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NHE - The Global Network of Fitness Professionals
NHE - The Global Network of Fitness Professionals
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NHE Personal Trainer Files [Barbell squats]
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NHE Recipes File: #32 [Garlic Chicken Salad]

Ingredients:
1 pound boneless, skinless chicken breasts
1 1/2 lemons, juiced
1 lemon rind, grated
3 cloves garlic, chopped
1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
1 tablespoon chopped fresh cilantro
2 tablespoons olive oil
Cooking spray
4 cups romaine lettuce, torn into bite-size pieces
1 cup shredded carrots
8 tablespoons lowfat salad dressing

Directions:

1. Cut chicken into 4 pieces. In a large bowl, combine lemon juice, lemon rind, garlic, parsley, cilantro, and olive oil to make a paste. Add chicken and mix together. Cover chicken and refrigerate 1 hour.
2. Grill chicken for about 5 minutes on each side, or sauté chicken in a nonstick skillet for 3 to 4 minutes on each side or until thoroughly cooked. Slice chicken and combine with romaine, carrots, and salad dressing.

Nutrition Facts
Amount per serving:
Total Calories: 250
320mg Sodium
8g Carbs
2g Fiber
11g Fat
1.5g Saturated Fat
27g Protein
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The Amino File Continued: Here are 3 non-essentials...

Glycine
Glycine is manufactured in the body from serine and folate. Its most important role is as a precursor to numerous vital substances the body needs for proper function. They are, but not limited to, proteins, DNA, phospholipids, and creatine. Its role in creatine production is also important, as well as, its role in the prevention of muscle breakdown. In this regard, it is a very valuable amino acid to bodybuilders and athletes. Glycine is involved in the detoxification of the liver, by helping eliminate phenols. It is also essential in the proper functioning of the central nervous system. It can act as a neurotransmitter with an inhibitory response.

Proline
Proline is synthesized within the body from ornithine or glutamic acid. It is most known for its role in collagen, where it is found in very high concentrations in the form of hydroproline. Hydroproline is formed from proline. It aids the body in the healing of collagen and cartilage. It is believed to strengthen joints, tendons, as well as, the heart muscle.

Serine
Serine is found in proteins and derived from glycine. Like glycine, it is a precursor to many substances that the body uses, such as choline and phospholipids. Serine is needed for the metabolism of fats and fatty acids. It aids in muscle growth, and it helps promote a healthy immune system. It also aids in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies.
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The Importance of Zinc!

Zinc is an essential mineral that is found in almost every cell and is required to sustain life. It stimulates the activity of dozens of enzymes, which are substances that promote biochemical reactions within the body. Red meats (especially beef, lamb and liver) have some of the highest concentrations of zinc. Zinc helps support a healthy immune system, is needed for wound healing, helps maintain our sense of taste and smell, and is needed for DNA synthesis. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence.

Zinc is found in a wide variety of foods. Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, certain seafood, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. Zinc absorption is greater from a diet high in animal protein than a diet rich in plant proteins.

Food sources of Zinc:
Oysters (6 medium)
Beef shanks, cooked, 3 ounces
Crab, cooked, 3 ounces
Pork shoulder, cooked, 3 ounces
Chicken leg, roasted, 1 leg
Pork tenderloin, cooked, 3 ounces
Lobster, cooked, 3 ounces
Baked beans, canned, ½ cup
Cashews, dry roasted, 1 ounce
Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 1 cup
Raisin bran, ¾ cup
Chickpeas, ½ cup
Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce
Almonds, dry roasted, 1 ounce

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Low Back Pain Revisited.

Most low back pain can be treated without surgery. Treatment involves using analgesics, reducing inflammation, restoring proper function and strength to the back, and preventing recurrence of the injury. Most patients with back pain recover without residual functional loss. Patients should contact a doctor if there is not a noticeable reduction in pain and inflammation after 72 hours of self-care.

Although ice and heat (the use of cold and hot compresses) have never been scientifically proven to quickly resolve low back injury, compresses may help reduce pain and inflammation and allow greater mobility for some individuals. As soon as possible following trauma, patients should apply a cold pack or a cold compress (such as a bag of ice or bag of frozen vegetables wrapped in a towel) to the tender spot several times a day for up to 20 minutes. After 2 to 3 days of cold treatment, they should then apply heat (such as a heating lamp or hot pad) for brief periods to relax muscles and increase blood flow. Warm baths may also help relax muscles. Patients should avoid sleeping on a heating pad, which can cause burns and lead to additional tissue damage.

Bed rest — 1–2 days at most. A 1996 Finnish study found that persons who continued their activities without bed rest following onset of low back pain appeared to have better back flexibility than those who rested in bed for a week. Other studies suggest that bed rest alone may make back pain worse and can lead to secondary complications such as depression, decreased muscle tone, and blood clots in the legs. Patients should resume activities as soon as possible. At night or during rest, patients should lie on one side, with a pillow between the knees (some doctors suggest resting on the back and putting a pillow beneath the knees).

