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On Ignition Modeling
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Knowledge about the spatial and temporal distribution of fire ignitions provides relevant information for assessing the potential risk of fire, offering opportunities for improving fire prevention measures. For example, the distribution of ignitions can be used to allocate resources for early fire suppression on the high risk areas [1], especially when combined with Fire Danger Rating Systems (FDRS). By combining the results of models for predicting ignition occurrence with FDRS predictions we would include those socioeconomic factors behind human-caused ignitions to the weather and fuel moisture components that basically define FDRS. The number and spatial distribution of ignitions can also be integrated into fire spread models to generate spatially continuous information on probability of fire occurrence for landscape planning purposes when reducing the negative impact of fires is a goal [2,3]. Finally, by understanding the human behavior that triggers human-caused ignitions, it is possible to implement measures for reducing the number of ignitions and the subsequent fires. However, it has to be mentioned that predicting where and when they will the ignitions take place implies a high degree of uncertainty, as both natural events and human activities leading to their occurrence are often difficult to predict or even to measure.

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Integration of Geology and Geomorphologyfor Groundwater Assessment
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Groundwater plays a fundamental role in shaping the economic and social health of many urban areas inIndia. Fast growing and emerging urban centres are demanding water to achieve higher growth rates. The exploration,assessment and management of ground water resource has become one of the key issues as ground water forms animportant component of the total water supply for drinking and irrigation purposes. The present study area is an attemptto delineate the groundwater potential zones in Bengaluru urban district, Karnataka, India using integrated approach ofRemote Sensing and GIS techniques. Various geological and geomorphological factors play a major role at differentlevels in the occurrence, movement and potential of ground water in hard rock terrain. Survey of India (SOI)Topographic maps and Resourcesat-2 (LISS IV FMX) satellite image are used to prepare various thematic layers suchas geology, geomorphology, drainage pattern, lineaments, soil and slope, which influence the occurrence, movement,yield and quality of groundwater.

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http://omicsgroup.org/journals/geology-geosciences.php
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Title:Queen Polyandry and the Evolution of Parasite Virulence
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Description: Eusocial queen polyandry increases genetic diversity within colonies, and genetically diverse colonies presumably suffer less from omnipresent parasites than genetically homogeneous colonies. So eusocial queen polyandry may have evolved in response to parasite load. Ewald’s theory of the evolution of virulence specifies conditions favoring the evolution of virulent, damaging parasites. Applying these ideas to parasites of ants, it is inferred that parasites are more virulent, and hence queen-polyandry is more often expected, when colonies are larger, when colonies are founded dependently, and when colonies are mobile or nomadic. An analysis of an ant-database supports these predictions. Further analyses, preferably using a generally accepted database, seem valuable. 
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Title:Insecticidal and Repellent Activities of Toddaliaasiatica (L.) Lam. Extracts against Three Major Stored Product Pests
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Description: Fumigant toxicity and repellent activity of Toddaliaasiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) leaf and fruit extracts were screened against Callosobruchusmaculatus (F.), Sitophilusoryzae (L.) and Triboliumcastaneum (Herbst) adults. All the three solvent extracts of leaf and fruits recorded mortality and repellency against the three tested insects in a concentration dependent manner. C. maculatus was the most susceptible pest to the treatments.
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Rainfall Trend
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The rainfall is the one of the fundamental physical parameter among the climate as for the development of society is concern and it determines the drought as well as the environmental factors for the particular region. Time-series of annual rainfall, number of rainy-days per year and monthly rainfall of 10 stations were analyzed to assess climate variability in semi-arid region of Western Maharashtra.

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http://esciencecentral.org/journals/climatology-weather-forecasting.php
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Agrotechnology
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TITLE:Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Rice Production Systems for their Productivity, Profitability, Grain Quality and Soil Health

DESCRIPTION:Considering the importance of organic farming and growing demand for organically produced foods, field studies were conducted for 5 years (2004-05 to 2009-10) on a black clayey vertisol soil at the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, to study the influence of organic and conventional farming systems on productivity, grain quality, soil health and economic returns of super fine rice varieties. Two main plot treatments, with and without plant protection, and four sub plot treatments viz., Control; 100% inorganics; 100% organics; and 50% inorganics+50% organics (integrated nutrient management, INM) were imposed. During wet season, grain yields under 100% inorganics and INM were near stable (4.7-5.5 t/ha) and superior to organics by 15-20% during the first two years, which improved with organics (4.8-5.2 t/ha) in the later years to comparable levels with inorganics, while it had taken five years during dry season.
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Title:Field Management of Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) in Common Bean through Fungicides and Bioagents.

