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Octavian 月虎 (Enki)
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The Floralia, also known as the Florifertum, was an ancient Roman festival dedicated to the goddess Flora, held April 27 during the Republican era, or April 28 on the Julian calendar. In Latin, the festival was known as the Ludi Florae, the Games (ludi) of Flora. Under the Empire, the games lasted for six days.[1]

The festival opened with theatrical performances (ludi scaenici), and concluded with competitive events and spectacles at the Circus and a sacrifice to Flora.[2] In 30 AD, the entertainments at the Floralia presented under the emperor Galba featured a tightrope-walking elephant.[3]

The festival had a licentious, pleasure-seeking atmosphere marked with dancing, drinking, and flowers. The Floralia was on the IV Kalends May. Dedicated to Flora, the goddess of flowers and vegetation. While flowers decked the temples, Roman citizens wore colorful clothing instead of the usual white, and offerings were made of milk and honey to Flora. Prostitutes participated in the Floralia as well as the wine festival (Vinalia) on April 23. According to the satirist Juvenal,[4] prostitutes danced naked and fought in mock gladiator combat.[5] Many prostitutes in ancient Rome were slaves, and even free women who worked as prostitutes lost their legal and social standing as citizens, but their inclusion at religious festivals indicates that sex workers were not completely outcast from society.[6]

1. ^ H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), p. 110.
2. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 110.
3. ^ Suetonius, Life of Galba 6.1; Thomas E.J. Wiedemann, Emperors and Gladiators p. 63.
4. ^ Juvenal and Persius (1918) translated by G. G. Ramsay (Loeb Classical Library), 6.249f.
5. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 110.
6. ^ Thomas A.J. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 24.
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In ancient Roman religion, the Robigalia was a festival held April 25. Its main ritual was a dog sacrifice to protect grain fields from disease. Games (ludi) in the form of "major and minor" races were held.[1] The Robigalia was one of several agricultural festivals in April to celebrate and vitalize the growing season,[2] but the darker sacrificial elements of these occasions are also fraught with anxiety about crop failure and the dependence on divine favor to avert it.[3]

The late Republican scholar Varro says[4] that the Robigalia was named for the god Robigus, who as the numen or personification of agricultural disease could also prevent it.[5] He was thus a potentially malignant deity to be propitiated, as Aulus Gellius notes.[6] But the gender of this deity is elusive.[7] The agricultural writer Columella gives the name in the feminine as Robigo, like the word used for the disease itself,[8] and says that the sacrificial offering was the blood and entrails of an unweaned puppy (catulus).[9] Most animal sacrifice in the public religion of ancient Rome resulted in a communal meal and thus involved domestic animals whose flesh was a normal part of the Roman diet;[10] the dog occurs as a victim most often in magic and private rites for Hecate and other chthonic deities,[11] but was offered publicly at the Lupercalia[12] and two other sacrifices pertaining to grain crops.[13]

1 ^ The ludi cursoribus are mentioned in the Fasti Praenestini; see Elaine Fantham, Ovid: Fasti Book IV (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 263.
2 ^ Mary Beard, J.A. North and S.R.F. Price. Religions of Rome: A History (Cambridge University Press, 1998), vol. 1, p. 45.
3 ^ Rhiannon Evans, Utopia antiqua: Readings of the Golden Age and Decline at Rome (Routledge, 2008), pp. 185–188.
4 ^ Varro, De lingua latina 6.16.
5 ^ A.M. Franklin, The Lupercalia (New York, 1921), p. 74.
6 ^ Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 5.12.14: In istis autem diis, quos placari oportet, uti mala a nobis vel a frugibus natis amoliantur, Auruncus quoque habetur et Robigus ("Auruncus and Robigus are also regarded as among those gods whom it is a duty to placate so that they deflect the malign influences away from us or the harvests"); Woodard, Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult (University of Illinois Press, 2006), p. 234.
7 ^ In addition to Varro, Verrius Flaccus (CIL 1: 236, 316) and others hold that he is male; Ovid, Columella (see following), Augustine, and Tertullian regard the deity as female. A.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard, Ovid: Fasti (Penguin Books, 2000), p. 254 online.
8 ^ Vergil, Georgics 1.151. The 4th-century agricultural writer Palladius devotes a chapter contra nebulas et rubiginem, on preventing miasma and mildew (1.35).
9 ^ Columella, De re rustica 10.337–343.
10 ^ C. Bennett Pascal, "October Horse," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85 (1981), pp. 275–276; general discussion of victims' edibility by Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Profanus, profanare," in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill, 1980), pp. 25–38.
11 ^ David Soren, "Hecate and the Infant Cemetery at Poggio Gramignano," in A Roman Villa and a Late Roman Infant Cemetery («L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1999), pp. 619–621.
12 ^ Plutarch, Roman Questions 68; Eli Edward Burriss, "The Place of the Dog in Superstition as Revealed in Latin Literature," Classical Philology 30 (1935), pp. 34–35.
13 ^ Boyle and Woodard, Ovid: Fasti, p. 255.
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The Vinalia were Roman festivals of the wine harvest, wine vintage and gardens, held in honour of Jupiter and Venus. The Vinalia prima ("first Vinalia"), also known as the Vinalia urbana ("Urban Vinalia") was held on April 23, to bless and sample last year's wine and ask for good weather until the next harvest. The Vinalia rustica ("Rustic Vinalia") was on August 19, before the harvest and grape-pressing.