Exercise may be the most effective way to speed recovery from low back pain and help strengthen back and abdominal muscles. Maintaining and building muscle strength is particularly important for persons with skeletal irregularities. Doctors and physical therapists can provide a list of gentle exercises that help keep muscles moving and speed the recovery process. A routine of back-healthy activities may include stretching exercises, swimming, walking, and movement therapy to improve coordination and develop proper posture and muscle balance. Yoga is another way to gently stretch muscles and ease pain. Any mild discomfort felt at the start of these exercises should disappear as muscles become stronger. But if pain is more than mild and lasts more than 15 minutes during exercise, patients should stop exercising and contact a doctor.

Medications are often used to treat acute and chronic low back pain. Effective pain relief may involve a combination of prescription drugs and over-the-counter remedies. Patients should always check with a doctor before taking drugs for pain relief. Certain medicines, even those sold over the counter, are unsafe during pregnancy, may conflict with other medications, may cause side effects including drowsiness, or may lead to liver damage.
Over-the-counter analgesics, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen), are taken orally to reduce stiffness, swelling, and inflammation and to ease mild to moderate low back pain. Counter-irritants applied topically to the skin as a cream or spray stimulate the nerve endings in the skin to provide feelings of warmth or cold and dull the sense of pain. Topical analgesics can also reduce inflammation and stimulate blood flow. Many of these compounds contain salicylates, the same ingredient found in oral pain medications containing aspirin.

Anticonvulsants — drugs primarily used to treat seizures — may be useful in treating certain types of nerve pain and may also be prescribed with analgesics.
Some antidepressants, particularly tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and desipramine, have been shown to relieve pain (independent of their effect on depression) and assist with sleep. Antidepressants alter levels of brain chemicals to elevate mood and dull pain signals. Many of the new antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are being studied for their effectiveness in pain relief.

Opioids such as codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine are often prescribed to manage severe acute and chronic back pain but should be used only for a short period of time and under a physician’s supervision. Side effects can include drowsiness, decreased reaction time, impaired judgment, and potential for addiction. Many specialists are convinced that chronic use of these drugs is detrimental to the back pain patient, adding to depression and even increasing pain.

Spinal manipulation is literally a "hands-on" approach in which professionally licensed specialists (doctors of chiropractic care) use leverage and a series of exercises to adjust spinal structures and restore back mobility.

When back pain does not respond to more conventional approaches, patients may consider the following options:

Acupuncture involves the insertion of needles the width of a human hair along precise points throughout the body. Practitioners believe this process triggers the release of naturally occurring painkilling molecules called peptides and keeps the body’s normal flow of energy unblocked. Clinical studies are measuring the effectiveness of acupuncture in comparison to more conventional procedures in the treatment of acute low back pain.

Biofeedback is used to treat many acute pain problems, most notably back pain and headache. Using a special electronic machine, the patient is trained to become aware of, to follow, and to gain control over certain bodily functions, including muscle tension, heart rate, and skin temperature (by controlling local blood flow patterns). The patient can then learn to effect a change in his or her response to pain, for example, by using relaxation techniques. Biofeedback is often used in combination with other treatment methods, generally without side effects.

Interventional therapy can ease chronic pain by blocking nerve conduction between specific areas of the body and the brain. Approaches range from injections of local anesthetics, steroids, or narcotics into affected soft tissues, joints, or nerve roots to more complex nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation. When extreme pain is involved, low doses of drugs may be administered by catheter directly into the spinal cord. Chronic use of steroid injections may lead to increased functional impairment.

Traction involves the use of weights to apply constant or intermittent force to gradually “pull” the skeletal structure into better alignment. Traction is not recommended for treating acute low back symptoms.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is administered by a battery-powered device that sends mild electric pulses along nerve fibers to block pain signals to the brain. Small electrodes placed on the skin at or near the site of pain generate nerve impulses that block incoming pain signals from the peripheral nerves. TENS may also help stimulate the brain’s production of endorphins (chemicals that have pain-relieving properties).

Ultrasound is a noninvasive therapy used to warm the body’s internal tissues, which causes muscles to relax. Sound waves pass through the skin and into the injured muscles and other soft tissues.

Minimally invasive outpatient treatments to seal fractures of the vertebrae caused by osteoporosis include vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Vertebroplasty uses three-dimensional imaging to help a doctor guide a fine needle into the vertebral body. A glue-like epoxy is injected, which quickly hardens to stabilize and strengthen the bone and provide immediate pain relief. In kyphoplasty, prior to injecting the epoxy, a special balloon is inserted and gently inflated to restore height to the bone and reduce spinal deformity.

In the most serious cases, when the condition does not respond to other therapies, surgery may relieve pain caused by back problems or serious musculoskeletal injuries. Some surgical procedures may be performed in a doctor’s office under local anesthesia, while others require hospitalization. It may be months following surgery before the patient is fully healed, and he or she may suffer permanent loss of flexibility. Since invasive back surgery is not always successful, it should be performed only in patients with progressive neurologic disease or damage to the peripheral nerves.

Discectomy is one of the more common ways to remove pressure on a nerve root from a bulging disc or bone spur. During the procedure the surgeon takes out a small piece of the lamina (the arched bony roof of the spinal canal) to remove the obstruction below.