Description:Common bean anthracnose is a major production constraint in bean growing regions of Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine whether foliar sprays of mancozeb, folpan and mancolaxyl or antagonistic bioagents; Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens could reduce anthracnose symptoms and consequently, increase yield and yield components. A total of seven treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Statistical analysis showed significant differences among treatments. Anthracnose incidence, severity, infected pods per plant and the area under disease progress curve were highest in the control plots compared to the fungicide sprayed and bioagent treated seed plots. 
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Deadwood Flow Characteristics as an Indicator of Forest Ecosystem Naturalness
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Forest naturalness is closely related to structural diversity of forest stands. Deadwood is important for maintenance of biodiversity. Tree mortality as a natural process generates a constant flow of deadwood in forest ecosystems and is a structural driver for ecosystem components. Forest naturalness indicators include deadwood volume, deadwood decay classes, size of large trees, tree species composition, canopy closure, specific epiphytic lichen, moss, and herb layer species as well as other characteristics. Disturbance events and competition cause tree mortality and these results in continuous input of deadwood (e.g. coarse woody debris-CWD) in a forest stand. Deadwood has immediate and complex effects on the microsite environment experienced by surviving or newly germinating seedlings. Blocking the sun can reduce drought stress and increase seedling survival on sandy sites while reducing growth by shading on other sites where water is not limiting. Deadwood may also physically obstruct the herbivores to eat seedlings. During decay process deadwood can develop a seedbed for germination that may differ from surrounding soils in temperature, water holding capacity, and penetrability for roots. CWD dynamics (size, decay class, position in the stand) depend on tree species and mortality causes. The amount of deadwood in a natural forest depends on several factors: the fertility of the site, the decaying process of dead trees and disturbances which have effects on the mortality rates and patterns of trees.

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The "Yolde Formation", Upper Benue Trough, N.E. Nigeria-a Critical Look at its Existence
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This paper is intended to raise critical questions on the existence of the Yolde Formation as a lithologic unit in the stratigraphy of the Upper Benue Trough, N.E. Nigeria. Previous authors interpreted the formation as transitional. But how transitional is it? The discussion involved critical analysis of the type section and other identified sections of the formation. Careful appraisal of the previous works shows that both the definition and description of the type section of the formation do not agree. Lower and upper boundaries of the formation were not clearly defined as they did not identify major change in depositional episode. The formation as currently defined contained major shift from continental to marine paleoenvironments. The sediments of the so-call Yolde Formation should be carefully looked at so that it can be grouped properly into its rightful lithologic unit and interpreted with high level of certainty

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http://omicsgroup.org/journals/the-yolde-formation-upper-benue-trough-ne-nigeriaa-critical-look-at-its-existence-2329-6755.1000191.php?aid=39045
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Title:Metabolites of Metarhiziumanisopliae against Malaria Vectors and Non Target Organisms
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Description: Vector borne diseases are affecting millions of people annually. Entomopathogenic fungi toxicity on malaria vectors increase mortality rates, and are less effective on nontarget organisms, thus representing a control measure that could be used in integrated programmes. Before metabolites of entomopathogenic fungi can be integrated into control programmes, an effective delivery system must be developed. 
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Downscaling Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer
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Hydrologic response at all resolutions is controlled by physical processes. Accurately capturing the physical process at a high-resolution is essential for down scaling many satellite observations at coarse resolutions. In this paper, a four-dimensional process representative soil moisture downscaling model is developed to downscale the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) 25 km resolution soil moisture product. The model is composed of the calculation of an antecedent precipitation accumulation (APA) index to capture soil moisture spatial and temporal variations at the 500 m resolution, and the application of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to simulate physical processes which can regulate soil moisture changes throughout the watersheds.

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http://esciencecentral.org/journals/climatology-weather-forecasting.php
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Key word: Motion Sickness Medicine

Title:Cold-active Microbial Enzymes

Description:Absolutely the largest proportion of the Earth’s biosphere is consisting of microorganisms that thrive in cold environments and known as psychrophiles/psychrotrophs. Their ability to survive in the cold environments is based on the capacity to synthesize coldadapted enzymes, such as amylases, proteases, lipases, pectinases, cellulases etc., along with other specific characteristics. Enzymes are essential constituents of all forms of life on the Earth, including prokaryotes, fungi, plants and animals. Commercial applications of microbial enzyme are attractive due to the relative ease of largescale production as compared to enzymes from plants and animals. At present, only ~2% of the microorganisms on the Earth have been commercially exploited and amongst these there are only a few examples of psychrophiles and psychrotrophs.

For More Information: http://omicsgroup.org/journals/coldactive-microbial-enzymes-2168-9652.1000e132.php?aid=40626
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The OMICS Publishing Group promotes sharing of scientific literature under Open Access norms. The manuscripts submitted by authors are verified by authors from the respective OMICS editorial board members for acceptance and immediate publication.  The OMICS Publishing Group removes restrictions on sharing of scientific literature through the Open Access journals. The journals can also be accessed in various formats including html and pdf. The OMICS Publishing Group is ranked ninth according to the Index Copernicus ranking of publishers.