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Mark Bruce
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SciTech #ScienceSunday Digest - 30/2016.
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Atomic scale data, MRI enhancements, One dimensional transistors, Modular chiplets, Fast consumer drones, Synbio computers, Detailed brain map, Tactile intelligence, Placenta on chip, Injectable biosensors.

1. Writing Data Atom by Atom
A scanning tunneling microscope has been used to produce re-writable data storage by positioning arrays of individual chlorine atoms in one of two defined positions (representing 0 or 1) The prototype successfully stored 1 kilobyte of data or 8,000 bits on a copper surface, and achieved a storage density of 500 Terabits per square inch. The array is organised into blocks of 64 bits but requires very clean vacuum conditions and liquid nitrogen temperatures to work. Still, a very impressive proof of concept.

2. Advances in Imaging Technology
First, new nuclear magnetic resonance microscope comprises a very thin wire connected to a tiny magnetic ball is able to achieve an imaging resolution of less than 10nm, a 100-million fold improvement in the volume resolution of bulk NMR Second, a new technique for energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy is now claiming subatomic resolution and the ability to obtain clear images of electron orbitals within an atom . . . which is a headline I never expected to see for a long time to come. Finally, manipulation of plasmonics on surfaces now allow optical microscopes to perform like electron microscopes with 65nm resolution

3. One-Dimensional Transistors
By studying two-dimensional atomically-thin transistors made out of molybdenum disulfide a group has discovered that just the edges of the device, which are essentially one-dimensional, might be used as a transistor The current flowing through the device starts first (at very low voltages) by flowing along the edge, and only leaks into the middle of the device as the voltage is boosted to much higher levels; by making purer, defect-free devices the edges should be able to carry the entire current - meaning the bulk of the device isn’t needed and transistor switching requiring much lower power.

4. DARPA’s Modular Chiplets
A new DARPA program aims to reimagine the standard printed circuit board as a modular integrated platform that not only allows further miniaturisation and speed improvements, but also provides standard lego-like size and architecture specifications for which specialised chiplets are able to be dropped into in order to perform some desired electronic or computational function I think of this as Project Ara for integrated circuits: instead of swapping mobile phone components into a standard platform, this program will allow the rapid design of complete circuits with chiplets for sensing, processing, memory, ASICs, GPUs, antennas, signal processors, etc, all while getting around the main limitations of PCBs.

5. New Drone Tops 70mph
A new consumer quadcopter drone called Teal is set to become the fastest available with a top speed of 70mph and stability in winds up to 40mph Boasting a teraFLOP of onboard processing power for machine learning, autonomous flying, image recognition, the group hope to include obstacle avoidance in the near future. The GPS system on board enables 50cm positional accuracy. Of interest: Teal is designed to enable programmers to easily create Apps that make use of or control Teal. Also included this week due to the comment discussion on the linked page - worth a read and serious consideration.

6. Synthetic Biology Programs Compute Stimuli
Another important step in the development of synthetic biology, cells can now be programmed to remember and respond to a series of events This is a scalable system with the proof-of-concept creating cells that can remember the correct order of three different inputs, and which might allow the recording of complex cell histories. These are like biological state machines. “These recombinase-based state machines open up the possibility of cells being engineered to become recorders of temporal information about their environment, and they can be built to lead the cells to take actions in response to the appropriate string of inputs.”

7. Most Detailed Brain Map Ever
A new MRI measurement study, part of the Human Connectome Project, and using scans of 210 different healthy human brains has produced the most accurate cortical brain map ever The map identifies 180 distinctly different areas of the cortex, which include 83 previously reported brain areas and 97 new ones. The scans themselves collected data across a range of variables including cortical thickness, brain function, regional connectivity, cellular topographic organisation, and levels of myelin and it was well defined differences between this factors that helped delineate one area from another.