Foraminotomy is an operation that “cleans out” or enlarges the bony hole (foramen) where a nerve root exits the spinal canal. Bulging discs or joints thickened with age can cause narrowing of the space through which the spinal nerve exits and can press on the nerve, resulting in pain, numbness, and weakness in an arm or leg. Small pieces of bone over the nerve are removed through a small slit, allowing the surgeon to cut away the blockage and relieve the pressure on the nerve.
IntraDiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET) uses thermal energy to treat pain resulting from a cracked or bulging spinal disc. A special needle is inserted via a catheter into the disc and heated to a high temperature for up to 20 minutes. The heat thickens and seals the disc wall and reduces inner disc bulge and irritation of the spinal nerve.

Nucleoplasty, also called plasma disc decompression (PDD), uses radiofrequency energy to treat patients with low back pain from contained, or mildly herniated, discs. Using x-ray guidance, a special needle is inserted into the disc. A wand-like device is inserted into the needle and heated between 40 and 70 degrees Celsius to create a plasma field that removes a small portion of the tissue and seals the channel. Several channels may be made depending on how tissue needs to be removed to decompress the disc and nerve root.

Radiofrequency lesioning is a procedure using electrical impulses to interrupt nerve conduction (including the conduction of pain signals) for 6 to12 months. Using x-ray guidance, a special needle is inserted into nerve tissue in the affected area. Tissue surrounding the needle tip is heated for 90-120 seconds, resulting in localized destruction of the nerves.

Spinal fusion is used to strengthen the spine and prevent painful movements. The spinal disc(s) between two or more vertebrae is removed and the adjacent vertebrae are “fused” by bone grafts and/or metal devices secured by screws. Spinal fusion may result in some loss of flexibility in the spine and requires a long recovery period to allow the bone grafts to grow and fuse the vertebrae together.
Spinal laminectomy (also known as spinal decompression) involves the removal of the lamina (usually both sides) to increase the size of the spinal canal and relieve pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots.

Other surgical procedures to relieve severe chronic pain include rhizotomy, in which the nerve root close to where it enters the spinal cord is cut to block nerve transmission and all senses from the area of the body experiencing pain; cordotomy, where bundles of nerve fibers on one or both sides of the spinal cord are intentionally severed to stop the transmission of pain signals to the brain; and dorsal root entry zone operation, or DREZ, in which spinal neurons transmitting the patient’s pain are destroyed surgically.
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NHE Exercise Physiology File: #51 [Hormones]

The endocrine glands (Pituitary, Hypothalmus, Thymus, Thyroid, Adrenal, Parathyroid, Pancreas) are responsible for hormone production. Some hormones are created for specific physiological purposes throughout the body while other hormones are produced to activate a response or series of responses from a specific area of the body. Hormones can bond with receptors on targeted cells, which then stimulate specific responses for a particular physiological need. These responses may involve an increase in hormone production or they may inhibit the production of that particular hormone. Most hormones are transported to their target organs via the bloodstream.
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NHE Recipes File: #14 [Deep Purple Blueberry Smoothie With Black Quinoa]

Ingredients:

1/2 cup cooked black quinoa or 1/4 cup cooked black rice
1 cup frozen organic blueberries or fresh blueberries (about 4 1/2 ounces)
1 small ripe banana
1 teaspoon pomegranate molasses
1 cup blood orange juice or regular orange juice
A few drops to 1 teaspoon fresh lime juice, to taste
2 ice cubes if using fresh blueberries

Preparation:
Place all of the ingredients in the jar of a blender and blend at high speed until smooth. Serve right away.

Nutritional information per serving (1 serving):
315 calories; 2 grams fat; 0 grams saturated fat; 1 gram polyunsaturated fat; 1 gram monounsaturated fat; 0 milligrams cholesterol; 73 grams carbohydrates; 7 grams dietary fiber; 11 milligrams sodium; 6 grams protein
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NHE Nutrition File: #15 [Essential Amino Acids]

The human body has the capability to produce only 10 of the 20 amino acids found in proteins. The remaining 10 amino acids must be ingested. Each essential amino acid must be present in the diet, and is necessary, to avoid any degradation of the body’s proteins. If one amino acid is absent, the body must compensate by cannibalizing its own muscle to produce that particular amino acid. Unlike fat or starch, the human body does not store excess amino acids for later use. Essential amino acids must be consumed on a daily basis.

Arginine is an essential amino acid.
The most prudent role of arginine is in its ability to stimulate the release of growth hormone. It has been found that an increased level of GH can assist the body in fat reduction, increase muscle mass and improve recovery and healing. Arginine also plays an important role in creatine synthesis. In that role, arginine acts as a precursor to creatine. Creatine is valuable in its energy role during anaerobic activities, such as weight lifting and sprinting.

Lastly, arginine aids the body in liver detoxification. It functions as an enzyme in the urea cycle, by which it converts ammonia to urea to be excreted in urine. Because ammonia is toxic, the more one exercises, the more ammonia becomes an issue because exercise increases ammonia levels within the body.
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NHE Personal Trainer Files: #531
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NHE Personal Trainer Files: File #527 [Lying Cable Hip Abduction]
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