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Nick Benik (HackerCEO)
Works at Harvard Medical School
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These Are the Most Beautiful Science Labs in the World

#MustSee   #laboratory  
Who said that laboratories, research centers and other science institutions have to be boring places? Believe me, architects are doing their bests when it comes to designing the headquarters of such facilities. The following 22 images prove that I am right.
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Nick Benik (HackerCEO)

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Peribothron

One of the things we tend to do in astronomy is assign different names to things that are basically the same. Take, for example, the term perihelion. The word derives from the Greek peri (close) and helios (Sun) and represents the point at which an orbiting body is closest to the Sun. If a body is orbiting the Earth, then the term is perigee, from geos (Earth). Following the Greek, you get other terms: periareion for Mars, periastron for a star, and so on. There’s also the general term periapsis, but the cool kids like to use specific terms. So what about the closest approach to a black hole? What’s become popular is peribothron, from bothros meaning hole or pit. You’ll likely see the term a bit more because we’re now able to observe bodies reaching peribothron around the black hole in the center of our galaxy. In particular, a body known as G2 has recently passed peribothron at a distance of only 36 light hours from the supermassive black hole, and we’ve image the event with the greatest resolution yet.

Observing the center of our galaxy is difficult because there is a great deal of gas and dust between us and the black hole. We can’t see the region in the visible spectrum, but we can at radio and infrared wavelengths. This allows us to distinguish large bodies such as stars, but smaller stars and other objects are more difficult to distinguish. This has made G2 difficult to study. Because it’s smaller and dimmer than other objects in the region, it’s been difficult to know exactly what it is. There was some indication that it could be a dense cloud of gas, but other evidence pointed to it being a star surrounded by dust.

These latest observations are published in the Astrophysical Journal, and they point toward G2 being a young star rather than a dust cloud. You can see this in the figure above, which shows G2 at various times as it passes peribothron. The images are color coded to indicate the Doppler shift of G2. What it shows is that even at closest approach G2 remains compact, and moves uniformly around the supermassive black hole (located at the + in the figure). If it were merely a dense cloud of gas, we would see some distortion of shape and motion due to the tidal forces of the black hole. This means G2 must be a compact body, and given its temperature and estimated mass, it is likely a young star.

In many ways it’s amazing that we have a term like peribothron. It means we’re now able to observe in detail the orbits of stars around black holes. We’ve come a long way from the astronomy of the early Greeks.

Paper: M. Valencia-S. et al. Monitoring the Dusty S-Cluster Object (DSO/G2) on its Orbit towards the Galactic Center Black Hole. ApJ 800 125 (2015)
A young star known as G2 has made its closest approach to the supermassive black hole in our galaxy. This has given rise to a term known as peribothron.
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Is Mathematics Invented or Discovered?

That's a question I asked last Saturday. I'm enjoying the discussion, and I hope that you can contribute with your comments and opinions, I'm very interested.
Personally, what I really think is that mathematics is discovered and this existence of the mathematical world is intrinsic. I can go further and say that the mathematical world encompass and includes the physical world. If you look closely to the physical theories, they are ALL an approximation of the mathematics behind it. I am talking about something I do daily, and physics is always an approximation. The use of pi or the exponential or the complex number or infinities etc is basically an approximation. The pure mathematics however is very different, it has the capacity to encompass everything in the universe and go very far beyond it in the precision. The physical world is a partial projection of the mathematical world I claim.
The material universe is one form of existence. This is easy to believe because we see and observe the universe. But this doesn't mean that there are not other forms of existence. In my previous comments I gave strong arguments why the mathematical world exists out there and its existence and essence have special form. 
There is a saying of Niels Bohr where he observed that humans are a way of the universe to observe itself. This remark is very linked to me to consciousness. 
Thus the division of Professor Roger Penrose in his book "The Road to Reality" is very logical to me.
This diagram is taken from his book.
Here's the link of the post, I will disable comments on this post so you write your comments on the original post. This doesn't mean that you can't plus one this post if you like my opinion
https://plus.google.com/+AmineBenaichouche/posts/P8zJA64bkKi

#mathematics   #physics   #philosophyofscience   #epistemology    #saturdayscience   #scienceeveryday  
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I will make the same argument I made on the original post.

It's invented. In the abstract sense, math is built on logic, which is built on reasoning, which is built on human instinct and intuition. Clearly, (human) intuition is "invented" by evolution, and would not exist without intelligent creatures to express it.

In the practical sense, as it  relates to physics, then mathematics is only an approximation, a model we have built to describe what we observe. It's very accurate and successful, but that does not mean that math somehow permeates the cosmos and exists independently of the minds that express it, which is what someone needs to believe if they believe that math is "discovered."

The particles and forces in the universe merely are. Mathematics is a language for expressing logic, but reality needs no such language, everything just happens.
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Welcome to the Clickhole:
                                                      Giant Helium Soccer Ball!