The Vinalia Urbana was held on 23 April. It was predominantly a wine festival, shared by Venus as patron of "profane" wine (vinum spurcum) intended for everyday human use, and Jupiter as patron of the strongest, purest, sacrificial grade wine (temetum). In honour of Venus, whose powers had provided humankind with ordinary wine, men and women alike sampled the vinum spurcum of the previous autumn's pressing. As god of the weather on which the wine-harvest depended, Jupiter was offered a special libation of the previous year's sacred wine vintage, blessed by his high priest and poured into a ditch outside Venus' Capitoline temple, probably under the gaze of Rome's higher echelons.[1] Common girls (vulgares puellae) and prostitutes (meretrices) gathered at Venus Erycina's Colline temple – probably on separate occasions, for propriety's sake – to offer the goddess myrtle, mint, and rushes concealed in rose-bunches. In return, they asked her for "beauty and popular favour", and to be made "charming and witty".[2]

References
1 ^ Olivier de Cazanove, "Jupiter, Liber et le vin latin", Revue de l'histoire des religions, 1988, Vol. 205, Issue 205-3, pp. 245–265 persee
2 ^ Staples, Ariadne, From Good Goddess to vestal virgins: sex and category in Roman religion, Routledge, 1998, pp. 122–124, citing Ovid, Fasti, 4,863–872.

Schmitz, Leonhard, in Smith, William, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1875, p. 1198 (perseus.org).
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The Fordicia, also called Hordicidia, was a Roman festival for the goddess Tellus held on April 15. During the ceremony, a pregnant cow was sacrificed, the calf fetus burned and the ashes saved for the Parilia festival. The late Republican scholar Varro explains the name of the festival as follows:

The Fordicidia was named from fordae cows; a forda cow is one that is carrying an unborn calf; because on this day several pregnant cows are officially and publicly sacrificed in the curiae, the festival was called the Fordicidia from fordae caedendae, 'the pregnant cows which were to be slaughtered.'[1]

The forms horda and Hordicalia are also found.[2] Like many other aspects of Roman law and religion, the institution of the Fordicidia was attributed to Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome. The rustic god Faunus instructed Numa in a dream that a sacrifice to Tellus would mitigate the harsh agricultural conditions Rome was grappling with, but the oracular message required interpretation: "By the death of cattle, King, Tellus must be placated: two cows, that is. Let a single heifer yield two lives (animae) for the rites."[3] Numa solved the riddle by instituting the sacrifice of a pregnant cow.[4]


1 ^ Varro, De lingua latina 6.15, English translation as quoted by Christopher John Smith, The Roman Clan: The gens from Ancient Ideology to Modern Anthropology (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 207, note 79 online.
2 ^ Varro, De re rustica 2.5.6.; Fowler, Roman Festivals, p. 71. 
3 Ovid, Fasti 4.641–666: morte boum tibi, rex, Tellus placanda duarum: / det sacris animas una iuvenca duas.
4 ^ Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, "Fundamentals of Diachronic Linguistics", Semiotics around the World: Synthesis in Diversity (Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), vol. 1, pp. 64–66, with discussion of Vedic and Hittite parallels.
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In ancient Roman religion, the Cerealia was the major festival celebrated for the grain goddess Ceres. It was held for seven days from mid- to late April, but the dates are uncertain.[2]

