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Pierre Markuse
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Pierre Markuse

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Hubble Survey Unlocks Clues to Star Birth in Neighboring Galaxy

In a survey of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope images of 2,753 young, blue star clusters in the neighboring Andromeda galaxy (M31), astronomers have found that M31 and our own galaxy have a similar percentage of newborn stars based on mass. By nailing down what percentage of stars have a particular mass within a cluster, or the Initial Mass Function (IMF), scientists can better interpret the light from distant galaxies and understand the formation history of stars in our universe.

Full story here:
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2015/18/full/

More on star formation:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_formation

More on the Andromeda galaxy:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda_Galaxy

Image credit: M31, Andromeda Galaxy NASA, ESA, J. Dalcanton, B.F. Williams, L.C. Johnson (University of Washington), and the PHAT team http://goo.gl/cl2GLp

#science   #m31   #andromedagalaxy   #hubble   #space   #starformation   #imf   #milkywaygalaxy  
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WOW, God's creation
in the universe is Awesome! 
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Pierre Markuse

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Devastating photos of the world’s most endangered forests

With the growth of the world’s population and continuing deforestation, trees have become increasingly viewed as a valuable global asset. And on Wednesday, a surprising study published in Nature found that the Earth has more trees than previously thought.

And while this sounds good the following is also true:
We can now say that there’s less trees than at any point in human civilization,” Crowther, lead author of the study, told The Post. “Since the spread of human influence, we’ve reduced the number almost by half, which is an astronomical thing.

Full story and images here:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/09/04/more-trees-but-the-same-problems-these-forests-are-the-most-at-risk/

You may also want to read this article series:
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Deforestation/deforestation_update.php

NASA video showing international deforestation patterns in tropical rainforests from 1975 until 2012:
https://youtu.be/6AVkjJKK3iE

#science   #earth   #trees   #forests   #deforestation  
A new study says the Earth has eight times more trees than previously thought. But that doesn't mean they aren't still in danger.
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we are a terrible  virus and the biggest threat to all life ever tomek .
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Earth observations show how nitrogen may be detected on exoplanets, aiding search for life

Observations of nitrogen in Earth’s atmosphere by NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft 17 million miles away are giving astronomers fresh clues to how that gas might reveal itself on faraway planets, thus aiding in the search for life. Finding and measuring nitrogen in the atmosphere of an exoplanet can be crucial to determining if that world might be habitable. That’s because nitrogen can provide clues to surface pressure. If nitrogen is found to be abundant in a planet’s atmosphere, that world almost certainly has the right pressure to keep liquid water stable on its surface. Liquid water is one of the prerequisites for life. The trouble is, nitrogen is hard to spot from afar.

Full story here:
http://www.washington.edu/news/2015/09/03/earth-observations-show-how-nitrogen-may-be-detected-on-exoplanets-aiding-search-for-life/

What is an exoplanet?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exoplanet

More on Deep Impact:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Impact_(spacecraft)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EPOXI

Image credit: Deep Impact, data from this spacecraft was used in the study NASA

#science   #astronomy   #exoplanets   #nitrogen   #space   #deepimpact  
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Lindo
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Stephan's Quintet - Hickson Compact Group 92

In this image taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in visible and near-infrared light you can see the Hickson Compact Group 92 (Stephan's Quintet), a group of five galaxies. Although in one group, later studies have shown that the galaxy in the upper left corner (NGC 7320) is actually far closer to Earth than the rest of the group. The group is located in the constellation of Pegasus, about 300 million light-years away from Earth. The close member (NGC 7320) however is "just" 40 million light-years away from Earth.

Aside from NGC 7320 in the upper left you can see NGC 7319 in the upper right and NGC 7318A and NGC 7318B in the center of the image. The galaxy in the lower left is NGC 7317.

NGC 7319, NGC 7318A and NGC 7318B have distorted shapes, those interactions have led to new bursts of star formation in NGC 7318A and NGC7318B, you can see younger blue stars in the outskirts of those galaxies.

The closest galaxy, dwarf galaxy NGC 7320 in the upper left of the image has even more star formation going on, giving the galaxy a bluish tint quite different from the other galaxies of this group.

