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Migell CTTN
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Migell CTTN

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. Just worrisome watching some bad news here worldwide and it's sad just to tell Ya' but it is what's happening unfortunately. Wish very different for all these people. Lord! 😔... 
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Aylen Alvarez es una de las mujeres con los cuerpos mas voluptuosos y deliciosos de toda la red, y ella lo sabe por eso monto este víd...
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Can't speak Spanish. What does it say?
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Looks truly a great movement there...Nice!
Brian Castillo originally shared to Entrepreneurs, Self-Employed & Small Business (Internet / Web / Social):
The first ever Passaic Olympics hosted by Create a Better Community Inc. Join us in our online live event have fun watching the games and share memories with us.
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Happy MoM's day all 4 ever. And to all PaPis please be nice and love them always, they'r unique be careful with them and show them you really love and care with time. MoM's are very special creatures...
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Migell CTTN

machinery  - 
All  is  relative  with  machines  and  to  produce  motion  we  need  initial   [ Torque + Leverage + Momentum = Motion ]  and if everything run harmonically then we'll have sustained dynamics involved.  So, we'll be good if always we focus on apply a 'Mechanical Advantage Leverage' at everything we'll need  to  get  it  move  from  point  A  to  B  to  make  it  simplicity  a  body  in  motion  tend  to  stay  in  motion  and  a  body  in  rest  will  stand  in  rest  unless  a  force  make  it  engage  in  any  good  activity for it limits.  One  that  will serve  to  skill  even  more  inertia  dynamics in it...
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Innovation = ALL...!  Be  in  this  green  technology  community  hub  will  help  US  ALL  to  force  the  imagination  to  the  next  level  for  keep  on  with  existing  technological  advances  and  even  moving  toward  major  achievements  waiting  to  be  reach  and  conquer  until  the  whole  planet  benefit  from  ALL  our  efforts  of  the  past - present  and  future  into  applications  already  available  and  see  how  can  be  modify  it  and  adapt  it  and  improve  it  as  need  it  in  order  to  stay  up  with  global  changing  ecosystems  and  climate  effects.       
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Migell CTTN

Mechanical Engineering  - 
Hanging in here today not much, just waiting for whatever the GOP + D.Trump want to do with the immigrants here next as if the country wasn't invaded in firstly by the  'Old World'  foreigners which displaced the original inhabitants from their lands making them ('Illegals Criminals Alliens') immigrants in their natural God given lands.  "We didn't crossed the borders the borders crossed us" Then he want us to pay for his   Super*Wall in top of everything. Nice!  
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Non Mine I Wish, they are very nice Hauler NoN-Stop Operation when is up and once in a while do request some regular maintenance like all...But do works truly good so far. Thanks for the compliment...Take good Care now!!!
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Best Car Deals
Exporting/Importing Automobiles is no more problem!! come to join us in any category either LHD or RHD. A great platform for buying/selling.
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NASA spots worrisome Antarctic ice sheet melt
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In my personal opinion it is more about a monopoly energy which we'll need to keep working to tackle down to make it more cheaper affordable for the low income citizens like myself since not everyone are so lucky in life to be able to afford such commodity. Big energy suppliers are a monopoly controlled system that need to be taken down soon.
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The  two  {H 1 and 2}  represent  a  electro+hydraulic  pilots  units  (2 of them)  one  at  each  side  of  the  =[Rsx]=  which  provide (Self Excited Rotor)  with  plenty  steady amount  of  torque from  (Start-Up)  0 to 500  rpm 1st stage hydraulic driving  unit  up  to  3K rpm  (RUN)  if  need  at.  A RiDiux battery bank unit or a batteries stack bank will support the starting periods as required and can be recharge back to potential by the two in line small/compact alternators that run in parallel with 'EconoTorx><Genset' rotor constantly in order to supply potential for controllers operations at same time. A  flywheel  weighting  disc  will  assist  it  even  further  in  sustain  power  signal  at  stable  proportions  with  any  sudden  fluctuating  demands  as  is  the  normal  scenario  in  every  facility.  Also, the  Dc to Dc  Booster  unit  will  greatly  assist  it  in  power  signal  increment  as  an  output  leverage,  even  further.  With  an  integrated  PLC  or  some  acceptable  loop  control  the  whole  generator  operation  will  be  easily  monitored  and  controlled  as  required  to  comply  with  facilities  demands.  So,  more  to  come  on  the  'EconoTorx'  mastermind  Fuel-Less  power  generation  system  here,  stay  tune  and  stand  by,  and  do  send  this  way  your  feedback  and  any  other  great  suggestion  in  order  for  me  to  adjust  or  correct  even  further  this  strategic power generation fuel-less concept  idea  that  exist  only  in  thoughts,  since  I  can't  concreted  yet,  due  lack  of  working  capital  for  development  to  it  physical   stated  once  and  for  all  the  near  future  generations  that  will  benefited  from  such  this  awesome  imaginary concept  model.  No  fuel  burning  and  no  polluting  the  environment  further  plus  with  a  much  lower  operating  prices  than  the  standard  fossil-fuel  combustibles burning  standard  power-generators  in  the  market  worldwide  and  not  only  that  but  it  will  as  well  be  a  dis-monopolization of  the  machinery  the  utilities  (power generation)  companies  controlling  worldwide  in  the  grid.  Imagine  that?  So,  we'll  stay  in  contact  eventually  if  something  good  break-throughout  about  this  mastermind  power  generation  fuel-less  idea concept for  near  future    Let  it  sleep  for  now  and  we'll  be  keep  checking  out  through this  Blooging  commodity wright here,  Absolutely!    