8. Tactile Intelligence and Robotic Grasping
This is a good overview of the state of the art and future developments expected for robotic grasping facilitated by tactile intelligence rather than vision and various visual-grasping intelligence approaches After discussing some of the shortfalls of focusing exclusively on vision for grasping we get a presentation of the new CoRo Lab tactile grasping system that combines a robotic hand, UR 10 arm, multimodal tactile sensors, and a kinect for initial targeting that can predict grasp failure 83% of the time and predict object slippage 92% of the time. Both are complex and are facilitated by unsupervised machine learning algorithms that learn over many trials what signal features are important. Such a system would also be very applicable to prosthetics.

9. Placenta on a Chip
Continuing the development of organ-on-microfluidic chip technology we now have a very basic placenta on a microfluidic chip that fully models the transport of nutrients across the placental barrier While this and other organ on chip systems are initially being developed as research and drug development tools, with thoughts of future advances enabling artificial organs, in this case such an artificial placenta hints at the future ability to build artificial wombs. In related reproductive health advances menopause can now be reversed to restore periods and produce viable eggs

10. Injectable Biosensors & Oxygen
A couple of interesting injectable treatments or enhancement technologies this week. First, a DARPA sponsored project has produced an injectable, implantable biosensor made of hydrogel that can produce a different fluorescent signal when different molecules are present, and which also overcomes the immune rejection problem Second, tiny gas-filled lipid microparticles have been developed as an injectable oxygen substitute that in tests was able to keep organs oxygenated and keep animals alive for 15 minutes without taking a single breath Reminds me of a basic, dumb precursor to respirocytes that would enable enhanced athletic performance across a range of measures and activities.

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The Future of Our Individual and Collective Identity

A typically well-written and engaging article from Mark Manson. The Future of Self, recently explored the future of human identity given rapid transformatory advances in technology.

This begins in a light-hearted way, exploring identity from the sense of future brain computer interfaces and mind uploads and what identity means when you can add, remove, and edit skills, memories, and even personality traits. But then we get into far more subtle and interesting discussions centered around the fact that we look for external references to identify ourselves.

External references are determined by your environment and material circumstances; you can’t be Mozart if the piano hasn’t been invented, and if you’re a poor strategist in the chess team you may be a chess god in a community that doesn’t know how to play. And you certainly couldn’t ask a caveman what side of the political spectrum they favoured: such a question, that we might consider a core part of our identity today, would not even make sense.

Technological and social development since the Enlightenment has continually boosted the complexity of identities that people can assume. Ponder then the impacts on identity when we have advanced genetic engineering and body modification, advanced robotics that provide mass unemployment and remove I am a [job title]. from people’s lexicon, and all the ways genuine and advanced VR will be able to mess with identities in ways we cannot imagine.

What happens when individual identities become so fluid and arbitrary and everyone realises the Self is an illusion? Does the SELF-preservation instinct also dissolve? Realising that no one intrinsically stands for anything? A unicellular organism that continually and arbitrarily swaps new genes in and out rapidly loses its identity as a defined species, and quite probably its ability to survive and pass on any replicable information at all.

This and more at:

Jesse Powell's profile photoMichael Powell's profile photoMark Bruce's profile photoJohn Newman's profile photo
I agree with +Michael Powell​ here. When human consciousness is finally synthesized, I think it'll be I giant mess of emotional cues flushing through the brain. The Gaussian blur over that mess is part of what provides the illusion of unity of self. If we were to any way improve that mess, toward what end would we optimize? And how could that optimization stop before consciousness is no longer an efficient means to that purpose? The self does dissolve when it is not it's own purpose.

So perhaps rather than the self dissolving it will actually grow bigger, messier, more peculiar and subjective - if anything, to preserve it's ability to enjoy the illusion, which seemed to be the purpose of the illusion in the first place.
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SciTech #ScienceSunday Digest - 29/2016.
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DNA origami surfaces, Robots walk like humans, Printable metal filament, Machine learning tissue scanning, Transparent skull window, Drone vaccine delivery, Retinal Alzheimer’s detection, Inheriting differential cellular damage, Bacteria in brainstem, Molecular electronics.