To Jump right to the WOW>>>>>>>  2:31         <<<<<<<

You know you want it.

I ought to have more shame.
I've been watching these stupid videos, for 2+ hours.

Send Help, its even Its worse than  +TV Tropes  *

#Vat19         #BlameWafaa              #TrappedInTheClickhole 

* Tvtropes/vat19: http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Website/Vat19

Youll never be heard from again:
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/OtherSites

Special thx to +Vat19        Vat19.com  ...   
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“We have an imperative,” says Benioff, endorsing the vision of Professor Klaus Schwab, founder of the World Economic Forum “to shift from creating shareholder value to stakeholder value… corporate management isn’t just accountable to shareholders… businesses must focus on serving the interests all stakeholders — customers, employees, partners, suppliers, citizens, governments, the environment and any other entity impacted by its operations.”


“But we have to do more. We have to build radically higher levels of trust and transparency with all of our stakeholders. We need legions of ‘stakeholder activists’ who seek to hold companies accountable for all constituents, going beyond the role of investor activists, who focus on holding CEOs and boards of directors accountable in terms of share price. Ultimately, the most effective way to create shareholder value is to serve the interests of all stakeholders.”

#shareholdervalue   #stakeholdervalue   #shareholders   #businessmanagement   #profitability  
A growing number of CEOs agree: shareholder value theory is stupid
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From spyware designed to catch students misbehaving to police tracking rioters by phone, we are spied on as never before, reveals a book by Bruce Schneier
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How to Boil Water

❉ In breaking news, scientists have figured out how to boil water - at least 3 times more efficiently and producing twice as much steam. Before you shake your fist at "wasteful research spending", this isn't really about your whistling tea kettle! 

❉ Phase change heat transfer processes (boiling, condensation) are a big part of everyday technology from water purification and HVAC units, power plants and cooling electronics.   When water boils, a thin layer of steam can coat the heated surface, insulating it and drastically cutting down on the efficient transfer of heat to liquid. This can lead to surface burnout and a destructive condition known as critical heat flux. What is needed is a surface that discourages the vapor from sticking and wicks in water to quickly re-wet the heated surface. To create a superhydrophilic wicking surface, Drexel University scientist Matthew McCarthy turned to biotemplating with....viruses! 

❉ The tobacco mosaic virus causes mottling of tobacco leaves, as its name implies, but is harmless to humans. It was the first virus ever to be discovered (in the late 1880's) and is constructed simply of repeating units of a coat protein, wrapped around a single, helical strand of genetic material (RNA). A few tobacco plants can produce billions of virus particles, so it's cheap to make. Dr. McCarthy tweaked the coat protein so it sticks to any engineered surface- from silicon to steel. After dunking the surface in a viral broth, nickel and palladium are added to grow a metallic grass

❉ The viral tendrils work like a wicking surface, drawing down water to replace what's boiled away.  It's the same idea behind thermal fabrics designed for athletes which draws moisture away from the body. They say a watched pot never boils. I'd volunteer to test a virally coated tea kettle, how about you? 

Waterproofin' with Hydrophobin: This old post shows how a fungal spore protein can do the opposite, creating a superhydrophobic surface that repels water but allows gases to exchange. 
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+RajiniRao/posts/bf9gVFkaTxQ

News Story and Short Video: http://drexel.edu/now/archive/2015/March/TMV-heat-transfer/

Ref: M.M. Rahman, E. Ölçeroğlu, and M. McCarthy, "The Role of Wickability on the Critical Heat Flux of Structured Superhydrophilic Surfaces", Langmuir 2014, 30 (37), pp 11225–11234.

#ScienceSunday  
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Is the #tardis based on #blackhole #physics ;)
 
Black holes - bigger on the inside

Guess what: black holes are bigger inside than they look - and they get bigger as they get older! 

For example, take the big black hole in the center of our galaxy, called Sagittarius A*.  It's about 2 million kilometers across.  That's pretty big - but the orbit of Mercury is 60 times bigger.  This black hole is old, roughly a billion years old.  And here's the cool part:  it's been growing on the inside  all this time!  

How is this possible?  Well, since spacetime is severely warped in a black hole, its volume can be bigger than you'd guess from outside.  And it keeps growing.  Since we understand general relativity quite well, we can calculate how this works!  But nobody thought of doing it until last year, when Marios Christodoulou and my friend Carlo Rovelli did it.   

How big is the black hole at the center of our galaxy?  On the inside, it can hold a million solar systems!  Its volume is about 10^34 cubic kilometers!   And it's growing at a rate of about 10^25 cubic kilometers per year!

Or suppose you have an ordinary star that turns into a black hole.  This black hole will last a long time before it evaporates due to Hawking radiation.  Christodolou and Rovelli estimate how big its volume will get before this happens.  And it gets really big: bigger than the current-day observable universe!

