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Pierre-Olivier Dybman
2,318 followers -
Sidereo, expertise et créativité mobile
Sidereo, expertise et créativité mobile

2,318 followers
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And here comes the second part of "How to update Android devices using Barracks" by +Simon Guerout.

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What will happen to your company if you are not able to update the IoT devices you're selling?

If you’re a B2C IoT company – with Christmas and the CES behind you – it’s maybe a slightly more relax time of the year since your best sales are done or on the way to be done.
Well, only if you have a good dedicated support team because most problems are now ahead and will appear as consumers receive your product.

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** Update your devices with Barracks, get a free account today on https://barracks.io/ **

In the last 5 days, unprecedented attacks have been launched across the Internet. One of the targets, OVH, has been hit by a record breaking amount of traffic on its website more than 1100Gbps.

What made this company vulnerable? IoT devices!

Unsecured connected cameras have been used to generate a large amount of traffic to create a distributed denial of service (DDoS).

Letting your devices unmonitored and/or non up to date can damage others businesses and therefore make you legally responsible for it.


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Faraday cages are one of the most basic tools in electrical anything. They're based on the principle that if you place a hollow, conductive container inside an electromagnetic field, then no matter what that field is on the outside, the container shields it: inside the container, the field is zero. These also work in reverse: if you put a field source inside a conductive container, the container will prevent that field from getting out.

This is pretty useful if you want to do something that could produce dangerous fields, like use microwaves to heat food. By wrapping it in a Faraday cage, you make sure that the resulting fields don't also heat everything in their vicinity.

Now, most Faraday cages aren't solid, conductive containers; it's been known for a long time that a wire mesh works just as well. Except it turns out that it doesn't.

Faraday invented the cage in 1836. From then until roughly the 1940's, the correct functioning of mesh cages has been a combination of lore and practical engineering: if you really care that your cage works (like in a microwave oven), you build it and measure what happens. The theory of them was worked out by Feynman in the 1940's – except it turns out that Feynman simply did it wrong. (In particular, he looked at wire meshes with constant charge on them, not constant voltage; the math was right, it simply solved the wrong problem)

According to Feynman's solution, what matters for a working Faraday cage is the proximity of the wires. Roughly, the depth into the cage at which it provides the needed field suppression drops exponentially as the wires move closer together. It turns out this isn't right: fields decay only linearly with wire spacing. What really matters is the thickness of the wires: the suppression does scale exponentially with that.

In practice, this explains a lot of open mysteries, like why your cell phone works inside an elevator, but not inside an underground parking garage. Elevators, under the old theory, should have been pretty good Faraday cages; how do the radio signals, which are just EM fields, get out? It turns out they aren't very good Faraday cages at all. Likewise, garages don't tend to have deliberate EM shielding on them, but they do have lots of rebar, and windows which are often grated. Put those together and the new theory tells you that you have a great Faraday cage.

Also in practice, this team now has a good method for calculating how Faraday cages will actually work ahead of time. It's not rocket science; it's simply solving the differential equations of electrodynamics for a cage. You can see some of the results in pictures below, where the density of lines indicates the field strength. (In all of those pictures, an EM source is to the right of the cage)

The moral of this story: if everyone assumes that there's a good theory for something, but nobody can actually find it worked out in detail, there's a good chance that there actually isn't one.

Via +rone 

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Dévs, designers... Humanoid organise un hackaton autour des chatbots. Un HTC Vive en jeu 👉 http://buff.ly/29pp3a4
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I'm surprised it took me this long to notice it, but:

The #DAESH (IS, #ISIS, whatever you wanna call them) flag? It has an egregiously flagrant mistake (to Arab readers):

It says:
"الله رسول محمد "

Meaning "God, Mohammad's messenger".

That's so wrong on such a great level it's not even funny. Further more, it demonstrates that DAESH are not a Muslim group. Or probably even middle eastern, for that matter.

Because if they were, someone would have told them it's supposed to be:
"محمد رسول الله"

Or: "Mohammad, messenger of God".

As in: "There is no God but god, and Muhammad is the messenger of God"? You know, the core tenet of Islam? The one we pledge to? The one some people are presuming DAESH to be doing?

It's like whomever's actually behind DAESH hired the same team as Battlefield 3, who committed the same error of not verifying their translation before shipping their stupid, stupid crap.

