Periodontal ligament”
Photo

PLGA-FITC from PolySciTech used for development of Cromolyn delivery system.
PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of biodegradable polymers. One of the materials which has great use for research and development is FITC end-capped PLGA. This has no particular pharmacological effect, but it makes the polymer fluorescent in that when a blue light (~490 nm) is shined onto the polymer it emits out a green light (~525 nm). This is handy for microscopy applications and other uses where tracking the location of the polymer in a complex system is important. Recently, a research group at the Indian Institute of Technology utilized PolySciTech PLGA-FITC to create a nanoparticle system to improve the oral bioavailability of cromolyn, a drug used for treatment of asthma and various allergic reactions. The use of PLGA-FITC allowed the researchers to track the location of the nanoparticles as they permeated through the intestinal lining in both in-vitro and animal models. Read more: Patel, Ravi R., Sundeep Chaurasia, Gayasuddin Khan, Pramila Chaubey, Nagendra Kumar, and Brahmeshwar Mishra. "Cromolyn Sodium Encapsulated PLGA Nanoparticles: An Attempt to Improve Intestinal Permeation." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141813015301823

“Abstract: High hydrophilicity curtails the intestinal permeation of cromolyn sodium (CS) which in turn compels to compromise with its multiple biological activities. Hence, the present research was intended with an objective to develop CS encapsulated polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (CS-PNs) for enhancing intestinal permeation. The CS-PNs were prepared by double emulsification solvent evaporation method (W1/O/W2). The “Quality by Design” approach using box-behnken experimental design was employed to enhance encapsulation of CS inside CS-PNs without compromising with particle size. The polymer concentration, surfactant concentration and organic/aqueous phase ratio significantly affected the physicochemical properties of CS-PNs. The optimized CS-PNs were subjected to various solid-state and surface characterization studies using FTIR, DSC, XRD, TEM and AFM, which pointed towards the encapsulation of CS inside the spherical shaped nanoparticles without any physical as well as chemical interactions. Ex-vivo intestinal permeation study demonstrated ∼4 fold improvements in CS permeation by forming CS-PNs as compared to pure CS. Further, in-vivo intestinal uptake study performed using confocal microscopy, after oral administration confirmed the permeation potential of CS-PNs. Thus, the findings of the studies suggest that CS-PNs could provide a superior therapeutic carrier system of CS, with enhanced intestinal permeation. Keywords: Cromolyn sodium; PLGA nanoparticles; Intestinal permeation”

Post has attachment
PLGA-PEG investigated for drug-delivery treatment of Leishmaniasis
PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc. (www.polyscitech.com) provides a wide array of PLGA-PEG block copolymers. Recently, these kinds of polymers were used to develop a nanoparticle system to deliver miltefosine to Leishmania donovani as a treatment of Leishmaniasis. Read more: Kumar, Rishikesh, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Krishna Pandey, V. N. R. Das, Roshan K. Topno, Md Yousuf Ansari, Sindhuprava Rana, and Pradeep Das. "Development of PLGA–PEG encapsulated miltefosine based drug delivery system against visceral leishmaniasis." Materials Science and Engineering: C 59 (2016): 748-753. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928493115305154
“Abstract: Targeted drug delivery systems are ideal technology to increase the maximum mechanism of action with smaller dose, we have developed miltefosine encapsulated PLGA–PEG nanoparticles (PPEM) to target macrophage of infected tissues against Leishmania donovani. The structural characterization of PLGA–PEG by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has shown a size range of 10 to 15 nm. Synthesis and drug encapsulation confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and confirmed NP encapsulation. The dose of nano encapsulated miltefosine decreased by fifty percent as compared to that of a conventional miltefosine and Amphoterecin B. The inhibition of amastigotes in the splenic tissue with nano encapsulated miltefosine (23.21 ± 23) was significantly more than the conventional miltefosine (89.22 ± 52.7) and Amphoterecin B (94.12 ± 55.1). This study signifies that there is an increased contact surface area of the nano encapsulated drug and significant reduction in size, improved the efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo study than that of the conventional miltefosine, Amphoterecin B. Graphical abstract: The analyses of detailed structure characterized by TEM and DLS confirmed the nano-size of the particle 10–20 nm and FTIR confirmed for antileishmanial drug encapsulation in to PLGA–PEG. The dose of miltefosine is decreased by fifty percent as the IC50 value is decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 μg. Further inhibitions of amastigotes in the splenic tissue with these nanoparticles are significantly more than the conventional miltefosine and PLGA–PEG encapsulated Amphoterecin B (23.21 ± 23/89.09 ± 52.7/92.12 ± 55.1). Keywords: Miltefosine; Transmission electron microscope; Nanoscale; Amastigotes; Amphoterecin B”
Photo

Post has attachment
Chitosan-Fluorescein used for investigating targeted mucoadhesive drug-delivery to fish
Chitosan is a readily available biomaterial chemically derived from chitin which comprises crab-shells and other biological sources. This amino-polysaccharide has many interesting properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, an inherent resistance towards bacteria, and muco-adhesion. Recently, researchers in Brazil utilized Fluorescein conjugated chitosan to track nanoparticles as they utilized them for delivery of medicines to fish in order to minimize aquatic disease. Similar, fluorescently conjugated chitosans, are available from PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc under the Kitopure brand line (https://akinainc.com/polyscitech/products/Kitopure/index.php, e.g. Kito-8 and Kito-9).  Read more about the recent aquatic drug-delivery research here: Costa, AC da S., H. M. Brandao, S. R. Silva, A. R. Bentes‐Sousa, J. A. P. Diniz, J. de J. Viana Pinheiro, M. de FC Melo, J. O. C. Silva, E. R. Matos, and R. M. Ribeiro‐Costa. "Mucoadhesive nanoparticles: a new perspective for fish drug application." Journal of fish diseases (2015). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jfd.12373/full
Photo
Wait while more posts are being loaded