Hydraulic Systems Advantages:
Fundamental features of using hydraulics compared to mechanics for force and torque increase/decrease in a transmission.
Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example.
In this type of machine, hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders and which becomes pressurised according to the resistance present. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes.
The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses, and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power.
Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics, where a liquid is the powering medium.

 Force and torque multiplication:
A fundamental feature of hydraulic systems is the ability to apply force or torque multiplication in an easy way, independent of the distance between the input and output, without the need for mechanical gears or levers, either by altering the effective areas in two connected cylinders or the effective displacement (cc/rev) between a pump and motor. In normal cases, hydraulic ratios are combined with a mechanical force or torque ratio for optimum machine designs such as boom movements and trackdrives for an excavator.
ExamplesTwo hydraulic cylinders interconnected
Cylinder C1 is one inch in radius, and cylinder C2 is ten inches in radius. If the force exerted on C1 is 10 lbf, the force exerted by C2 is 1000 lbf because C2 is a hundred times larger in area (S = πr²) as C1. The downside to this is that you have to move C1 a hundred inches to move C2 one inch. The most common use for this is the classical hydraulic jack where a pumping cylinder with a small diameter is connected to the lifting cylinder with a large diameter.
Pump and motor:
If a hydraulic rotary pump with the displacement 10 cc/rev is connected to a hydraulic rotary motor with 100 cc/rev, the shaft torque required to drive the pump is 10 times less than the torque available at the motor shaft, but the shaft speed (rev/min) for the motor is 10 times less than the pump shaft speed. This combination is actually the same type of force multiplication as the cylinder example (1) just that the linear force in this case is a rotary force, defined as torque.
Both these examples are usually referred to as a hydraulic transmission or hydrostatic transmission involving a certain hydraulic "gear ratio".
Hydraulic circuits:
A simple open center hydraulic circuit.
For the hydraulic fluid to do work, it must flow to the actuator and/or motors, then return to a reservoir. The fluid is then filtered and re-pumped. The path taken by hydraulic fluid is called a hydraulic circuit of which there are several types. Open center circuits use pumps which supply a continuous flow. The flow is returned to tank through the control valve's open center; that is, when the control valve is centered, it provides an open return path to tank and the fluid is not pumped to a high pressure. Otherwise, if the control valve is actuated it routes fluid to and from an actuator and tank. The fluid's pressure will rise to meet any resistance, since the pump has a constant output. If the pressure rises too high, fluid returns to tank through a pressure relief valve. Multiple control valves may be stacked in series [1]. This type of circuit can use inexpensive, constant displacement pumps.
Closed center circuits supply full pressure to the control valves, whether any valves are actuated or not. The pumps vary their flow rate, pumping very little hydraulic fluid until the operator actuates a valve. The valve's spool therefore doesn't need an open center return path to tank. Multiple valves can be connected in a parallel arrangement and system pressure is equal for all valves.
Constant pressure and load-sensing systems:
The closed center circuits exist in two basic configurations, normally related to the regulator for the variable pump that supplies the oil:
Constant pressure systems (CP-system), standard. Pump pressure always equals the pressure setting for the pump regulator. This setting must cover the maximum required load pressure. Pump delivers flow according to required sum of flow to the consumers. The CP-system generates large power losses if the machine works with large variations in load pressure and the average system pressure is much lower than the pressure setting for the pump regulator. CP is simple in design. Works like a pneumatic system. New hydraulic functions can easily be added and the system is quick in response.
Constant pressure systems (CP-system), unloaded. Same basic configuration as 'standard' CP-system but the pump is unloaded to a low stand-by pressure when all valves are in neutral position. Not so fast response as standard CP but pump lifetime is prolonged.
Load-sensing systems (LS-system) generates less power losses as the pump can reduce both flow and pressure to match the load requirements, but requires more tuning than the CP-system with respect to system stability. The LS-system also requires additional logical valves and compensator valves in the directional valves, thus it is technically more complex and more expensive than the CP-system. The LS-system system generates a constant power loss related to the regulating pressure drop for the pump regulator:

The average is around 2 MPa (290 psi). If the pump flow is high the extra loss can be considerable. The power loss also increases if the load pressures vary a lot. The cylinder areas, motor displacements and mechanical torque arms must be designed to match load pressure in order to bring down the power losses. Pump pressure always equals the maximum load pressure when several functions are run simultaneously and the power input to the pump equals the (max. load pressure + ΔpLS) x sum of flow.
Five basic types of load-sensing systems
Load sensing without compensators in the directional valves. Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
Load sensing with up-stream compensator for each connected directional valve. Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
Load sensing with down-stream compensator for each connected directional valve. Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
Load sensing with a combination of up-stream and down-stream compensators. Hydraulically controlled LS-pump.
Load sensing with synchronized, both electric controlled pump displacement and electric controlled valve flow area for faster response, increased stability and fewer system losses. This is a new type of LS-system, not yet fully developed.
Technically the down-stream mounted compensator in a valveblock can physically be mounted "up-stream", but work as a down-stream compensator.
System type (3) gives the advantage that activated functions are synchronized independent of pump flow capacity. The flow relation between 2 or more activated functions remains independent of load pressures, even if the pump reaches the maximum swivel angle. This feature is important for machines that often run with the pump at maximum swivel angle and with several activated functions that must be synchronized in speed, such as with excavators. With type (4) system, the functions with up-stream compensators have priority. Example: Steering-function for a wheel loader. The system type with down-stream compensators usually have a unique trademark depending on the manufacturer of the valves, for example "LSC" (Linde Hydraulics), "LUDV" (Bosch Rexroth Hydraulics) and "Flowsharing" (Parker Hydraulics) etc. No official standardized name for this type of system has been established but Flowsharing is a common name for it.
Open and closed circuits:

Open loop and closed loop circuits
Open-loop: Pump-inlet and motor-return (via the directional valve) are connected to the hydraulic tank. The term loop applies to feedback; the more correct term is open versus closed "circuit". Open center circuits use pumps which supply a continuous flow. The flow is returned to tank through the control valve's open center; that is, when the control valve is centered, it provides an open return path to tank and the fluid is not pumped to a high pressure. Otherwise, if the control valve is actuated it routes fluid to and from an actuator and tank. The fluid's pressure will rise to meet any resistance, since the pump has a constant output. If the pressure rises too high, fluid returns to tank through a pressure relief valve. Multiple control valves may be stacked in series. This type of circuit can use inexpensive, constant displacement pumps.
Closed-loop: Motor-return is connected directly to the pump-inlet. To keep up pressure on the low pressure side, the circuits have a charge pump (a small gearpump) that supplies cooled and filtered oil to the low pressure side. Closed-loop circuits are generally used for hydrostatic transmissions in mobile applications. Advantages: No directional valve and better response, the circuit can work with higher pressure. The pump swivel angle covers both positive and negative flow direction. Disadvantages: The pump cannot be utilized for any other hydraulic function in an easy way and cooling can be a problem due to limited exchange of oil flow. High power closed loop systems generally must have a 'flush-valve' assembled in the circuit in order to exchange much more flow than the basic leakage flow from the pump and the motor, for increased cooling and filtering. The flush valve is normally integrated in the motor housing to get a cooling effect for the oil that is rotating in the motor housing itself. The losses in the motor housing from rotating effects and losses in the ball bearings can be considerable as motor speeds will reach 4000-5000 rev/min or even more at maximum vehicle speed. The leakage flow as well as the extra flush flow must be supplied by the charge pump. A large charge pump is thus very important if the transmission is designed for high pressures and high motor speeds. High oil temperature is usually a major problem when using hydrostatic transmissions at high vehicle speeds for longer periods, for instance when transporting the machine from one work place to the other. High oil temperatures for long periods will drastically reduce the lifetime of the transmission. To keep down the oil temperature, the system pressure during transport must be lowered, meaning that the minimum displacement for the motor must be limited to a reasonable value. Circuit pressure during transport around 200-250 bar is recommended.
Closed loop systems in mobile equipment are generally used for the transmission as an alternative to mechanical and hydrodynamic (converter) transmissions. The advantage is a stepless gear ratio (continuously variable speed/torque) and a more flexible control of the gear ratio depending on the load and operating conditions. The hydrostatic transmission is generally limited to around 200 kW maximum power, as the total cost gets too high at higher power compared to a hydrodynamic transmission. Large wheel loaders for instance and heavy machines are therefore usually equipped with converter transmissions. Recent technical achievements for the converter transmissions have improved the efficiency and developments in the software have also improved the characteristics, for example selectable gear shifting programs during operation and more gear steps, giving them characteristics close to the hydrostatic transmission.
Hydrostatic transmissions for earth moving machines, such as for track loaders, are often equipped with a separate 'inch pedal' that is used to temporarily increase the diesel engine rpm while reducing the vehicle speed in order to increase the available hydraulic power output for the working hydraulics at low speeds and increase the tractive effort. The function is similar to stalling a converter gearbox at high engine rpm. The inch function affects the preset characteristics for the 'hydrostatic' gear ratio versus diesel engine rpm.
Hydraulic pump