More information here:
http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/heic0910i/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephan%27s_Quintet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7317
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7318
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7319
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7320c

More on star formation:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_formation

More on the classification of galaxies:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_morphological_classification

Image credit: Hickson Compact Group 92 NASA, ESA and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team http://goo.gl/lCFmgv CC BY 3.0 http://goo.gl/7uTh

#science   #astronomy   #galaxies   #hcg92   #StephansQuintet   #hubble   #space   #starformation  
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Great capture of the galaxies! 🌞
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Soyuz TMA-18M liftoff

ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen, commander Sergei Volkov and Aidyn Aimbetov were launched into space this morning at 04:38 GMT (06:38 CEST) from Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Their docking with the International Space Station is planned on 4 September at 07:42 GMT (09:42 CEST). The launch marks the start of ESA’s 10-day ‘iriss’ mission that focuses on testing new technologies and ways of running complex space missions.

More information here:
http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/iriss/ESA_astronaut_Andreas_Mogensen_launched_to_Space_Station
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_TMA-18M

Video of the launch:
https://youtu.be/9R7-gWKZZsg 

More on the Soyuz-FG launch vehicle:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz-FG

More on the iriss mission:
http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/iriss

Image credit: Soyuz TMA-18M liftoff ESA–S. Corvaja, 2015 http://goo.gl/ySpPZl

#space   #esa   #soyuz   #tma18m   #rocketlaunch   #spacetechnology   #iss   #internationalspacestation   #iriss  
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In Soviet Russia.
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IC 418 - The Spirograph Nebula

In this image taken by the Hubble Space Telescope you can see the Spirograph Nebula (IC 418). It is a planetary nebula roughly 0.3 light-years in diameter and located in the constellation Lepus (The Hare) about 2,000 light-years away from Earth. You can see textures weaving through the nebula, the origin of these structures in still unknown. Its name of course comes from the Spirograph drawing toy (https://goo.gl/7knic1).

More on the Spirograph Nebula:
http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/opo0028a/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IC_418

What is a planetary nebula?

A planetary nebula is basically a shell of glowing ionized gas ejected from old red giant stars and driven by the ultraviolet radiation of the resulting hot white dwarf. They are short-lived objects, lasting a few tens of thousands of years until the white dwarf has cooled down so much that its not putting out enough ultraviolet radiation anymore and the gas no longer gets ionized. More here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_nebula
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_giant

Videos explaining planetary nebulae:
https://youtu.be/pQ4-m1vtTmE
https://youtu.be/4AT9ct-2-Rc

Image credit: IC 418 NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA http://goo.gl/lTsDz CC BY 3.0 http://goo.gl/7uTh

#science   #astronomy   #spirographnebula   #ic418   #planetarynebula   #space   #hubble  
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Outter space looks lot better then the forth of July.Thanks a iots for photos!
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Pierre Markuse

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Earth from Space: Three Gorges Dam, China

In this composite image you can see the Three Gorges Dam located in Hubei province near Sandouping, China, imaged by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat 8. The images were taken April 14th, 2015 at 3:08am GMT.

Three Gorges Dam

The Three Gorges Dam in China is a hydroelectric dam spanning the Yangtze River. It is not only the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual energy generation but also the world's largest power station with a capacity of 22,500 MW. Construction began in 1994, it opened in 2008 and was fully functional in 2012. A ship lift was completed in 2014 and can be seen north-east of the dam. A little further north-east there is a series of locks.

The dam is made of concrete and steel and 2,335 meters (7,661 feet) long. The dam reservoir is on average about 660 kilometers (410 miles) long and 1.12 kilometers (3,700 feet) wide. It contains 39.3 cubic kilometers of water.

Because of the large extent of the reservoir over 1.2 million people had to be relocated. Several cities and towns were flooded, including over 1,300 archaeological sites.

The area on Google Maps:
https://goo.gl/hnpHyi

More on the Three Gorges Dam:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7769
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=6574
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yangtze

Technical Data

For those interested, here the technical data for this image. The image is a combination of a panshapened OLI Band 4-3-2 (natural color) image with an OLI Band 7-5-1 (SWIR, NIR) image to get more colors and distinction for vegetation. The resulting colors are near natural but oversaturated and contrast is slightly enhanced.