Before you get too excited, remember: people falling into the black hole will not have time to do anything fun inside.  They will hit the singularity in a short time.  Very very roughly speaking, the problem is not the shortage of space inside the black hole, it's the shortage of time.  

If you fall into the black hole at the center of our galaxy, it will be about 1 minute, at most, before you hit the singularity.   You will not get to see most of the space inside the black hole!   The singularity is not in the 'middle' of the black hole - it's in your future.  You will only have time to see the 'edge' of space inside the black hole. 

The 'middle regions' can only be seen by people who fell in much earlier.  And they can't see the 'edge', where you are!

And now for the serious part. 

The hard part of this problem is defining the volume inside a black hole. 

If you choose a moment in time, the black hole's event horizon at that moment is a sphere.  There are infinitely many ways to extend this sphere to a solid ball.  In other words: there are many ways to choose a slice of space inside the black hole whose boundary is your chosen sphere. 

The slice can bend forwards in time, or backwards in time.  We can choose a wiggly slice or a smooth one.  Each slice has its own volume.  

How do you choose one, so you can calculate its volume? Christodoulou and Rovelli choose the one with the largest volume. This may sound like it's cheating.  But it's not.

Think of a simpler problem one dimension down.  You have a loop of wire.  You ask me: "What's the area of the surface whose boundary is this loop?" 

I say: "That's a meaningless question!  Which surface?  There are lots!"  

You say: "Pick the best one!"

So, it's up to me.   I take some soapy water and make a soap film whose boundary is that loop.  That's the surface I use.   If the loop of wire is not too crazy in its shape, this surface is uniquely defined.   In some sense it's the "least wiggly" surface I could choose.

This surface minimizes the area.  A more wiggly surface would have more area.

Christodoulou and Rovelli are doing the same thing.  But spacetime is different than space!   If you choose a wiggly 3-dimensional spatial surface in spacetime, it will have less volume than a flatter surface with the same boundary!  

So, the way to pick the flattest, nicest spatial surface inside our black hole is to pick the one that maximizes the volume. 

If you tried to minimize the volume, you could get it as close to zero as you wanted.  And this would have nothing to do with black holes!   This would be true even in your living room.

Puzzle: why?

Here's the paper:

• Marios Christodoulou and Carlo Rovelli, How big is a black hole?, http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.2854.

#spnetwork arXiv:1441.2854 #generalRelativity  
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No idea. John Baez's riddles and puzzles ate up almost 3 days of my life via Wikipedia reading and commenting. The dude is a legit genus (compared to me and probably most people) in multiple domains. I learned so much with his puzzles but they can be so difficult you need to already be "in the know" with regard to quantum mechanics. Also be sure to try and cite your sources if you try to really get deep into stuff with him. I think he keeps the looneys in check by doing that.
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 #AI
 
For my book idea...
 
Some thoughts on Collective Intelligence being more dangerous than Artificial Intelligence.
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First Ever 3D Printed Thyroid Gland Announced by Russia’s 3D Bioprinting Solutions - http://3dprint.com/54159/3d-printed-thyroid-mouse/
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Samsung looking at buying AMD

This is a good analysis of the why's and what fors of a story that's been making the rounds today.
If this happens, AMD could get a whole new life and Intel could be in big trouble. Samsung has the two things that have always kept AMD from really taking the fight to Intel. That being cash and advanced semiconductor fabs.
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Do they plan to compete against NVidia too?
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Autodidact Polymath and Iconoclast
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I'm a entrepreneurial businessman with many years of experience in Fortune 500 companies as well as several C-level executive and advisory positions at web startups. My primary focus is on Software Architecture and Electrical Engineering. I have invented and hold several patents (internationally) and am well versed in Patent & Copyright law. 

As a polymath and member of American Mensa my working knowledge within the STEM universe is extensive with specific spikes of high expertise. So go ahead and ask me about Carbonic Anhydrase ;) I've managed to have meaningful conversations with specialists in semiconductor physics, cellular biology, medicine/pharma, finance, gunsmithing and many other domains.

I am currently at Harvard Medical School involved in Bioinformatics, Bibliometrics, Social Network Analysis (of the worldwide medical research community), and the Semantic Web.

For fun I research random STEM topics, invent stuff, write my own patents, do photography and, of course, provide consulting and mentoring services.
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American Mensa (Performance IQ in top 0.13% percentile) - Holder of 5 patents with several pending internationally
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  • Autodidactic Polymath
    STEM-topics, 1979 - present
    If you aren't learning something new every day then you aren't living... Anything computers and electronics. Enough biomedical knowledge to understand most PubMed articles with the help of Wikipedia. Set and graph theory. A dash of classical and quantum physics theory (quantum computing). Some mechanical engineering (I own a metal lathe, 3-axis mill, and a 3D printer). Law, especially patent and copyright. Psychology. Marketing. Some economic theories. Some chemistry. Blah, blah, blah....
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