An exploded view of an external gear pump.
Hydraulic pumps supply fluid to the components in the system. Pressure in the system develops in reaction to the load. Hence, a pump rated for 5,000 psi is capable of maintaining flow against a load of 5,000 psi.
Pumps have a power density about ten times greater than an electric motor (by volume). They are powered by an electric motor or an engine, connected through gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling to reduce vibration.
Common types of hydraulic pumps to hydraulic machinery applications are;
Gear pump: cheap, durable (especially in g-rotor form), simple. Less efficient, because they are constant (fixed) displacement, and mainly suitable for pressures below 20 MPa (3000 psi).
Vane pump: cheap and simple, reliable. Good for higher-flow low-pressure output.
Axial piston pump: many designed with a variable displacement mechanism, to vary output flow for automatic control of pressure. There are various axial piston pump designs, including swashplate (sometimes referred to as a valveplate pump) and checkball (sometimes referred to as a wobble plate pump). The most common is the swashplate pump. A variable-angle swashplate causes the pistons to reciprocate a greater or lesser distance per rotation, allowing output flow rate and pressure to be varied (greater displacement angle causes higher flow rate, lower pressure, and vice versa).
Radial piston pump: normally used for very high pressure at small flows.
Piston pumps are more expensive than gear or vane pumps, but provide longer life operating at higher pressure, with difficult fluids and longer continuous duty cycles. Piston pumps make up one half of a hydrostatic transmission.
Control valves
control valves on a scissor lift
Directional control valves route the fluid to the desired actuator. They usually consist of a spool inside a cast iron or steel housing. The spool slides to different positions in the housing, and intersecting grooves and channels route the fluid based on the spool's position.
The spool has a central (neutral) position maintained with springs; in this position the supply fluid is blocked, or returned to tank. Sliding the spool to one side routes the hydraulic fluid to an actuator and provides a return path from the actuator to tank. When the spool is moved to the opposite direction the supply and return paths are switched. When the spool is allowed to return to neutral (center) position the actuator fluid paths are blocked, locking it in position.
Directional control valves are usually designed to be stackable, with one valve for each hydraulic cylinder, and one fluid input supplying all the valves in the stack.
Tolerances are very tight in order to handle the high pressure and avoid leaking, spools typically have a clearance with the housing of less than a thousandth of an inch (25 µm). The valve block will be mounted to the machine's frame with a three point pattern to avoid distorting the valve block and jamming the valve's sensitive components.
The spool position may be actuated by mechanical levers, hydraulic pilot pressure, or solenoids which push the spool left or right. A seal allows part of the spool to protrude outside the housing, where it is accessible to the actuator.
The main valve block is usually a stack of off the shelf directional control valves chosen by flow capacity and performance. Some valves are designed to be proportional (flow rate proportional to valve position), while others may be simply on-off. The control valve is one of the most expensive and sensitive parts of a hydraulic circuit.
Pressure relief valves are used in several places in hydraulic machinery; on the return circuit to maintain a small amount of pressure for brakes, pilot lines, etc... On hydraulic cylinders, to prevent overloading and hydraulic line/seal rupture. On the hydraulic reservoir, to maintain a small positive pressure which excludes moisture and contamination.
Pressure regulators reduce the supply pressure of hydraulic fluids as needed for various circuits.
Sequence valves control the sequence of hydraulic circuits; to ensure that one hydraulic cylinder is fully extended before another starts its stroke, for example.
Shuttle valves provide a logical or function.
Check valves are one-way valves, allowing an accumulator to charge and maintain its pressure after the machine is turned off, for example.
Pilot controlled Check valves are one-way valve that can be opened (for both directions) by a foreign pressure signal. For instance if the load should not be held by the check valve anymore. Often the foreign pressure comes from the other pipe that is connected to the motor or cylinder.
Counterbalance valves are in fact a special type of pilot controlled check valve. Whereas the check valve is open or closed, the counterbalance valve acts a bit like a pilot controlled flow control.
Cartridge valves are in fact the inner part of a check valve; they are off the shelf components with a standardized envelope, making them easy to populate a proprietary valve block. They are available in many configurations; on/off, proportional, pressure relief, etc. They generally screw into a valve block and are electrically controlled to provide logic and automated functions.
Hydraulic fuses are in-line safety devices designed to automatically seal off a hydraulic line if pressure becomes too low, or safely vent fluid if pressure becomes too high.
Auxiliary valves in complex hydraulic systems may have auxiliary valve blocks to handle various duties unseen to the operator, such as accumulator charging, cooling fan operation, air conditioning power, etc. They are usually custom valves designed for the particular machine, and may consist of a metal block with ports and channels drilled. Cartridge valves are threaded into the ports and may be electrically controlled by switches or a microprocessor to route fluid power as needed.
Hydraulic cylinder
Swashplates are used in 'hydraulic motors' requiring highly accurate control and also in 'no stop' continuous (360°) precision positioning mechanisms. These are frequently driven by several hydraulic pistons acting in sequence.
Hydraulic motor (a pump plumbed in reverse)
Hydrostatic transmission
The hydraulic fluid reservoir holds excess hydraulic fluid to accommodate volume changes from: cylinder extension and contraction, temperature driven expansion and contraction, and leaks. The reservoir is also designed to aid in separation of air from the fluid and also work as a heat accumulator to cover losses in the system when peak power is used. Design engineers are always pressured to reduce the size of hydraulic reservoirs, while equipment operators always appreciate larger reservoirs. Reservoirs can also help separate dirt and other particulate from the oil, as the particulate will generally settle to the bottom of the tank. Some designs include dynamic flow channels on the fluid's return path that allow for a smaller reservoir.