More images of Earth from Space:
Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico https://goo.gl/X8fS59
Rotterdam, Netherlands https://goo.gl/tHnq7x
Lake Baikal wildfires, Russia https://goo.gl/BVcQz7
Manicouagan crater, Canada https://goo.gl/aPvQzP

More on Landsat 8:
http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/?page_id=407
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landsat_8

What is pan sharpening?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pansharpened_image

Image credit: Landsat 8 data courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey / Processed by +Pierre Markuse 

#science #threegorgesdam   #china   #长江三峡水利枢纽工程   #landsat #landsat8 #earth #space #satelliteimages  
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Horrific way to go about it. 
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Pierre Markuse

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Using stellar ‘twins’ to reach the outer limits of the galaxy

Astronomers from the University of Cambridge have developed a new, highly accurate method of measuring the distances between stars, which could be used to measure the size of the galaxy, enabling greater understanding of how it evolved. Using a technique which searches out stellar ‘twins’, the researchers have been able to measure distances between stars with far greater precision than is possible using typical model-dependent methods.

Full story here:
http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/using-stellar-twins-to-reach-the-outer-limits-of-the-galaxy

More on the cosmic distance ladder:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_distance_ladder

More on astronomical spectroscopy:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_spectroscopy

Image credit: Our galaxy, the Milky Way, imaged above ESO's VLT at Paranal ESO/Y. Beletsky http://goo.gl/vrcZZT CC BY 4.0
http://goo.gl/T0aSqd

#science   #astronomy   #cosmicdistanceladder   #space   #spectrum   #spectroscopy   #stellartwins  
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small "black dot !
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Pierre Markuse

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M16 - The Eagle Nebula

In this image taken by +Dylan O'Donnell you can see the Eagle Nebula (M16, NGC 6611). It is an emission nebula located in the constellation of Serpens (The Snake), about 7,000 light-years away from Earth.

It is an active star forming region and contains the famous "Pillars of Creation". If you look closely you can make out the shape of the pillars pretty much center image. A bigger image of the "Pillars of Creation" and more information on them you can find here:
http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-goes-high-definition-to-revisit-iconic-pillars-of-creation

More on the Eagle Nebula here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_Nebula

Global Star Party

+Dylan O'Donnell is one of the many talented astronomers participating in the +Global Star Party The Global Star Party is a weekly hangout (next Episode: https://goo.gl/juI7MW) with talk about astronomy and live views of objects in space. Take a look at some of the images taken by participants here:
https://www.flickr.com/groups/globalstarparty/

What is an emission nebula?

An emission nebula is a cloud of ionized gas (often by ultraviolet radiation from nearby stars) emitting light of various colors. More here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_nebula
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_II_region

More on star formation:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_formation

Why do the colors look so different from the famous Pillars of Creation image?
https://plus.google.com/+PierreMarkuse/posts/ALvpcmx2iHk

Image credit: Eagle Nebula (M16) +Dylan O'Donnell
https://goo.gl/tDP2jQ

If you like this photograph then you can find more of Dylan's work here at: http://deography.com/

#science   #astronomy   #eaglenebula   #m16   #messier16   #pillarsofcreation   #space   #gsp   #ngc6611  
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Berry, beautiful
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Pierre Markuse

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Earth from Space: Parts of Puerto Rico and the Arecibo Observatory

In this composite image you can parts of Puerto Rico and the Arecibo Observatory, imaged by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat 8. The images were taken November 28th, 2014 at 2:50pm GMT.

This image is showing parts of Puerto Rico, a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean with a population of about 3.5 million people.

Located in Puerto Rico is the Arecibo Observatory (inset showing a zoom on the location), the world's largest single-aperture radio telescope with a diameter of 305 meters (1,000 feet). It was completed in 1963 and is used for various different purposes. In 1974 it was used to send the famous Arecibo Message (https://goo.gl/edMDE7) in the direction of the globular cluster M13.

Passing on the title of largest radio telescope

Probably in September 2016 the Arecibo Telescope will be surpassed as largest radio telescope by the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST, https://goo.gl/xqx7st) in China with a diameter of 500 meters (1,600 feet) and three times the sensitivity of the Arecibo telescope.