1. Precise Surface Functionalisation via DNA Origami
Electron-beam lithography chip fabrication tools can create surfaces etched with photonic crystal cavity arrays, tuned to particular wavelengths of light, that contain up to seven distinct internal surface structures to which precise DNA origami shapes can bind to With fluorescent molecules (whose light emittance is chosen to match the cavity) attached to specific DNA origami shapes, each cavity can now be precisely filled with from zero to seven fluorescent molecules, and so providing a colour scale with eight shades that the group used to create a dime-sized copy of Van Gogh’s “The Starry Night” containing over 65,000 distinct pixels. This is an exciting platform for building precisely patterned functional surfaces; one can imagine the fluorescent molecules being replaced with sensors, quantum dots, enzymes, and other DNA origami structures, perhaps as mini production lines.

2. Human-Like Robotic Gait
DURUS is a robotic platform recently used to demonstrate hyper-efficient, human-like robotic gait and bipedal locomotion DURUS walks nearly 20x more efficiently than the original ATLAS humanoid robot, has human-like heel-toe walking, and can wear human shoes while doing so. The most important facet here is that, while some hardware innovations were involved, the platform is mainly improved software that can be used with different hardware configurations and doesn’t suffer from the same restraints as before. More complex tests are planned for running and walking, and the platform should also prove just as useful in providing much improved prosthetics for amputees.

3. Metal Filament for 3D Printers
Filamet is the name for a new metal-based 3D printing filament launched by The Virtual Foundry that any standard plastic-filament-based 3D deposition printer can use to produce custom metallic objects The first filaments on offer contain either copper or bronze metallic powder in a resin that is only 11.5% plastic, 88.5% metal, that can be used to print a mostly-metal object that can be polished or else post-processed to remove the remaining plastic to achieve 99%+ pure metal. However, while other metals and even glass and ceramic versions are planned, such objects will be structurally composite in nature and won’t achieve the consistency and strength of a conventional metal object.

4. Machine Learning Tissue Scanning
3Scan is a company that produces knife-edge scanning microscopes for very finely slicing tissue samples and imaging these to produce virtual 3D models, and now plans to use machine learning techniques to further speed up and automate this virtual model reconstruction This will be particularly interesting for slicing, scanning, and producing ever-larger brain connectome maps in future. Talking of virtual models of neurons and chunks of brain tissue, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has launched the comprehensive Allen Brain Observatory to further boost progress in this area

5. Embedding a Transparent Window in the Skull
A new transparent form of the material yttria-stabilised zirconia was developed as part of the Window into The Brain project, aiming to utilise this material to replace sections of a human skull to allow optical access to the brain whenever needed Recent animal studies show that (i) lasers can pass through the device to not only treat neurons but also destroy bacteria that may be present due to surgery etc, and (ii) the material is tolerated extremely well by the body and avoids inflammation and immune rejection. It’ll be interesting to start to see this used with optogenetics.

6. Remote Vaccine Delivery via Drone
Drones are to be used to deliver vaccine-coated food pellets to remote wilderness areas in order to vaccinate ferrets against a particular disease and prevent their ongoing population decline There are some very interesting biocontrol applications here, for example to combat invasive pest species. In related news the robust SwagBot robot has been developed to help remotely herd cattle on large Australian ranches, and might be used to monitor animal health and take samples as needed The group are next looking to develop and test more autonomous versions.

7. Early Alzheimer’s Detection via Retina
It appears as though the brain and retina undergo similar changes during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, but the retina is easily accessible to observation whereas the brain is not - simply by examining the retina (in mice and humans) signs of Alzheimer’s can be detected before the onset of symptoms In related news we have yet another experimental Alzheimer’s vaccine showing promise

8. Cell Division Differential in Damage Inheritance
An interesting study suggests that cells in both unicellular and multicellular organisms can, in certain circumstances, undergo differential or asymmetric cell division that results in most and sometimes all of the mutations and damage being inherited by only one of the two daughter cells In this way only one line of cells accumulates increasing damage with time - aging damage - and there is a population of cells that manages to remain youthful for arbitrary lengths of time, especially during times of stress. While a single cell cannot overcome the accumulation of damage, a group or colony of cells can do so together over time. I wonder if this might be adapted to some sort of anti-aging therapy.