Accumulators are a common part of hydraulic machinery. Their function is to store energy by using pressurized gas. One type is a tube with a floating piston. On one side of the piston is a charge of pressurized gas, and on the other side is the fluid. Bladders are used in other designs. Reservoirs store a system's fluid.
Examples of accumulator uses are backup power for steering or brakes, or to act as a shock absorber for the hydraulic circuit.
Hydraulic fluid
Also known as tractor fluid, hydraulic fluid is the life of the hydraulic circuit. It is usually petroleum oil with various additives. Some hydraulic machines require fire resistant fluids, depending on their applications. In some factories where food is prepared, either an edible oil or water is used as a working fluid for health and safety reasons.
In addition to transferring energy, hydraulic fluid needs to lubricate components, suspend contaminants and metal filings for transport to the filter, and to function well to several hundred degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius.
Filters are an important part of hydraulic systems. Metal particles are continually produced by mechanical components and need to be removed along with other contaminants.
Filters may be positioned in many locations. The filter may be located between the reservoir and the pump intake. Blockage of the filter will cause cavitation and possibly failure of the pump. Sometimes the filter is located between the pump and the control valves. This arrangement is more expensive, since the filter housing is pressurized, but eliminates cavitation problems and protects the control valve from pump failures. The third common filter location is just before the return line enters the reservoir. This location is relatively insensitive to blockage and does not require a pressurized housing, but contaminants that enter the reservoir from external sources are not filtered until passing through the system at least once.
Tubes, pipes and hoses
Hydraulic tubes are seamless steel precision pipes, specially manufactured for hydraulics. The tubes have standard sizes for different pressure ranges, with standard diameters up to 100 mm. The tubes are supplied by manufacturers in lengths of 6 m, cleaned, oiled and plugged. The tubes are interconnected by different types of flanges (especially for the larger sizes and pressures), welding cones/nipples (with o-ring seal), several types of flare connection and by cut-rings. In larger sizes, hydraulic pipes are used. Direct joining of tubes by welding is not acceptable since the interior cannot be inspected.
Hydraulic pipe is used in case standard hydraulic tubes are not available. Generally these are used for low pressure. They can be connected by threaded connections, but usually by welds. Because of the larger diameters the pipe can usually be inspected internally after welding. Black pipe is non-galvanized and suitable for welding.
Hydraulic hose is graded by pressure, temperature, and fluid compatibility. Hoses are used when pipes or tubes can not be used, usually to provide flexibility for machine operation or maintenance. The hose is built up with rubber and steel layers. A rubber interior is surrounded by multiple layers of woven wire and rubber. The exterior is designed for abrasion resistance. The bend radius of hydraulic hose is carefully designed into the machine, since hose failures can be deadly, and violating the hose's minimum bend radius will cause failure. Hydraulic hoses generally have steel fittings swaged on the ends. The weakest part of the high pressure hose is the connection of the hose to the fitting. Another disadvantage of hoses is the shorter life of rubber which requires periodic replacement, usually at five to seven year intervals.
Tubes and pipes for hydraulic applications are internally oiled before the system is commissioned. Usually steel piping is painted outside. Where flare and other couplings are used, the paint is removed under the nut, and is a location where corrosion can begin. For this reason, in marine applications most piping is stainless steel.
Seals, fittings and connections
Seal (mechanical)
Components of a hydraulic system [sources (e.g. pumps), controls (e.g. valves) and actuators (e.g. cylinders)] need connections that will contain and direct the hydraulic fluid being used without leaking or losing the pressure that makes them work. In some cases, the components can be made to bolt together with fluid paths built-in. In more cases, though, rigid tubing or flexible hoses are used to direct the flow from one component to the next. Each component has entry and exit points for the fluid involved (called ports) sized according to how much fluid is expected to pass through it.
There are a number of standardized methods in use to attach the hose or tube to the component. Some are intended for ease of use and service, others are better for higher system pressures or control of leakage. The most common method, in general, is to provide in each component a female-threaded port, on each hose or tube a female-threaded captive nut, and use a separate adapter fitting with matching male threads to connect the two. This is functional, economical to manufacture, and easy to service.
Fittings serve several purposes;
To join components with ports of different sizes.
To bridge different standards; O-ring boss to JIC, or pipe threads to face seal, for example.
To allow proper orientation of components, a 90°, 45°, straight, or swivel fitting is chosen as needed. They are designed to be positioned in the correct orientation and then tightened.
To incorporate bulkhead hardware to pass the fluid through an obstructing wall.
A quick disconnect fitting may be added to a machine without modification of hoses or valves
A typical piece of machinery or heavy equipment may have thousands of sealed connection points and several different types:
Pipe fittings, the fitting is screwed in until tight, difficult to orient an angled fitting correctly without over or under tightening.
O-ring boss, the fitting is screwed into a boss and orientated as needed, an additional nut tightens the fitting, washer and o-ring in place.
Flare fittings, are metal to metal compression seals deformed with a cone nut and pressed into a flare mating.
Face seal, metal flanges with a groove and o-ring seal are fastened together.
Beam seals are costly metal to metal seals used primarily in aircraft.
Swaged seals, tubes are connected with fittings that are swaged permanently in place. Primarily used in aircraft.
Elastomeric seals (O-ring boss and face seal) are the most common types of seals in heavy equipment and are capable of reliably sealing 6000+ psi (40+ Mpa) of fluid pressure.
Basic calculations:
Hydraulic power is defined as flow times pressure.

