But what if we could see them? How big is our neighboring galaxy, Andromeda, really in our night sky? Below, is an image overlay of the night sky, with our moon, and the actual size of Andromeda.
Isn't this amazing?
It's huge! And keep in mind that it's currently 2.5 million light years away. Here is another picture from NASA: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap130801.html
But, of course, it's going to get even bigger. Andromeda is on a direct collision course with our Milky Way Galaxy, currently approaching at a speed of about 396,000 km/h, and it will slam into us in about 4 billion years (although there is no real risk of actual planets hitting each other). And after a short dance of another 1-2 billion years, we will merge into a new larger galaxy. Here is a simulation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4disyKG7XtU
Of course, this makes little difference to us here on Earth. You see, Earth won't be a habitable planet by then. Our own sun is dying, and will slowly turn Earth into a wasteland over the next 3 billion years. So by the time Andromeda hits us, we will no longer be here.
Hopefully, we will have become a fully native spacefaring race by that time, with colonies on thousands of planets, as well as entire civilizations living in huge spaceships wandering the universe. http://goo.gl/iTBrr5
This is all about a third category: exocentric compounds that are built out of verbs, which describe what the thing does. wrote her master's thesis on these, where she named them "cutthroat compounds," after such an example: A cutthroat is someone who cuts throats.
These are surprisingly rare in English, but are common among kids: apparently, children go through a phase where they spontaneously generate lots of these, and then stop.
This is what's called a "productive" grammar: you can make up new ones and people will understand you, so if I call someone a lack-faith or Bob Stealhorse people will understand me. But they don't fit naturally into English grammar, because English is what's called a "head-initial" language: you tend to put the most significant part of a phrase or sentence first. Since English verbs have to go before their objects, this gets it backwards; it sounds like more natural English to call someone "faithless" or a "horse-thief." That's why, apart from a few cases which happened to survive, English has relatively few cutthroat compounds.
But the few we keep are pretty great, and tend to be very evocative: a sawbones, a killjoy, a slingshot. (And some, like "breakfast," become so common that we even forget that they're compound words) Apparently they dominantly fall into three categories: occupational names, local nature-words, and insults.
What it says about us that we primarily use these especially colorful compounds to describe just what we think of one another, I leave as an exercise for the reader.
The question of how to lose fat and gain muscle is at the heart of almost every fitness activity. Before we get into what has to be done to achieve both at the same time it’ll help to understand the mechanisms involved. Weight loss and a reduction in body fat are the result of creating an energy deficit in the body. In other words when we eat fewer calories than we spend the body cuts into its stored fat reserves and we become leaner.
Muscle gain and an increase in weight is the result of an energy surplus. This means we eat more than we burn but train hard enough for the body to use the surplus energy to repair muscle fiber and build new one. Because muscle is expensive to build and expensive to maintain the surplus is only used up to build muscle if we train consistently at a challenging rate.
The description above is an oversimplification, mainly because the moment we start to have less calories than we need or more than we can use there are complex endocrinal processes that kick in when a particular threshold level is reached and the body’s metabolic efficiency is adjusted, alongside other homeostatic metabolic adaptations aimed at reducing or increasing energy expenditure. It is this complexity that in most cases makes it hard to lose weight permanently by dieting alone or put on muscle effectively just by eating more.
For our purposes, however, the oversimplification is good enough. The link between gaining muscle and losing fat is energy. The body is an adaptive machine. It needs energy to keep itself going, its processes functioning and its survival needs met. In order for fat reserves to be used up the body’s survival mechanism must be maintained at an even keel. Diet too abruptly, create too steep a drop in calorie intake and the body will think it is in danger of starving. It will slow down its burning of fat, optimize its energy needs and you will find it hard to shift a gram, no matter how hard you diet.
Because energy is so important what happens to the body depends not just on how many calories it takes in but also what kind of calories they are and when they are consumed. Think of it like a sports car. You can’t expect to run the engine at full speed if you have used low-quality fuel.By the same token a full tank of high-grade octane petrol is useless if the car is sitting in the garage with the engine switched off.
The key then to losing fat and building muscle is to time the body’s energy intake to coincide with its particular needs. Studies have shown that athletes who increase their training intensity but keep their overall calorie intake the same maintain their body weight but shift their body composition, losing body fat and increasing muscle mass.
The same logic applies to gaining muscle while losing fat. Instead of keeping the calorie intake the same and increasing exercise intensity we increase both. But instead of flooding the body with excess calories when it is not doing that much, in which case most would be stored up as fat, we time our energy intake to coincide with the body’s muscle repair and growth needs.