9. How Bacteria Get Into Your Brainstem
In possibly the most terrifying news of the week, a type of bacteria that lives in soil has been found - via an innocuous sniff of the nose - to pass the olfactory mucosa and travel to the central nervous system via the trigeminal nerve From this route the bugs were found in the brainstem and spinal cord; they can cause the potentially fatal disease meliodosis, which can be fatal 50% of the time if it infects the brain. The finding is important as (i) other bacteria are believed to use the same mechanism, (ii) this might now be used to develop treatments and interventions for diseases and persistent pain disorders, and (iii) these are a possible bioweapon. Although I’ll speculate that engineered bacteria might instead be used as therapeutic or enhancement agents via this route.

10. Molecular Electronics Innovations
There were a few interesting molecular electronics items to cover this week. First, functional atomically thin transistors and circuits can be created out of a precise composite of graphene and molybdenum disulfide Second, standard MIMO protocols can be used to boost communications using molecules instead of radio waves Third, single molecule switches can now be reliably operated via mechanochemistry

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Pole-dance bot only just missed out on the cut +Samuel Holmes ;-)
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A Flip in Perspective

I can recall definite periods in which I have changed my mind on some fundamental concept, on some basic belief. For major shifts this takes time and involves a cascade beginning with an updating of one's worldview, subsequently necessitating a revision of beliefs, a consolidation of altered values, and finally an expression of new behaviours to continue to challenge and be challenged by the world.

It is in a way thrilling to watch this unfold in real time, almost from a third-person perspective, faintly viewing distant causal effects leading up to the change, pondering subtle shifts in identity and abandoning some thing formerly held dear or taken for granted.

I like Seth's recent blog post on this Flip in perspective, in which he observes:

The flip isn't something that happens at the first glance or encounter with new evidence. This doesn't mean the evidence doesn't matter. It means that we're bad at admitting we were wrong. Bad at giving up one view of the world to embrace the other. Mostly, we're bad at abandoning our peers, our habits and our view of ourselves. If you want to change people's minds, you need more than evidence. You need persistence. And empathy. And mostly, you need the resources to keep showing up, peeling off one person after another, surrounding a cultural problem with a cultural solution.

Roshawn Terrell's profile photoMark Bruce's profile photoMichael Clunne's profile photo
I love the conviction in ones voice, which unfortunately rarely can be the oscillator through a keyboard. When I hear passion its usually accompanied by someone who can help me know something i needed to learn.
Its also a great start to new possibilities. 
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SciTech #ScienceSunday Digest - 28/2016.
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Programmable RNA vaccines, High-res RNA mapping, Robot pick-and-grasp, The six story arcs, Printing electronics, Cyborg insect sensors, Sensitive gravity sensors, Big data cancer, Regenerative tooth fillings, In-ear EEG.

1. Programmable RNA Vaccines
Effective RNA vaccines are now being made from messenger RNA molecules that are packaged into dendrimer nanoparticles measuring 150nm that are able to enter cells after being injected into the body Once in the cell the mRNA is delivered and translated into specific protein antigens that drive both T-cell and antibody immune responses. Tests in mice demonstrated effective immunity to ebola, influenza, and toxoplasma. This platform might tackle a huge range of infectious diseases and is also being used to develop destructive cell therapies such as cancer vaccines and removing other unwanted cells.

2. Mapping RNAs in Whole Tissues
Meanwhile, expansion microscopy - new technique covered last year - has improved and can now be used to precisely map the location and distribution of RNA molecules throughout a cell in whole tissues Different RNAs can be tagged to distinguish their identity and questions about the transport of RNAs and their storage throughout the cell - such as in neurons responding to signalling and memory formation - can now be better answered, as well as differentiating between different cell types and healthy vs unhealthy cells and the effects they have on gene transcription and their environment.

3. Robotic Picking is Getting Very Good
Team Delft won Amazon’s latest Picking Challenge, designed to award prizes to the best performing robots able to pick things off shelves and put them into boxes, which will ultimately allow the company to significantly reduce its warehouse human work force Robots had to master Stow and Pick tasks with complex environments, occluded target items, and items demanding different grasping techniques. The winner currently performs at 25% of the output of a human and with a 16% error rate. Far more teams than predicted passed the minimum performance threshold suggesting that the rate of improvement in this area is picking up (sic).