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Welcome!  Be my Guest  and  feel  free  to  share  some  of  the  good  Ideas-Innovations-Concepts-Brainstorming-Perspectives-Suggestions-Opinions-Feedback-Input-Back-Up  throughout  this  imaginary concept as  state  to  be  {HTLS1}==[Rsx]=={HSLT2}  for  an  improved  Electro+Hydraulics self sustainable power plant  made out of common industrial-commercial manufactured available parts and equipment in production lines actually here in the USA and worldwide as well. By applying some well done thoughts and critical thinking to such matter of the hi prices of fossil fuel and the subsequences of polluted air plague with it I was able to figure out a system that can be build up with already existent in manufacturers inventory here in USA and worldwide tools-parts-equipment and imaginarily created in thoughts an 'Electro-Hydraulics Power Plant System'  that I call it the EconoTorx><GenSet which will be operating in the basis of a Mechanical Advantage Leverage scheme for a self sustain non-stop performance delivery of electrical power as never readed-seen-heared- before no where as far as I can recall. And why not? It is due the fact that it exist only in imagination where I am able to virtually see it in operation inside my mind working in full-force on continues duty 24/7. It will work by making use of two Hydraulics Motors, one for first stage start and the second stage run. This scheme will apply a High Torque Low Speed {HTLS1} from 0 to 500 rpm + and then second stage {HSLT2} High Speed Low Torque taken from 500 + rpm until a max of 3000 rpm. Note that mainly most generators in use everywhere require an speed of up to 2000 rpm normally  in order to be able to produce commercial-industrial electrical power as the acceptable standard norm. So the EconoTorx><GenSet are be more than able to meet these actual requirements without hesitation and in the most economically way as know possible up to date. No bad at all! And things will get even better only from there because the EconoTorx><GenSet will count as part of it's integral equipment two =*= DynaTors  (compact alternators)  which are a compact Alternators set that will supply for controllers and batteries recharging process in the interim. Batteries can be set in an stack bank near by room or if preferred a ReDioux Battery Unit will be employ as well for better long term battery performance. Battery (s) will be mainly for start-up and signal backup purposes only and will only serve to improve signal output as whole. They will be engaged by a pulley and belt set-up or by shaft and pinion gears links which are also very easy to integrate it onto the components without any other extraordinary difficult. Since all these parts and electro-mechanics are a normal base common ground to anyone in the power generation field. To top the EconoTorx><GenSet  power generation machine a dedicated Dc to Dc Booster Converter will crank-up power demands needs regardless of how much may be the requirements for the application to task. And to make it back to Ac power a Dc to Ac Inverter will correct that as well without major complications to any skill fully technology integrator specialist. Again the long term savings will dissipate in short wright after system got up and running day in and day out, Just Imagine the electric bill from the utilities companies vanish one day at a time. This will be more then awesome, No Doub!         

