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Regenerating Corticospinal Tract Axons

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/corticospinal-axon-regeneration-paralysis-2189/.

Researchers at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) have found a way to stimulate the growth of axons, which may spell the dawn of a new beginning on chronic SCI treatments.

The research is in Journal of Neuroscience. (full access paywall)

Research: "Pten Deletion Promotes Regrowth of Corticospinal Tract Axons 1 Year after Spinal Cord Injury" by Kaimeng Du, Susu Zheng, Qian Zhang, Songshan Li, Xin Gao, Juan Wang, Liwen Jiang, and Kai Liu in Journal of Neuroscience doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3637-14.2015

Image: This sagittal section shows the regeneration of mouse corticospinal tract axons (red) 7 months after Pten deletion was initiated in motor cortex. Pten deletion was initiated 1 year after spinal cord injury in this mouse. Green labels glial fibrillary acidic protein. Image credit: Division of Life Science, HKUST.

#neurology   #paralysis   #axons  
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Prion-Like Proteins Maintain Long-Term Memories

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/CPEB3-prions-long-term-memory-2187/.

Research from Eric Kandel’s lab at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) has uncovered further evidence of a system in the brain that persistently maintains memories for long periods of time. And paradoxically, it works in the same way as mechanisms that cause mad cow disease, kuru, and other degenerative brain diseases.

The research is in Neuron and Cell Reports. (full access paywall and full open access)

Research: "The Persistence of Hippocampal-based Memory Requires Protein Synthesis Mediated by the Prion-like Protein CPEB3" by Eric Kandel, Luana Fioriti, Cory Myers, Yan-You Huang, Xiang Li, Joseph Stephan, Pierre Trifilieff, Stelios Kosmidis, Bettina Drisaldi, and Elias Pavlopoulos in Neuron doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.05.021 

Image: Memories are stored for the long-term with the help of prion-like proteins called CPEB. CPEB prions aggregate and maintain synapses that recorded the memory ["spines" in the bottom image]. When CPEB prions are not present or are inactivated, the synapses collapse and the memory fades [see upper image].  Image credit:  Lab of David Sulzer, PhD, Columbia University Medical Center.

#neuroscience   #memory  
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Thanks for this reference. Z
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Researchers Discover New Epigenetic Mecahnism in Brain Cells

Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered that histones are steadily replaced in brain cells throughout life - a process which helps to switch genes on and off.

The research is in Neuron. (full access paywall)

#neuroscience   #epigenetics  
A new study reports histones are steadily replaced in brain cells throughout life.
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Intrusive Memories of Traumatic Events Reduced by Sleep Deprivation

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/trauma-memory-sleep-deprivation-2182/.

A good night’s sleep has long been recommended to those who have experienced a traumatic event. But an Oxford University-led study provides preliminary experimental work suggesting it could actually be the wrong thing to do.

The research is in Sleep. (full access paywall)

Research: "Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation" by Kate Porcheret, PhD; Emily A. Holmes, PhD; Guy M. Goodwin, FMedSci; Russell G. Foster, PhD; and Katharina Wulff, PhD in Sleep doi:10.5665/sleep.4802

Image: Each person then kept a diary in which they recorded any intrusive memories, however fleeting, recording as much information as possible so that the research team could check that the intrusive images were linked to the film. This image is for illustrative purposes only. Credit: Vic.

#sleep   #psychology   #trauma  
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hmmmm
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Making Sense of the Visual World: Seeing is Believing

If your eyes deceive you, blame your brain. Many optical illusions work because what we see clashes with what we expect to see.

The research is in Neuron. (full access paywall)

#neuroscience   #vision  
A new study addresses the nature and origin of neural signals involved in solving perceptual tasks.
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To Believe is not require ...
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Babbler Bird Provides Clues About Language Development

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/language-babbler-bird-2180/.

New study deciphers bird sounds to reveal language precursors in babbler birds.

The research is in PLOS Biology. (full open access)

#language   #neuroscience   #evolution  
Researchers find language precursors by deciphering the sounds of babbler birds.
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Hello iam new here so suggest some thing to me
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Olfactory Fingerprint Points to Personal Sense of Smell

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/neuroscience-olfactory-fingerprint-2178/.