4. Data Mining Reveals the Six Story Arcs
Data mining techniques and sentiment analysis on 1,700 stories have revealed a set of six core trajectories that form the building blocks of complex narratives in our stories In summary these are: rags-to-riches rise, tragedy decline, fall then rise, rise then fall, rise-fall-rise, and fall-rise-fall. Further, the most popular stories follow more complex arcs that use the basic building blocks in sequence. This provides some insight into human psychology and might also help build future novel storytelling systems and coaches.

5. Printing Electronics & Sensors
New inks and materials can be loaded into conventional inkjet printers to enable simple and quick printing of flexible electronic circuits, batteries, and supercapacitors in arbitrary designs In one demonstration a printed label attaches to a coffee mug and depending on the temperature activates a blue light if cold and a red light if hot. Meanwhile laser printers can be used to form patterns on cellulose paper that act as cheap and convenient supports for further biochemical functionalisation, which was demonstrated via simple biosensors

6. Distributed Cyborg Insect Sensors
A new cyborg insect platform based on locusts is being developed that co-opts insect olfaction, trains insects to seek out specific scents, functionalises insects with materials that collect specific molecules and others that can impart limited remote control, and finally equips the insects with electronics for monitoring brain signals In the first instance the group hopes to create and demonstrate the system in explosives detection applications.

7. Very Sensitive Gravity Detectors
A new gravity sensor, or gravity gradiometer, developed by Lockheed Martin is 20 times as sensitive and provides 10 times greater bandwidth than existing systems Applications include resource exploration via gravity-mapping fly-overs of areas to look for interesting geological formations that indicate minerals and other resources buried beneath the ground; the sensor is apparently capable of finding a truck full of gold 20m underground.

8. Big Data Cancer Characterisation
The latest big data analysis of cancer successfully catalogued 1,000 different types of tumours, their alterations, and susceptibility to a range of different cancer drugs The 1,000 tumours came from 29 different cell lines from different organs and produced a precise map of both genetic and epigenetic modifications and differences, screened each against 265 different antitumour drugs, and then validated the results against 11,000 additional tumour samples. This amazing resource has been made available via open access and once personalise genome (and tumour) sequencing gets underway will become ever more useful to patients for personalised medicine applications.

9. Regenerative Tooth Fillings
A new dental filling material is made from a type of biomaterial that, when placed into a prepared cavity and hardened with UV light like a conventional filling, subsequently works to stimulate local populations of stem cells in the pulp of the tooth,430104. In tests the stem cells proliferated and differentiated into dentin, helping to actually heal the damage caused by tooth decay and cavity preparation. Such a material would not only drastically lower the rate of filling failures but possibly prevent root canals too.

10. Ear-Based Brain EEG Recordings
New in-ear earbud-based EEG sensors have been developed that can sit in the user’s ear and accurately pick up EEG signals from the brain for transmission to a device EEG signals are typically difficult to distinguish but in testing the device the group tested a range of mental states that produced the most clearly distinguishable signals and then used these two states as a binary choice to control some particular computing device function. An in-ear device is discrete and would allow continuous monitoring including sleep and disease states.

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+Ninja On Rye remember that great movie that went _/\\/\// !?? Boy, what an emotional roller coaster ride that movie was! ;-)
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Recent SynBio Keynote by Andrew Hessel

I've been a fan of Andrew Hessel for a long time and this is a good, accessible talk on the very latest in synthetic biology and genome sequencing, synthesising, and viral engineering. Easy to watch or listen to at 1.5x speed.
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That part about the synthbio lab in the cloud run by the 26 year old; or the programming of bacteria by 8 year olds to make them fluoresce...
Exciting times.
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Offsetting Technological Deflation with Quantitative Easing Stipends for all Individuals

Kartik Gada has produced a very interesting ebook that I've just finished reading and would recommend to anyone with interests in accelerating technology, futurism, and solving the paradox of capitalism. The book, The Accelerating TechnOnomic Medium can be found here

I've subscribed to and been a fan of his The Futurist blog at for 10 or so years now and enjoyed the very rare but thorough posts. He approaches technology and futurism from a professional economics and finance background and so brings a level of financial and economic rigor to futurist and economic discussions that I don't often see.