The area on Google Maps:
https://goo.gl/zexxKX

More on Puerto Rico and the Arecibo Observatory:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto_Rico
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory

Technical Data

For those interested, here the technical data for this image. The image is a combination of a panshapened OLI Band 4-3-2 (natural color) image with an OLI Band 7-5-1 (SWIR, NIR) image to get more colors and distinction for vegetation. The resulting colors are near natural but oversaturated and contrast is slightly enhanced.

More images of Earth from Space:
Rotterdam, Netherlands https://goo.gl/tHnq7x
Lake Baikal wildfires, Russia https://goo.gl/BVcQz7
Manicouagan crater, Canada https://goo.gl/aPvQzP
Lake Tahoe, USA https://goo.gl/t9f95d

More on Landsat 8:
http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/?page_id=407
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landsat_8

What is pan sharpening?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pansharpened_image

Image credit: Landsat 8 data courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey / Processed by +Pierre Markuse  

#science #puertorico   #arecibo   #astronomy   #radioastronomy   #landsat #landsat8 #earth #space #satelliteimages #fast  
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Wow!
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Pierre Markuse

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Cosmic Recycling - The Prawn Nebula in close-up

In this image taken by the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile you can see a close-up of a part of the Prawn Nebula (Gum 56, IC 4628). It is an emission nebula with a diameter of around 250 light-years, located in the constellation of Scorpius (The Scorpion) about 6,000 light-years from Earth.

It is a massive stellar nursery with lots of star formation and many young and hot bluish stars ionizing the gas in the nebula with their ultraviolet radiation, turning it into an emission nebula.

More information about this image and the nebula here:
http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1535/

Wider and bigger (17683 x 12779 px) view of the Prawn Nebula:
http://www.eso.org/public/images/eso1340a/

What is an emission nebula?

An emission nebula is a cloud of ionized gas (often by ultraviolet radiation from nearby stars) emitting light of various colors. More here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_nebula
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_II_region

More on star formation:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_formation

The MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope:
http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/lasilla/mpg22/

Image credit: A close-up of the Prawn Nebula ESO http://goo.gl/w3VCuF CC BY 4.0 http://goo.gl/T0aSqd

#science   #astronomy   #prawnnebula   #gum56   #ic4628   #space   #eso   #lasillaobservatory   #starformation   #stellarnursery  
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Awesome
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Pierre Markuse

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Comet Hitchhiker Would Take Tour of Small Bodies

A concept called Comet Hitchhiker, developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, puts forth a new way to get into orbit and land on comets and asteroids, using the kinetic energy -- the energy of motion -- of these small bodies. Masahiro Ono, the principal investigator based at JPL, had "_Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy_" in mind when dreaming up the idea. "_Hitchhiking a celestial body is not as simple as sticking out your thumb, because it flies at an astronomical speed and it won't stop to pick you up. Instead of a thumb, our idea is to use a harpoon and a tether,_" Ono said. 

Full story here:
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4707

What are the differences between comets, asteroids and meteors?
http://www.universetoday.com/100075/infographic-whats-the-difference-between-a-comet-asteroid-and-meteor/

Image credit: Comet Hitchhiker, shown in this artist rendering, is a concept for orbiting and landing on small bodies NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornelius Dammrich

#science   #comethitchiker   #comets   #asteroids   #nasa   #jpl   #space   #spacetechnology   #solarsystem  
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A hell of a view 🌐🌍🌏🌎🌘🌗🌅🌐🌃🌜🌕🌚🌔🌓🌒🌑🌙🌞🌚🌝🌖🌜
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Never stop being curious...
Introduction
Hello!

Feel free to follow me or send me a message. (Also follow me on Twitter if you like.)

Some of you use circles to categorize people in different interest groups, and though I'm interested in lots of stuff you might wanna put me in circles like:
  • Science (General science and especially astronomy, physics and space technology)
  • Politics (also mostly stuff concerning science)
Mostly I do post science related stuff but be aware I'll write about anything that comes to mind. Just have a look at my posts and you'll see what exactly is going on.

If you expect an answer please stay nice and don't be a dick, it would also be a good idea to write English or German. French is also possible, but since my French is quite rusty I'll most probably answer English.
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