The festival may have been founded as early as the Regal period. Its archaic nature is indicated by a nighttime ritual described by Ovid. Blazing torches were tied to the tails of live foxes, who were released into the Circus Maximus. The origin and purpose of this ritual are unknown; it may have been intended to cleanse the growing crops and protect them from disease and vermin, or to add warmth and vitality to their growth.[3] Ovid offers an aetiological explanation: long ago, at ancient Carleoli, a farm-boy caught a fox stealing chickens and tried to burn it alive. The fox escaped, ablaze; in its flight it fired the fields and their crops, which were sacred to Ceres. Ever since, foxes are punished at her festival.[4]

The Ludi Ceriales or "Games of Ceres" were held as part of the festival in the Circus Maximus. Ovid mentions that Ceres' search for her lost daughter Proserpina was represented by women clothed in white, running about with lighted torches.

During the Republican era, the Cerealia was organised by the plebeian aediles, Ceres being one of the patron deities of the plebs or common people. The festival included ludi circenses, circus games. These opened with a horse race in the Circus Maximus, with a starting point just below the Aventine Temple of Ceres, Liber and Libera.[5] After around 175 BC, the Cerealia included ludi scaenici, theatrical performances, held April 12–18. The plebeian aedile Gaius Memmius is credited with staging the first of these ludi scaenici. He also distributed a new commemorative denarius coin in honor of the event. His innovations led to his claiming to have presented "the first Cerealia."[6]

1 ^ Swanson, Alma-Tadema, p. 130
2 ^ it may have started on April 11 and ended on April 19, or it may have started on the Ides of April, i.e. April 13, or even on April 7.
3 ^ Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Roman Goddess Ceres (University of Texas Press, 1996), pp. 36–37.
4 ^ Ovid, Fasti 4.
5 ^ T.P. Wiseman, Remus: A Roman Myth (Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 137.
6 ^ Spaeth, The Roman Goddess Ceres, p. 88.
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Opening acts - the reason venues serve beer! 
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In ancient Roman religion, the Salii (/ˈsæliˌaɪ/) were the "leaping priests" (from the verb salio, to leap/jump) of Mars supposed to have been introduced by King Numa Pompilius.[1] They were twelve patrician youths, dressed as archaic warriors: an embroidered tunic, a breastplate, a short red cloak (paludamentum), a sword, and a spiked headdress called an apex. They were charged with the twelve bronze shields called ancilia, which like the Mycenaean shield resembled a figure eight. One of the shields was said to have fallen from heaven in the reign of King Numa, and eleven copies were made to protect the identity of the sacred shield, on the advice of the nymph Egeria, 'consort' of Numa, who prophesied that wherever that shield was preserved the people would be the dominant people of the earth.

Each year in March the Salii made a procession round the city, dancing, and singing the Carmen Saliare. Ovid, who relates the story of Numa and the heavenly ancile in his Fasti (3.259–392), found the hymn and the Salian rituals outdated and hard to understand. During the Principate, by decree of the Senate, Augustus' name was inserted into the song (Res Gestae 10). They ended the day by banqueting. Saliaris cena became proverbial for a sumptuous feast.[2]

King Tullus Hostilius is said to have established another collegium of Salii in fulfilment of a vow which he made in the second war with Fidenae and Veii.[3] These Salii were also twelve in number, chosen from the patricians, and appeared to have been dedicated to the service of Quirinus. They were called the Salii Collini, Agonales, or Agonenses.[4]

1 ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:20
2 ^ There is no single standing description of the Salii's rituals throughout the month of March from one of the ancient authors, and facts have to be reconstructed from multiple mentions in diverse works; however there are strong indications that the procession may actually have lasted a full 24 days, from March 1st which opened the festival till March 24th which closed it, with the procession moving from one station to another each day, and some revelling being held each evening; a very complete assessment in : A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. William Smith, LLD. William Wayte. G. E. Marindin. Albemarle Street, London. John Murray. 1890 online
3 ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:27
4 ^ William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, "Salii". John Murray, London, 1875.
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nooooO! must get away from the fluffies!!!
 