Basically, this book is a proposal and policy recommendation for dealing with technological unemployment and economic slowdown . . . by balancing technological deflation with a perpetual and ever-growing quantitative easing program in which central banks create money . . . and provide this money not to the big banks via asset purchases but rather to each individual citizen as a regular stipend . . . and gradually accelerating the velocity of money in the economy and abolishing individual income taxes in the process.

This superficially resembles a universal basic income but with quite important differences. The ebook FAQ page covers some basics Decentralisation purists will have a problem with proposed dependency on central banks but perhaps there are alterations or improvements that are possible and acceptable.

The phenomenon of technological deflation in the economy is slowly gaining increasing awareness and recognition beyond futurists and niche economists, as can be seen for example in this short interview on Bloomberg

The ATOM proposal notes that continual quantitative easing (current QE3) has failed to raise inflation and has failed to devalue the currency, and it posits that the main reason for this is that accelerating technology has finally reached the point that it is now powering technological deflation to such an extent that it is simply eating this stimulus. Stopping QE is no longer an option.

I remember a discussion with +Mark Lewis a couple of years ago about trying to come up with novel UBI proposals and this definitely fits that category. It'd also be interesting to see if +Kevin Kelly had any thoughts on the proposal. To everyone who made it this far: what do you think of the proposal? 
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+Noel Yap​ I'm sorry, half of what you're saying doesn't even parse, and the other half has so badly missed the point if what I was saying that it's clear actual communication is not happening.

Given that, I don't think further replies are a good use of my time.
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Like many I’ve noticed a bit of a slowdown on here over the last six months or so. Seems to be fewer posts by people and fewer comments than this time last year or the year before, which aside from the spate of posts last week I’ve also been guilty of.

Just wondering what people’s thoughts on the platform as a whole are and whether they’ve changed? Also if you find yourself spending more time elsewhere for whatever reason - if so where and why? Or if there is any general social media fatigue and just a desire to spend less time in general on these platforms?

Personally my usage and engagement has been limited during big chunks this year just by being generally busy. Aside from professional commitments at work I’ve also had many a busy weekend with trips down the coast for a break, trips up north to see the family, relaxing stays in the hills for our anniversary, hosting family members and going to football games - even climbing the local Adelaide Oval stadium roof, gardening involving moving tonnes of soil and gravel with a shovel and wheelbarrow, building a retaining wall, day trips to wineries, rifle shooting at a farm, and even the rare odd day to just relax and do nothing!

Social media wise I still prefer Google+, check in to see main and niche circles once or twice a day to quickly check updates and stream, although I’ve noticed that time on site has declined from what it used to be. I never really “got” or “used” Twitter before but I’m finding that I’m using it a little now since a couple of months ago, a quick scroll every day or two, just to check on different types of news that I can’t otherwise find here. Facebook, groan, still where all family and non-tech immediate friends are; quick check once a day or so, in and out as quick as possible unless something so stupid or inane demands a slap, a tiny bit of news, check any random messages, have noticed posting frequency by others has declined hugely. Or have I just hidden so many people there for wasting my attention that it just seems that way?

One big change in recent months is that I’m watching & listening to a lot more YouTube now. I’d estimate maybe 4-5 times as many videos as I used to watch & listen to.

Pic unrelated: just a nice spot near a local winery.
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I started writing a short Sci Fi story. I'll send you a copy when I'm done.
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Surprising Hyperuniformity in Bird Retinas

+Natalie Wolchover is one of the best science writers around and she knocks it out of the park again with another brilliant piece over at Quanta discussing the hidden, non-regular, non-random pattern known as hyperuniformity that is present in the distribution of cone cells in bird retinas

Birds have had the longest time to evolve better colour vision and this hyperuniform pattern on bird retinas, this pattern of the five differently sized colour-sensitive cone cells, the individual distribution of which is neither too close nor too far apart, appears to have been strongly selected for.

