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Mansfield Primary Care Doctors
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Women’s health and wellness
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In your twenties or forties don’t know what to do. Follow the steps below.

A well-woman visit is a checkup. During your visit discuss the steps you need to take, as well as the screenings and shots you need, based on your age, health habits, risk factors, and family history. It’s a time to check in on how you’re doing, what changes you can make to reach your health goals. In addition to talking with your health care provider about your health, you may also get a physical exam and perhaps certain shots and medical tests. You do not need every test every year. And the good news is you don’t have to worry about incurring cost for your annual well-woman visit. Thanks to the Affordable Care Act, most private health plans must cover this visit along with many other preventive care benefits.

General health
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• Get blood pressure checked
• Eat healthy
• Maintain a healthy weight
• Get at least 30 minutes of physical activity most days
• Quit smoking
• Get an HIV test at least once in my lifetime
• Choose the right birth control if having sex
• Get a pap test / HPV done if needed
• Talk to doctor about stress, depression, and other mental health concerns
• Hepatitis B and C screening
• Talk to doctor about family history of cancers
• Diabetes check up
• Talk to doctor about whether I should have a screening mammogram


In fifties in addition to the above list go for these as discussed below:

• Ask about daily aspirin use (55 and older)
• Choose the right birth control if you still get your period
• Talk to doctor about menopause symptoms
• Talk to doctor about risk for sexually transmitted infections and need for screening
• Get a mammogram every other year
• Get screened for colorectal cancer
• Ask about lung cancer screening if a current or past smoker (55 and older)
• Get screened for colorectal cancer


In your sixties go for these too

• Get a seasonal flu shot
• Get a shingles shot
• Get pneumonia shots (65 and older)
• Ask what other shots I need
• Ask about daily aspirin use
• Talk to doctor about preventing falls
• Talk to doctor about osteoporosis screening
• Get screened for Hepatitis B

In your seventies pay attention to these also
• Talk to doctor about any hearing or vision problems
• Get a mammogram every other year (74 and younger)
• Get screened for colorectal cancer (75 and younger)
• Ask about lung cancer screening if a current or past smoker
• Talk to doctor about getting screened for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
• Talk to doctor about stress, depression, and other mental health concerns

In your eighties or nineties take these steps also to stay healthy:
• Maintain a healthy weight
• Get at least 30 minutes of physical activity most days
• Talk with doctor about a physical activity program that is appropriate
• Limit alcohol use
• Get a seasonal flu shot
• Get a shingles shot if haven’t had one before
• Get pneumonia shots if haven’t had them before
• Talk to doctor about any domestic and interpersonal violence
• Talk to doctor about your risk for sexually transmitted infections and need for screening

Last but not the least keep in touch with your doctor to stay hale and hearty.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Toddler’s nutrition
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Fostering good eating habits and providing healthy, nutrient-rich food is one of a parent's significant tasks in raising toddlers. Quality nutrition is important for toddlers, because it affects physical and mental development as well as helping to prevent and overcome illness. Deficiencies of nutrients, such as iron and vitamin C, can impair brain and body functioning.

You’ll probably notice a sharp drop in your toddler’s appetite after his first birthday. Suddenly he’s fussy about what he eats, turns his head away after just a few bites, or resists coming to the table at mealtimes. It may seem as parents he should be eating more now but there’s a good reason for the change. His growth rate has slowed, and he really doesn’t require as much food now.

Feeding your toddler:
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Each day, a child between ages 1 and 3 years needs about 40 calories for every inch of height. This means, for example, that a toddler who measures 32 inches should be taking in an average of about 1,300 calories a day, but the amount varies with each child's build and activity level.
The child's serving size should be approximately one-quarter of an adult's.
Depending on their age, size, and activity level, toddlers need about 1,000-1,400 calories a day.

Iron intake
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Infants ages 7-12 months need 11 milligrams of iron a day. Babies younger than 1 year should be given iron-fortified cereal in addition to breast milk or an infant formula supplemented with iron.
Toddlers need 7 milligrams of iron each day. Kid’s ages 4-8 years need 10 milligrams while older kids ages 9-13 years need 8 milligrams of iron each day. Kids, especially toddlers, who drink a lot of cow's milk, may be less hungry and less likely to eat iron-rich foods.
Eggs
Bread
Fortified breakfast cereals
Red meat, such as beef, lamb or pork
Dark poultry meat, such as chicken thighs or legs
Dark green vegetables, such as broccoli and watercress
Pulses, such as baked beans, lentils and kidney beans are great sources of iron.