Choosing the right generator size for your home is not a trivial task because there are many variables to consider. The simplest and quickest way to determine the required wattage is to match the rating of your existing electric service. For example, if you have a 70A 120/240V service, it would yield 70×240=16,800 watt. If you are not sure about your amperage rating, you can find this number on the main breakers. Of course, in practice people rarely use all available power. You can save money by selecting a smaller generator, which may still be sufficient to feed the entire house. The question is how to determine your actual home's power consumption?

The typical wattages of various appliances provided in various online sizing guides and electric load calculators are not very helpful for two reasons. Firstly, different models obviously consume different amount of power   Secondly, most of the guides don't take into account imbalance of the load in your home electrical system. I'll show you how to properly determine the required wattage, but first I need to explain the basic configuration of the wiring. Most residential houses in U.S. have single-phase three-wire service (see wiring diagram). In essence, you have two separate 120V lines connected to two busses in your main panel with common neutral. Large appliances such as a central a/c or a dryer run off 240V and therefore draw equal currents from both lines. However, all other devices draw current only from one of two lines. As the result, two busses in most cases are imbalanced. A home generator likewise has two 120V outputs with common neutral, each of which can supply not more than half of its total rated wattage. That's why it is not enough to know your lump power consumption- you need to know how it is split between L1 and L2. Let me illustrate it with the following example. Suppose your house consumes P = 8kW. If this load splits equally between L1 and L2, in theory you could use an 8kW genset. However, if you have for example P1=6 kW and P2=2 kW, you would need a 12kW system to be able to supply 6kW on the first bus. Of course, it is always recommended to have at least 20% derating, but we will get to that later.

To properly size a generator, the first thing to do is to measure electric current on each of two lines of your home. If you have a proper training and know how to work safely with AC voltage you can do it by yourself. You will need special rubber gloves and a clamp meter preferably with peak reading function. The cover from the main distribution panel has be removed in order to reach L1 and L2. If you found a significant imbalance between them, ask your electrician to swap appropriate breakers in the circuit panel to better balance the loads. Once you know I1 and I2, the minimum required wattage of your genset is the larger of these two currents times 240 plus 20% margin:

GENSET RATING (watts) = max (I1,I2) × 240 × 1.2

For example, if I1=40A, I2=30A, you would need 40×240×1.2=11,520 watt system. If you have a central a/c or another high-power motor-driven appliance, you may have to increase the size of your system to handle high startup currents. You would need to measure initial surge current of your device by using peak function of the clamp meter and choose a generator with corresponding surge capability. Unfortunately, generator manufacturers rarely specify their surge characteristics. As a rule of thumb, most standby models can briefly provide at least 50% more current compaired to their continuous rating.  Note: I = Current in Amps / V = Voltage or potential / W = Watts (Power or Heat Dissipation) 

And, I'll be looking forward for your great input about this brainstorming mastermind fuel-less power generation concept and let me know your point of view this way. Thanks for your back-up too!