If you needed any one tiny proof that DAESH is neither Muslim nor Arabic, this is pretty much what you need to look at.

Because the only people who firmly believe in the "God is Mohammad's messenger" narrative are reich-wing white supremacists.

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"How should I design my Android application? What kind of MVC pattern should I use? What should I use for an event bus?"

We often see questions from developers that are asking from the Android platform engineers about the kinds of design patterns and architectures they use in their apps. But the answer, maybe surprisingly, is we often don't have a strong opinion or really an opinion at all.

(Edit to clarify: when I write "we" here I am talking about the Android platform team. I am not speaking for all of Google or Android developer relations. There are lots of good suggestions and opinions inside and outside of Google about how to write apps, and I am not intending to dismiss those.)

Should you use MVC? Or MVP? Or MVVM? I have no idea. Heck, I only know about MVC from school and had to do a Google search to find other options to put here.

This may be surprising, because Android could feel like it has strong opinions on how apps should be written. With its Java language APIs and fairly high-level concepts, it can look like a typical application framework that is there to say how applications should be doing their work. But for the most part, it is not.

It is probably better to call the core Android APIs a "system framework." For the most part, the platform APIs we provide are there to define how an application interacts with the operating system; but for anything going on purely within the app, these APIs are often just not relevant.

That said, the Android APIs can often look different (or higher level) from what one typically expects in an operating system, which may easily lead to confusion about how they should be used.

For an example of this, let's consider how an operating system defines "how to run an app." In a classic system, this is basically the contract it has with an application about when it should run:

int main(...) {
// My app goes here!
}

So the operating system starts the app, calls its main() function, and the app goes off and runs and does what it wants until it decides it is done. And clearly it is not saying anything here about what the app should be doing or how it should be designed within that main function -- it's a pretty pure blank slate.

In Android, however, we explicitly decided we were not going to have a main() function, because we needed to give the platform more control over how an app runs. In particular, we wanted to build a system where the user never needed to think about starting and stopping apps, but rather the system took care of this for them... so the system had to have some more information about what is going on inside of each app, and be able to launch apps in various well-defined ways whenever it is needed even if it currently isn't running.

To accomplish this, we decomposed the typical main entry point of an app into a few different types of interactions the system can have with it. And these are the Activity, BroadcastReceiver, Service, and ContentProvider APIs that Android developers quickly become familiar with.

These classes may look like they are telling you how the internals of your app should work, but they are not! In fact, they are all about how your app needs to interact with the system (and how the system can coordinate its interaction with other apps). As long as that interaction with the system happens, we don't really care what goes on inside of the app.

To illustrate, let's briefly look at these different APIs and what they really mean to the Android system.

Activity

This is the entry into an application for interacting with the user. From the system's perspective, the key interactions it provides with the app are:

• Keep track of what the user currently cares about (what is on screen) to ensure the process hosting that is kept running.
• Know that previously used processes contain things the user may return to (stopped activities), and thus more highly prioritize keeping those processes around.
• Help the application deal with the situation where its process is killed so the user can return to activities with their previous state restored.
• Provide a way for applications to implement user flows between each other, coordinated by the system. (The most classic example here being share.)

What we don't care about:

Once we have gotten in to this entry-point to your UI, we really don't care how you organize the flow inside. Make it all one activity with manual changes to its views, use fragments (a convenience framework we provide) or some other framework, or split it into additional internal activities. Or do all three as needed. As long as you are following the high-level contact of activity (it launches in the proper state, and saves/restores in the current state), it doesn't matter to the system.

BroadcastReceiver

This is a mechanism for the system to deliver events to the application that may be outside of a regular user flow. Most importantly, because this is another well-defined entry into the app, the system can deliver broadcasts to apps even if they aren't currently running. So, for example, an app can schedule an alarm to post a notification to tell the user about an upcoming event... and by delivering that alarm to a BroadcastReceiver of the app, there is no need for the app to remain running until the alarm goes off.