The pattern appears to be an optimised solution to a packing problem that must balance the constraints of packing differently sized cells as tightly as possible while ensuring uniform distribution, and contributes to birds having such fantastic vision.

But read the full piece for more detail and some counter-intuitive technological applications for hyperuniform materials distribution.

There was a release from Princeton regarding this work in early 2014,, although the original discovery dates back much earlier as hinted at in Natalie's article. 
Tau-Mu Yi's profile photoFongang Dassi Jean's profile photoMichael Clunne's profile photo
The axis of bi blue white is singular no recurring. From there the Blue remains as isolated as the red. The green is always connected with white , the White isolates and oglio connects dominance.
There is one anomaly Love heart shape in white. But the pink is a mystery, it associates more with Green and white but not emphatically. 
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Thermalisation Connects Classical Chaos with Quantum Entanglement

An interesting recent experiment with three entangled qubits involved manipulating the system with electronic pulses to map the entanglement entropy of the qubits over time: Left panel on image. It turns out that these regions of entanglement strongly resemble regions of chaos in a classical system: Right panel on image.

The connection between the two appears to be a process of thermalisation, in which a system seeks to maximise entropy by a process of reaching thermal equilibrium through mutual interaction, but in this case the group admits that the observation of this connection is a surprising and unexpected result.

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Im not sure if im reading the timeline correctly. The illustrations are linear to chaos or chaos to order ? Im thinking order was unassembled by temperature scatter. 
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Microscopic Pacman

Here's a cool video of a microscopic version of Pacman: the entire maze is 1mm wide and different microorganisms are standing in for Pacman and the ghosts - you don't really get to see any consumption / engulfing unfortunately but still a nicely executed concept. Original video here:

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How mean people remember this GAME ARE PILAYED It I know I a lot I was a big kid when I was hert are had work done on my body I have that done a lot of times sometimes I fill the acks all over you just DON'T know but see have somefun you need to
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List of Google Voice Commands is a slick website (mobile or desktop) with a growing list of voice commands you can speak to Google / your phone for which Google Now will initiate some action or answer some inquiry. Worth bookmarking and checking out for reference, as a reminder of the very many different things you can now accomplish just by speaking to your phone. 
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Is there a version of this webpage with the same list of commands in other languages, like spanish? Which is actually the one I'm interested in.
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Australian based technophile loving life and avidly looking forward to the future.
Hi, I’m Mark. I am a unique selfplex of knowledgeable, technophilic, and insatiably-curious memes currently residing on organic wetware with a personable and engaging predisposition, which is acutely aware of being a small but furiously spinning cog in the great meme-machine built by the human civilisation. 
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Ever since becoming an Autodidact I manage to keep doing things I never thought I'd be able to do :)
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Seth's Blog: The flip is elusive

For a generation after people realized that smoking would kill them, many smart, informed people still smoked. Then, many of them stopped. A

Brexit: victory over the Hollow Men

Congratulations to Dominic Cummings, a formidable man. I met Dominic at SCI FOO in 2014. We talked long into the night, and I came away impr

Grimsby – Movies on Google Play

Nobby, a sweet but dimwitted English football hooligan, reunites with his long-lost brother Sebastian, a deadly MI6 agent, to prevent a mass

Rec. (Screen Recorder) – Android Apps on Google Play

*** ROOT REQUIRED (for Android 4.4 Kit Kat only) *** If your device is running Android 4.4 Kit Kat, Rec. requires your device to be rooted i

Bitcoin Ticker Widget – Android Apps on Google Play

Bitcoin Ticker Widget displays and monitors the current BTC and LTC exchange rates. You can set custom refresh interval and display options.

Google Keyboard – Android Apps on Google Play

Google Keyboard makes typing fast and easy with gesture and voice. Glide through letters with Gesture Typing to enter words – just lift your

Science Journal – Android Apps on Google Play

Science Journal is a tool for doing science with your smartphone. You can use the sensors in your phone or connect to external sensors to co

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Evidence for (very) recent natural selection in humans

This new paper describes a technique for detecting recent (i.e., last 2k years) selection on both Mendelian and polygenic traits. The author