Diversity Of The Universe

In this beautiful six panel mosaic made by and using images taken by +Nicolas Kizilian in an effort to show the diversity of the Universe you can see multiple objects. From left to right (marked in the image as well) you can see the open cluster NGC 6939, the Fireworks Galaxy (NGC 6946), the dark nebula Barnard 150, the emission nebula Sh2-129, the bipolar outflow or planetary nebula Ou4, and the reflection nebula VdB 140.

The objects are located at different distances in the constellation of Cepheus (https://goo.gl/h8tIIA). The image has a field of view (https://goo.gl/BEfskZ) of about 7ยฐ.

Nicolas took 294 sub frames for this composite image, the total exposure time is almost 47 hours distributed over 11 nights. After nine more days of processing he finally finished the image.

While clearly dominated by the big red emission nebula Sh2-129, I especially like the dark nebula Barnard 150 center image looking almost like a tear in space. And although very small in this image you can clearly see the spiral structure of the Fireworks Galaxy (NGC 6946, https://goo.gl/jSPLgP) an intermediate spiral galaxy about 18 million light-years away from Earth.

Make sure to read more on the creation of this image on his website, it also features a much bigger version of the image:
http://astro.kizix.org/diversity-of-the-universe/ (in english)
http://astro.kizix.org/la-diversite-de-lunivers/ (en franรงais)

You can read more on the two most apparent objects, the emission nebula Sh2-192 and the bipolar outflow or planetary nebula Ou4 here in this post i wrote about the image a few weeks ago:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+PierreMarkuse/posts/c1jFt8XPhMh

What is an open cluster?

An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that have their origin in the same stellar nursery and are of roughly the same age. They are bound together by their gravitational forces. More information here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_cluster

What is a reflection nebula?

A reflection nebula is a cloud of interstellar dust reflecting light from nearby stars. While those stars emit enough energy to make the dust visible they don't emit enough to ionize the gas which would then result in an emission nebula (https://goo.gl/QtI28t). Sometimes you have mixed forms with parts of a nebula being a reflection nebula, others being an emission nebula. More here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflection_nebula

What is an emission nebula?

An emission nebula is a cloud of ionized gas (often by ultraviolet radiation from nearby stars) emitting light of various colors (in case of Hydrogen mostly reddish-pink when viewed in visible light). More information here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_nebula
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_II_region

What is a dark nebula or absorption nebula?

An absorption nebula is a cloud of sub-micrometer-sized interstellar dust particles coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen dense enough to block out the visible light from objects behind it, making them look dark against the background. More here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_nebula

More on the technical data:

The VdB 140 image is a HaLRGB image, Sh2-129 and Ou4 are bi-color Ha/OIII images and the four other images are pure LRGB images.

The gear he used:

- William Optics ZenithStar 66 refractor
- William Optics Flattener II 0.8x Reducer
- AZ-EQ6 GT mount
- Guiding with a Skywatcher 9ร—50 finder scope
- Guiding with a QHY5L-IIc camera
- CCD: Moravian G2-8300 with external filter wheel
- Astrodon filters : L,R,G,B Tru-Balance, Ha 5nm, OIII 5nm

Read more about colors in astrophotography here:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+PierreMarkuse/posts/BJagb5tvV23

Image credit: Diversity Of The Universe +Nicolas Kizilian https://goo.gl/AGP83K Used with permission

If you like this image, you can find Nicolas here on G+ (+Nicolas Kizilian), on Twitter (https://twitter.com/NKizilian) and on Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/NicolasKizilian) and see more of his work here on his website:
http://www.astropixels.fr

Thank you for your interest in this Astronomy/Astrophysics collection. Maybe add me on Google+ (+Pierre Markuse) and Twitter (https://twitter.com/Pierre_Markuse) or have a look at the Space/Space Technology collection here: https://goo.gl/5KP0wx

#science #astronomy #astrophotography #mosaic #photography #emissionnebula #reflectionnebula #darknebula #galaxy #space
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