What we don't care about:

Dispatching events within an app is an entirely different thing. Whether you use some event bus framework, implement your own callback system, whatever... there is no reason to use the system's broadcasting mechanism, since you aren't dispatching events across apps. (In fact there is good reason not to -- there is a lot of unnecessary overhead and many potential security issues if using a global broadcast mechanism for the internal implementation of an app.) We do provide the LocalBroadcastManager convenience class that implements a purely in-process intent dispatching system with a similar API to the system's APIs, if you happen to like them. But again, there is no reason to use that over something else for things going on purely within your app.

Service

A general-purpose entry point for keeping an app running in the background for all kinds of reasons. There are actually two very distinct semantics services tell the system about how to manage an app:

Started services are simply telling the system to, for some reason, "keep me running until I say I am done." This could be to sync some data in the background or play music even after the user leaves the app. Those also represent two different types of started services that modify how the system handles them:

• Music playback is something the user is directly aware of, so the app tells the system this by saying it wants to be foreground with a notification to tell the user about it; in this case the system knows that it should try really hard to keep that service's process running, because the user will be unhappy if it goes away.

• A regular background service is not something the user is directly aware as running, so the system has more freedom in managing its process. It may allow it to be killed (and then restarting the service sometime later) if it needs RAM for things that are of more immediate concern to the user.

Bound services are running because some other app (or the system) has said that it wants to make use of the service. This is basically the service providing an API to another process. The system thus knows there is a dependency between these processes, so if process A is bound to a service in process B, it knows that it needs to keep process B (and its service) running for A. Further, if process A is something the user cares about, than it also knows to treat process B as something the user also cares about.

Because of their flexibility (for better or worse), services have turned out to be a really useful building block for all kinds of higher-level system concepts. Live wallpapers, notification listeners, screen savers, input methods, accessibility services, and many other core system features are all built as services that applications implement and the system binds to when they should be running.

What we don't care about:

Android doesn't care about things going on within your app that don't have any impact on how it should manage your process, so there is no reason to use services in these cases. For example, if you want to start some background operation to download data for your UI, you should not use a service for this -- it is actually important to not be telling the system to keep your process running while doing this, because it really doesn't need to be and the system would be better off having more freedom in managing it with other things the user is doing.

If you just make a simple background thread (or whatever non-service mechanism you want) to do the downloading, you will get the semantics you want: while the user is in your UI, the system will keep your process running for that, so the download will never be interrupted. When they leave your UI, your process will still be kept around (cached) and able to continue downloading, as long as its RAM isn't needed elsewhere.

Likewise for connecting different parts of your app together, there is no reason to bind to a service that is running in the same process as the one binding to it. Doing so is not actively harmful -- the system just sees a dependency from the process to itself so doesn't try to keep it around any more than usual -- but it is a bunch of unnecessary work for both you and the system. Instead, you can just use singletons or other normal in-process patterns for connecting pieces of your app together.

ContentProvider

Finally, the ContentProvider is a fairly specialized facility for publishing data from an app to other places. People generally think of them as an abstraction on a database, because there is a lot of API and support built in to them for that common case... but from the system design perspective, that isn't their point.

What these are to the system is an entry-point into an app for publishing named data items, identified by a URI scheme. Thus an app can decide how it wants to map the data it contains to a URI namespace, handing out those URIs to other entities which can in turn use them to access the data. There are a few particular things this allows the system to do in managing an app:

• Handing out a URI doesn't require the app remain running, so these can go all over the place with the owning app being dead. Only at the point where someone tells the system, "hey give me the data for this URI" does it need to make sure the app owning that data is running, so it can ask the app to retrieve and return the data.

• These URIs also provide an important fine-grained security model. For example, an application can place the URI for an image it has on the clipboard, but leave its content provider locked up so nobody can freely access it. When another app pulls that URI off the clipboard, the system can give it a temporary "URI permission grant" so that it is allowed to access the data only behind that URI, but nothing else in the app.

What we don't care about:

It doesn't really matter how you implement the data management behind a content provider; if you don't need structured data in a SQLite database, don't use SQLite. For example, the FileProvider helper class is an easy way to make raw files in your app available through a content provider.

Also, if you are not publishing data from your app for others to use, there is no need to use a content provider at all. It is true, because of the various helpers built around content providers, this can be an easy way to put data in a SQLite database and use it to populate UI elements like a ListView. But if any of this stuff makes what you are trying to do more difficult, then feel free to not use it and instead use a more appropriate data model for your app.
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