In practical terms this means that we can eat a light, mostly protein meal during the day when we may not be very active and then have a main meal and carbs only after the day’s intensive workout is over. The first meal releases energy slowly, maintains our body’s processes and provides sufficient energy for our bodies to operate without triggering any alarms that could cause a slowdown in energy expenditure or a stockpiling of fat. The second meal provides the body with the energy it needs to repair muscle cells damaged by our workout and build new ones to compensate for the muscle power we need. .
This is called the adaptive stage where the body decides to build muscle because it thinks it is required in order to face the demands of our physical routines. The after-training meal can be pretty high on carbs as well as protein. As a matter of fact some bodybuilders eat pizza and ice-cream on this meal, alongside steak and eggs and their protein shake.
How is fat lost when muscle is built?
So far, this process has not produced an energy deficit that could use up fat. But what happens next does just that. The energy deficit that makes the body dig into its fat reserves and use them up, reducing body fat percentage, occurs only when there is a long enough interval between the last meal of the day and the first one.
Just how long that interval should be depends on a number of factors: physiology, age, sex and the existing amount of muscle that’s been built already. Some bodybuilders allow as many as 12 or 16 hours to pass between their last meal and the first one they will have the next day. During that time they eat nothing and the first meal of the day is extra-low on carbs.
During that interval the body uses up all of the energy it got at its last meal (which helps explain the pizza and ice-cream choices) to repair itself and build up more muscle and then, once it exhausts that it digs into what fat reserves it has.
The result is a process that increases muscle mass (and weight) while reducing body fat percentage, providing a lean, cut look that can be maintained all year round. The key factors here are: the intensity of the workouts, your personal physiology and the length of time between the first meal of the day and the last meal of the day before. You will need to keep track of what you do and experiment with it. Get it right and you will never find yourself forced to get into the bulk and cut cycles that leave you feeling exhausted and looking your best for only a brief time.
permalink + sample mealplan:
Numbers preview: The Finals « NBA.com | Hang Time Blog with Sekou Smith (via http://ble.ac/teamstream-) http://teamstre.am/1FSf2xF
#NBAFinals #WarriorsVSCavs #ClevelandCavaliers #LeBronJames #GoldenStateWarriors #StephCurry
Golden State Warriors vs. Houston Rockets: Live Score and Analysis for Game 4
SMH! play dirty and its the other team's player who get ejected.. yet again!! This happened in the playoffs with Bulls and belatedly gave a technical to Cavs AFTER the game. Effin' too late!! And now they're doing it again to the game3! Bye Horford o.O And to think in game2, Delladenova injured Korver coz he deliberately rolled over him. Shitty officiating!!
I love physical plays (I miss the NBA of old) and I know calls will be missed (refs aren't perfect even with instant replay) but when calls are too often on the side with one team, that's just BS! And to think Lebron James is effin king of complaints!! Every lil touch, he cries foul. A bit of physicality, complain. Maybe this is just one of his tactics. But if he's truly the 'king', he doesn't have to resort to this drama.
#NBArant #ClevelandCavaliers #AtlantaHawks #NBAPlayoffs
★ Do you see cancer cells run amok or a beautiful rendition of Van Gogh's "Starry Night"? In this addition to my Art or Science? collection, it's hard to pick out the microscope image from the artwork it inspired. The tiny biological details revealed by researchers at the University of Michigan Center for Organogenesis are captured in larger than life quilts by Fiber Artists @ Loose Ends who raise public awareness about the importance of the arts in healthcare settings.
★ On the Left is a cross-section of mouse skin with basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of human skin cancer. The top layer of skin is stained red, collagen fibers are stained blue and the deadly tumor cells appear in the red at the bottom. On the Right, artist Carole Nicholas renders the image with fabric and stitching to simulate the Van Gogh's brushwork in a quilt.
★ This type of common skin cancer arises exclusively from the base of the hair follicle, where a niche of stem cells reside. When the hair follicle is in its growth phase, these cells are temporarily activated by the hedgehog signaling pathway. In cancer, this pathway is permanently on overdrive, due to mutations in genes known as Patched (PTCH) or Smoothened (SMO). If you're curious about the origin of these amusing gene names, especially Sonic Hedgehog, Indian Hedgehog and Tiggywinkle Hedgehog, check out 's entertaining and informative post (http://goo.gl/bhlKie)!
REF: Hutchin et al. Sustained Hedgehog signaling is required for basal cell carcinoma proliferation and survival: conditional skin tumorigenesis recapitulates the hair growth cycle.
Image Credits: Mark Hutchin, University of Michigan
Art Quilt by Carole Nicholas, Fiber Artists@Loose Ends
- Medical Doctor / Breastfeeding Advocate / Freelance Writerpresent
- Davao Medical School FoundationMedical Doctor, 2002 - 2006
- University of the PhilippinesBS Biology (Major in Cell Bio), 1998 - 2002
- Philippine Science High School1994 - 1998
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