Awww poor #kitten   #kittenlovers   #kitty   
Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).
#cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS   #trendingnow   #lolcats?
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In ancient Romain Religion, the Veneralia festival celebrated April 1 (the Kalends of Aprilis) in honor of Venus Verticordia ("Venus the changer of hearts") and Fortuna Virilis ("Manly" or "Virile Fortune").

The cult of Venus Verticordia was established in 220 BC, during the last years of Rome's Punic Wars, in response to advice from a Sibylline oracle,[1] when a series of prodigies was taken to signify divine displeasure at sexual offenses among Romans of every category and class, including several men and three Vestal Virgins.[2] Her statue was dedicated by a young woman, chosen as the most pudica (sexually pure) in Rome by a committee of Roman matrons. At first, the statue was probably housed within the temple to Fortuna Virilis. This cult, much older than any cult to Venus but possibly perceived as weak or gone to seed, may have benefited from the moral and religious support of Venus as a relatively new but senior deity; for Ovid, Venus's acceptance of the epithet and its responsibilities represented the goddess' own change of heart. In 114 BC Venus Verticordia was given her own temple.[3] She was meant to persuade Romans of both sexes and every class, whether married or unmarried, to cherish the traditional sexual proprieties and morality known to please the gods and benefit the State. During the Veneralia, her cult image was taken from her temple to the men's baths, where it was undressed and washed in warm water by her female attendants, then garlanded with myrtle. At the Veneralia, women and men asked Venus Verticordia for her help in affairs of the heart, sex, betrothal and marriage.[4] Fortuna Virilis was given cult on the same day.

1 ^ Either the Sibylline Books (Valerius Maximus, 8. 15. 12) or the Cumaean Sibyl (Ovid, Fasti, 4. 155 - 62.
2 ^ See Staples, Ariadne, From Good Goddess to vestal virgins: sex and category in Roman religion, Routledge, 1998, pp. 105 - 9.
3 ^ Carter, Jesse Benedict, "The Cognomina of the Goddess 'Fortuna,'" Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association , Vol. 31, 1900, p. 66. [1]
4 ^ Langlands, p. 59, citing Ovid, Fasti, 4. 155 - 62. Romans considered personal ethics or mentality to be functions of the heart.
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Huh. Word of the day - smurgling. That's the name of what cats do when they rub their scent glands in their cheeks on you!
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In Ancient Roman religious tradition, the hilaria (Greek: ἱλάρια; Latin: hilaris, "hilarious") were festivals celebrated on the vernal equinox to honor Cybele. 

The Romans took this feast originally from the Greeks, who called it ΑΝΑΒΑΣΙΣ, q.d. Ascensus: the eve of that day they spent in tears and lamentations, and denominated it ΚΑΤΑΒΑΣΙΣ, Descensus. Afterwards, the Greeks took the name ΙΛΑΡΙΑ, from the Romans, as appears from Photius's Bibliotheca, in his codex of the life of the philosopher Isidore of Alexandria.

The term seems originally to have been a name which was given to any day or season of rejoicing. The hilaria were, therefore, according to Maximus Monachus[1] either private or public. Among the former, he thinks it the day on which a person married, and on which a son was born; among the latter, those days of public rejoicings appointed by a new emperor. Such days were devoted to general rejoicings and public sacrifices, and no one was allowed to show any symptoms of grief or sorrow.

But the Romans also celebrated hilaria, as a feria stativa, on March 25, the eighth day before the Kalends of April, in honor of Cybele, the mother of the gods; and it is probably to distinguish these hilaria from those mentioned above, that the Augustan History [2] calls them Hilaria Matris Deûm. The day of its celebration was the first after the vernal equinox, or the first day of the year which was longer than the night. The winter with its gloom had died, and the first day of a better season was spent in rejoicings. The manner of its celebration during the time of the republic is unknown, except that Valerius Maximus[3] mentions games in honour of the mother of the gods. Respecting its celebration at the time of the empire, we learn from Herodian that, among other things, there was a solemn procession, in which the statue of the goddess was carried, and before this statue were carried the most costly specimens of template and works of art belonging either to wealthy Romans or to the emperors themselves. All kinds of games and amusements were allowed on this day; masquerades were the most prominent among them, and everyone might, in his disguise, imitate whomsoever he liked, and even magistrates.