Ps.  Guard  your  trade  secrets  secure. Do  not  expose  them  completely  until  is  well  patented  first.  Don't  do  as  I  doing!     
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Environmental Friendly Power Generation MasterMind Sustainable Equipmet Solution
A  next  level  environmental  self  sustainable  power generation  green  dream  machine  as  never  read  nor  hear-seen-read  it  before  in  this  planet  since  it  only  in  existency  in  thoughts through an imagination and by critical thinking about the problematic issue of the fossil fuel factors as it high prices, shortage and environmental pollution matters  for  few  years  now  but  unable  to  further  develop  it  into  it's  physical  state  due  lack  of  budget  condition  to  bring  it  to  life  and  then  the  proceedings  with  the  patenting  screening  expensive  paperwork  for   it  certification, etc. But regardless  it  is   A-1  potential  real  'Dream come True'  scenario  here  since  by  just  taking  a  quick  look  at  it  basic  set-up  formula  you'll  too  be  in  front   of  an  amazing  concept  that  It  make  you  come  to  this  webblog  for  more  clarification  and  input  about  this  revolutionary  fuel-less  sustainable  green  dream  generator  machine  concept  of  the  near  future,  but  wait  the  future  is  already  here  and  now  2014  and  counting  so  time  here  is  also  imperative  because  with  all  so  many  bad  news  of  economy  everywhere  that  it  is  hard  to  believe  sometimes  plus  if  you  add  to  it  the  fossil  fuel  situation  with  it  high  prices  and  the  pollution  damaged  already  created  by  the  big  ones  then  it  is  only  wisely  to  keep  on  improvement  and  developing  on  a  real  good  imaginative  and  this intrinsic  dream  concept  here  in  order  to  be  able  to  conceive  a  very  real  sustainable  power  generation  system  completely  independent  from  the  main  utility  GRID  for  good. Also  the GRID  it  is  Greedy  at  same  time  squelching  our  pockets  more  and  more  'day  in  and  day  out'.  My  suggestion  here  are  the  electro-hydraulics  system   I  want  to  introduce  to  you  in  a  second:  {HTLS1}=*=[Rsx]=*={HSLT2}  H's 1 +2 mean to be an hydraulics rotary motors. 1st stage {start} will pick-up from 0 to 500 rpm. The 2nd stage will pick up momentum from within 500 rpm up to 3000 rpm max. for a sustain running mode and constant power production signal all the way to supply every electrical service panel through-out  building facility without blinking. The two stages hydraulics {Motors} pilot {H 1 + 2} units are mean to be feed up by a hydraulic power drive unit which at same time is feed up electrically by a 'Dc to Dc Booster Converter' and the back-up potential from within the Batteries Bank Unit / ReDioux system potential power supply section of this system, Or both in a parallel connection for a reliable constant uninterruptable continues potential signal flow. Batteries system regarless is the Redioux or the standard basis potential stack bank configuration can be recharge by the two alternators running in sync with the main rotor =[Rsx]= so there will be always enough recharging source for batteries system. These compact industrial grade alternators illustrated in the scheme formula as =*= one at each side of the =[Rsx]= rotor shaft are there for such specific duty, to be in operation constantly in sync with =[Rsx]= rotor motion. Also these crank-up and back-up batteries may as well be recharge by a photovoltaic or small wind generator dedicated for this purpose exclusively. It is very important that the batteries section system be always up and well maintain since this is the 'EconoTorx><GenSet' lifeline.The  'EconoTorx><GenSet'  dream mean to be a power  generation  sustainable  solution  for  years  to  come  due  the benefit  that  it  will  bring  to  many  futures  generations near future and  to  come wright  after  all  us.  No Doub!   And,  I'll  like  to  briefly  mention  to  you  all  that  this  power plant  imaginary  power generation machine  (UNIQUE)  system  will  be  able  to  perform  under  very  hi-loads  demands  conditions  as those  found  in  a  multi-level  commercial  and  industrial  facilities  these  days  everywhere we look. So, it  been  so  great   that   all  of  you  are  still  with  me  around  here so please feel free  to  send  this  way  some  of  your  great  "Green Technology'  feedback  in  order  to  be  able  to  adjust  it  and  or  modify  it  'in  imagination'  in  order  to  bring  it  up  if  necessary  for  the  well  being  of  many  people  worldwide  near  future.  Thanks  for  visiting  this  very  impressive  'BLOG'  and  stand-by  around  as  a  V.I.P.  so  to  be  update on any other imaginary improvement on this dream power generation machine for the near future as never seen-read-heared before since it is only existent in thoughts throughout a mastermind build-up scheme by focusing on a solution by critical thinking for the fossil fuel and the hi cost of energy dilemma. Hope you feel  free to review it and share here your great point of views about this innovation and opinions as well. Here to Help!  
 Have  a  good  one  now  and  let  it  sleep  for  now  but  not  for  too  long  time  is  not  always  our  best  friend  100%  neither  so  stand  and  deliver---->Keep it Kool!

EconoTorx><GenSet Formula Legend: {HTLS1}=*=[Rsx]=*={HSLT2}

Where;  H 1 + 2 mean to be Hydraulics Motors 1st stage is a High Torque Low Speed
{0 to 500 rpm} and 2nd stage is a High Speed Low Torque {500 to 3Krpm max.} /
The =*= symbol mean to be the two compact alternators for batteries recharge and system controllers potential back-up operations. One at each side of the =*=[Rsx]=*= rotor.
The = = symbol are the double =[Rsx]= shafts. Connecting the two sides of rotor armature.
The  =[Rsx]=  is a self excited rotor generator / alternator main power generation system part.

Being simpler but very efficiently machine is what will make this a one of a kind unique still controversial power generation sustainable machine for near future worldwide innovation.
Bragging rights
Long ago engineering send me to inspect an apparent 'mysteriously condition' to an a very critical processing piece of Hvac industrial Unit and after some review of conditions I was able to determine defect and cause as a (vibration) disturbances which make the controller bananas to often. And trouble solve by cushioning the whole footing and frame system with vibrators absorbers and cork on the system frame structure , and, troubles eliminated..
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