The implications of this study reach beyond the sense of smell alone, and range from olfactory fingerprint-based early diagnosis of degenerative brain disorders to a non-invasive test for matching donor organs.

The research is in PNAS. (full access paywall)

Research: "Individual olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information" by Lavi Secundo, Kobi Snitz, Kineret Weissler, Liron Pinchover, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Ron Loewenthal, Nancy Agmon-Levin, Idan Frumin, Dana Bar-Zvi, Sagit Shushan, and Noam Sobel in PNAS doi:10.1073/pnas.1424826112 

Image: The olfactory fingerprint of the person in the middle remains consistent, even after 30 days (right), but is very different from that of another person (left). Image credit: Weizmann Institute of Science.

#neuroscience   #olfaction  
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+Bubu Barkindo BARK!
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Microglia May Be a Potential Therapeutic Target for Blinding Eye Disease

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/microglia-retinitis-pigmentosa-2188/.

A new study by researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) shows that they also accelerate damage wrought by blinding eye disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health.

The research is in EMBO Molecular Medicine. (full open access)

Research: "Microglial phagocytosis of living photoreceptors contributes to inherited retinal degeneration" by Lian Zhao, Matthew K Zabel, Xu Wang, Wenxin Ma, Parth Shah, Robert N Fariss, Haohua Qian, Christopher N Parkhurst, Wen‐Biao Gan, and Wai T Wong in EMBO Molecular Medicine doi:10.15252/emmm.201505298

Image: A microglial cell (green) extends spider-like arms to capture and consume rod photoreceptor cells (blue). Image credit: Dr. Wai T. Wong, National Eye Institute.

#microglia   #vision   #neuroscience  
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Cortisol Reinforces Traumatic Memories

Stress hormone takes effect while people retrieve and reconsolidate emotional memories.

The research is in Neuropsychopharmacology. (full access paywall)

#psychology   #ptsd  
According to a new study, cortisol strengthens traumatic memories, both when the memory is formed and when it is reconsolidated.
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That's why cortisone injections aren't too great and should not be used alot.
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Researchers Make a "Spectacular Discovery" About Memory Formation and Learning

Full article at http://neurosciencenews.com/memory-formation-learning-mtl-neurons-2184/.

A collaboration between Dr Matias Ison and Professor Rodrigo Quian Quiroga at the University of Leicester and Dr Itzhak Fried at Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center revealed how a neuron in the brain instantly fired differently when a new memory was formed.

The research is in Neuron. (full open access)

Research: "Rapid Encoding of New Memories by Individual Neurons in the Human Brain" by Matias J. Ison, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, and Itzhak Fried in Neuron doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.016

Image: This is Clint Eastwood in front of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Image credit: University of Leicester.

#neuroscience   #memory   #learning  
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This discovery fixed my unstable idea on this topic.!!! Thank you #Neuroscience and thank you Jennifer Aniston #Neuron. .:)
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Sleep Quality Affects Mood for Women with Bipolar Disorder

Poor sleep is associated with negative mood in women with bipolar disorder, according to researchers at Penn State College of Medicine and University of Michigan Medical School.

The research is in Journal of Affective Disorders. (full access paywall)

#psychology   #sleep   #bipolar  
According to a new study, poor sleep quality is linked to negative moods in women with bipolar disorder.
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+Jake Stine Anecdotally, as male I can confirm sleep being The key for mood disorders. After tens of drug experiments my regimen is rotating antihistamine as knock out drug(12mg quetiapine, 7mg mirtazapine, 10mg chlorpheniramine, 12mg hydroxyzine) with 0.5mg melatonin. "True" bipolar medications have not come even close to the effectiveness of restful night sleep.
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Why the Promise of Reward Outweighs Risk for the Teenage Brain

The University of Pittsburgh’s Bita Moghaddam and her research group have taken a look at the teen brain—the teen rat’s brain, specifically—and found that scientists’ presumptions may be off base.

The research is in Biological Psychiatry. (full access paywall)

#psychology   #teenagers   #brain  
Dopamine neurons are activated less than in adults brains when teens are faced with the prospect of a reward, a new study reports.
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Nice to no
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