The full festival can be tentatively reconstructed (with the days of the festival literally translated) as follows:[4]

15 March. "The Reed Entered". Its exact significance is uncertain (the reeds may refer to the river bank where Attis was exposed as a child and rescued by Cybele). A nine-day period of abstinence from bread, pomegranates, quinces, pork, fish, and probably wine began. Only milk was permitted as a drink.[5]
22 March. "The Tree Entered" (Arbor intrat). A pine tree from a wood sacred to Cybele is felled following the sacrifice of a ram at its roots. The tree was carried in procession through the city as if in a funeral to the Temple of Cybele on the Palatine Hill.
23 March. A day of mourning.
24 March. "The Day of Blood" (Sanguis). Frenzied rites including scourging and whipping. Castration rituals would take place on this day. The tree is symbolically buried.
25 March. "The Day of Joy" (Hilaria) celebrating the resurrection of Attis. This was the hilaria proper (as opposed to the mournful tone of the previous days).
26 March. A day of rest.
27 March. "The Washing" (Lavatio). Added by Marcus Aurelius.
28 March. Possible ceremony at the Vatican sanctuary. Appears in the Calendar of Philocalus.

1 ^ Schol. ad Dionys. Areopag. Epist. 8
2 ^ "The Life of Severus Alexander", c37.6
3 ^ Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium ii.4 §3
4 ^ R Turcan. 1996. The Cults of the Roman Empire. p44-47
5 ^ R Turcan. 1996. The Cults of the Roman Empire. p44.
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In Ancient Roman religious tradition, the Quinquatria or Quinquatrus was a festival sacred to Minerva, celebrated on the 19 March. It was so called according to Varro,[1] because it was held on the fifth day after the Ides, in the same way as the Tusculans called a festival on the sixth day after the Ides Sexatrus or one on the seventh Septimatrus. Festus (s.v.) also states that the Faliscans too called a festival on the tenth day after the Ides Decimatrus.  Both Varro and Festus state that the Quinquatrus was celebrated for only one day, but Ovid[2] says that it was celebrated for five days, and was for this reason called by this name: that on the first day no blood was shed, but that on the last four there were contests of gladiators. It would appear however that the first day was only the festival properly so called, and that the last four were merely an addition made perhaps in the time of Caesar to gratify the people, who became so passionately fond of gladiatorial combats. 

The ancient Calendars also assign only one day to the festival.  Ovid says that this festival was celebrated in commemoration of the birthday of Minerva; but according to Festus it was sacred to Minerva because her temple on the Aventine was consecrated on that day. On the fifth day of the festival, according to Ovid,[3] the trumpets used in sacred rites were purified; but this seems to have been originally a separate festival called Tubilustrium, which was celebrated as we know from the ancient Calendars on the 23 March, and would of course, when the Quinquatrus was extended to five days, fall on the last day of that festival.  

As this festival was sacred to Minerva, it seems that women were accustomed to consult fortune-tellers and diviners upon this day. Domitian caused it to be celebrated every year in his Alban villa, situated at the foot of the Alban hills, and instituted a collegium to superintend the celebration, which consisted of the hunting of wild beasts, of the exhibition of plays, and of contests of orators and poets[4].  At the Quinquatria in 59, Nero invited his mother, Agrippina the Younger, to his villa near Baiae, in an attempt to assassinate her. His old tutor, Anicetus, whom he had raised to be captain of the fleet of Misenum, had undertaken to construct a vessel which could be sunk, without exciting suspicion. Agrippina landed at Bauli, between Baiae and Cape Misenum, and completed her journey in a litter. After the banquet, when night had fallen, she was induced to return to Bauli in the vessel which had been prepared for her destruction. But the mechanism did not work as planned, and Agrippina succeeded in swimming to shore, from which she proceeded to her villa on the Lucrine lake. Nero soon after succeeded in his goal, however, with further help from Anicetus.[5]  There was also another festival of this name called Quinquatrus Minusculae or Quinquatrus Minores, celebrated on the Ides of June, on which the tibicines went through the city in procession to the temple of Minerva. 

1 ^ de Ling. Lat. vi.14
2 ^ In similar fashion, Festus states that the Faliscans called a festival on the tenth day after the Ides Decimatrus.
3 ^ Fasti iii.809, &c.
4 ^ Fasti iii.849
5 ^ Suetonius, The Life of Domitian, 4
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