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Pengfei Luo
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到底是in my office还是at my office?一次搞懂介系词 从此不再说错!

【阿波罗新闻网 2015-08-26 讯】

01你到底“在”哪里

At是一个点。

假如你说某个人“at某个地方”,你一定找得到他,因为他就在那一点上。坐在桌子前,叫做sit at the table;和你约在某咖啡厅碰面,是meet you at the coffee shop;当然在某一个门牌号码前面,看着某人,很自然地也都是用at。

On是一个面。

我住在二楼,用I live on the second floor;在某条街上,想像站在那里、抬头挺胸,是一种平面概念,用on the street;在火车、捷运的车箱上,你不是挤在一个空间里,可以伸直腰,站在平面上,这是on。那在飞机上呢?

想想这个规则,on an airplane。

In是一个空间。

空间可以大到是宇宙、山川、国家、城市,也可以小到一个车子、杯子、眼睛,所以是in the mountains、in the river、in Taiwan、in Taipei、in a car……。

好,问题来了,有学生问,在办公室是in还是at?in和at都对,意思有些微差别:

I’ll meet you at the office.

(我们在办公室见。)指地点。

I’m in my office.

(我正在工作。)

In不只是在办公室,而是做着在那个空间里应该发生的事;好比in school是求学,in class是上课,in the office是办公。

有时候in和at用错了会让人会错意。我们经常讲的一句话,“请打电话到我办公室给我”。这句话要怎么说呢?in还是at?

Please call me___ the office.

(请打电话到我办公室给我。)

Please call me at the office是正确的;当然也有比较直接的说法Please call my office,不要说please call me in the office,既像“你在办公室打给我”或“打电话到我的办公室”,又像“请你在办公室叫我一声”(两人可能在同一个办公室)。call也有“呼叫、喊叫”的意思。

02 at< on< in介系词的时间感

At表示特定的时间点。

想像时间是一条线,at就是线上的某个时间点,强调事情发生的那一刻,例如:

I got up at7:00 this morning.(我今天早上7点起床。)

The miracle happened at that moment.(奇迹在那一刻发生了。)

另外,表示一天中的某个时刻,不需加冠词,如at dawn、at midnight、at night。

On表示特定的日子或日期。

像是:Let’s have dinner on Friday.(我们礼拜五一起吃晚餐吧。)

His birthday is on the fourth of August.(他的生日在8月4日)

We are going to the party on Halloween.(万圣节当天我们会去参加派对。)

那为什么会有at Halloween呢?on Halloween是指万圣节当天,而at Halloween则是指在万圣节的期间。

In表示特定较长的时间。

如月份、年份、季节、时代、世纪,或一段时间。例如:

My uncle is going to retire in2015.(我舅舅2015就要退休了。)

She started the job in August.(她在8月的时候就开始做这工作了。)

用in表示一段时间,如in my lifetime(在我的人生中);或是I will go to England in2 weeks.(在2个礼拜内我就要去英国了。)

但in the night和at night又有什么不同?in the night指的是夜间,从日落到日出这个时段,at night则是指晚上,一天的某个时间点。

03培养对介系词的感觉

为什么房间的门用the door of the room,门的钥匙却是the key to the door?究竟有没有个道理可循?

道理在“感觉”,不在“文法”。每一种语言都有一种自然演进的规律,这种规律,与其记规则,不如感受它;比方说,在车上,如果是汽车是in a car,公车是on a bus;记住这种感觉,如果你在交通工具里要弯腰,就用in,in是包在里头的感觉,如果是挺着身体走得进去,就是on。依此类推,在飞机上是in还是 on?自然是on an airplane了。

现在一起来看看几个介系词给人的感觉:

(1) to/for

To是“朝着目标去”的感觉,目标明确,一定会到);for是“朝着一个方向去”的感觉,是一个大方向,并没有说一定会到。例如:Give the proposal to me.(将那计划书交给我。)“给(give)”这个动作必须要作用在"me"身上才算完成,所以用to。

I’ll buy it for you.(我会帮你买。) for指一个方向,不管有没有交给you,“买(buy)”的动作都已经完成,所以用for。

(2) with/by

With是“伴随着/在旁边”的感觉,by则是“靠…过去”的感觉。例如:

I will go with May.(我会和May一起去。)

因为with给人的感觉是“伴随着”,也就是“在旁边/拿在在手上”的意思,所以with可以解释作“利用…工具”,像是

I opened the door with a key.(我“用”一把钥匙开那扇门。)或者

I am satisfied with the gift.(我很满意那个礼物。)有这个gift,满足感随之而来。

I went there by train.(我搭火车到那里。)

“靠…过去”是透过train这种交通工具抵达,不能用I went there"with" train,这样会变成“使用(手拿着)”train到那儿。

(3) of

是从属、包含、分离的概念。例如:

The table is made of glass.(桌子是由玻璃制成。)桌子是从玻璃中“分离出来的”。

如果说It is made"with" glass.表示你拿glass当工具(伴随着/拿着),不合理。如果说It is made by wood.表示wood是某个人,桌子是他做的,这也不合理。

回到最原始的问题:

这间房间的门the door of the room(O)

房门是房间的一部份,可以用of。

这扇门的钥匙the key of the door(X)

钥匙不是门的一部份,不能用of。

这扇门的钥匙the key to the door(O)

钥匙用来开门,是朝某目标而去的概念,用to就对了。

以这概念来说,这句话也对

通往房间的那扇门the door to the room(O)

也是朝着目标(房间)而去。

04 Up让句子更有力

介系词是句子中的精灵,它和动词组在一起,会增加动词的强度、亮度,使动词更具动感,像speak up就比单单speak有力。

我们一起来看以下的句子比较at、behind、by、on、with,这些小小的介系词真的起了“画龙点睛”的作用。

(1)当我听到这事时,我简直不敢相信我的耳朵。

I couldn’t believe my ears when I heard this.

=> I couldn’t believe my ears at this.

(2)她死后留下6个孩子。

She left six children after she died.

=> She left six children behind her.

(3)如果需要帮助,打给我,号码是2721-5033。

If you need help, just ring me. My telephone number is2721-5033.

=> If you need help, just call me at2721-5033.

(4)我们举杯庆祝他的成功。

We raise a toast to congratulate him on his great success.

=> We raise a toast to his great success.

(5)这段文章生词太多,我要理解真是太难了。

There are so many new words in this passage, so it is hard for me to understand.

=> With so many new words, this passage is beyond me.

(6)他因为30票之差输了竞选。

He lost the election because of30 votes.

=> He lost the election by30 votes.

(7)证据对他不利。

The evidence is not good for him.

=> The evidence is against him.

(8)我可以帮你完成这个专案。

I can help you finish the project.

=> I can help you with the project.

(9)我买单。

I’ll pay the bill.

=> It’s on me.

本文來源: http://www.aboluowang.com/2015/0826/603871.html

阿波罗网责任编辑:宋云         来源:世界公民文化中心
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The film was banned in China not long before it was to be released in Chinese cinemas, I think the government just changed its mind and thought the film is too negative about the society. It is indeed a dark one. All figures are from grassroots of the society suffering from different unbearable conditions. Not a fun one, but worth watching and quite reflective on human conditions in a fast changing society. All the four stories are highly contextualized in different recent social issues in China: coalmine accidents, collusion of politics and business, increasing corruption and violence, suicides migrant worker and deprivation of labor rights in manufacturing industries, sex and crime, etc.
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