Calcium intake
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Milk and other calcium-rich foods like tofu, cottage cheese red beans so on and so forth are a must in kid’s diet. After all, calcium is a key building block for strong, healthy bones. But most kids ages 9 to 18 don't get the recommended 1,300 milligrams of calcium per day.
1 to 3 years old — 700 milligrams of calcium daily
4 to 8 years old — 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily
9 to 18 years old — 1,300 milligrams of calcium daily

Healthy snacks for toddlers
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Choose fresh fruits like banana apples, peaches cherries grapes etc vegetables like carrot, yams, peas etc.

Unsafe food for toddlers
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Hard candies
Popcorn
Raw carrots, celery, green beans
Seeds
Whole grapes, cherry tomatoes (Cut them in quarters.) etc

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

ADHD vs Autism
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Although they may appear two sides of the same coin, share many of the same symptoms, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism are very different disorders.ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder that makes it difficult for sufferers to focus, stay organized, and listen to direction. It’s estimated that ADHD affects 3 to 5 percent of kids in the United States. In contrast, autism is a developmental disorder that affects the way a person communicates and interacts with others. Estimates say three to six in every 1,000 kids in the United States has autism.

ADHD is a common childhood behavioral disorder. Three types of ADHD exist:

Predominately hyperactive-impulsive-Fidgeting, Squirming, blurting out, running or climbing repeatedly, can’t play quietly, interrupting, talking too much.

Predominately inattentive - Not paying attention to detail, Making careless mistakes, Failing to pay attention and keep on task, Not listening etc

Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive- People with it have symptoms of both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive types.

According to data from the National Institute of Mental Health, 9 percent of American children between the ages of 13 and 18 have ADHD. The average onset age is 7 years old. Boys are four times more likely to be diagnosed with it than girls.

ADHD behavior checklist

a) Talking nonstop
b) Not showing concern for other people’s emotions or feelings
c) Trouble sitting still
d) Easily distracted
e) Frequently switching attention from one thing or task to another
f) Difficulty focusing
g) Difficulty concentrating and narrowing attention to one task
h) Growing bored quickly with tasks
i) Dashing around a room, jumping from object to object
j) Blurting out
k) Interrupting conversations or activities


Autism behavior checklist

a) Unresponsive to common stimuli
b) Impaired social interaction
c) Intense focus and concentration in a singular item
d) Withdrawn behaviors
e) Avoiding eye contact
f) An inability to react to others’ emotions or feelings
g) Repetitive movement, such as rocking or twisting
h) Delayed developmental benchmarks


How can a health care provider tell the difference between autism and ADHD?

Both disorders may affect sufferers’ social interactions, their ability to follow directions, and to stay focused. But neither autism nor ADHD has one symptom that makes making a diagnosis easy. Both disorders display a combination of symptoms, and thus a professional evaluation is necessary to clarify whether someone suffers from autism or ADHD.

In order to assess a patient’s symptoms, a health-care professional will probably conduct a series of evaluations, tests, and interviews. Interviews usually involve the patient, and certainly take into account observations by his or her parents, caregivers and teachers. These interviews help the health-care professional to get a clear understanding of how symptoms are affecting the patient’s daily life.

Early detection of ADHD and autism will help a child receive the right diagnosis and treatment.

Similarities

Families often get confused whether their child suffers from ADHD or autism. It’s wiser to consult a health care provider in such cases.

• Inattention

Children who have ADHD and children with autism may have difficulties with paying attention.

• Hyperactivity

Some children with ADHD or autism may engage in hyperactive behavior. This means that the child may be fidgety, restless, constantly on the go, or talking excessively.

• Impulsivity

Children with ADHD or autism may act impulsively and without recognizing the consequences of their actions.

• Behavior Problems

Many children with an ADHD diagnosis may have behavioral challenges which set them apart from their peers. Likewise, many children with an autism spectrum disorder may have significant behavior problems which interfere with learning and making friends.


• Impaired Social Skills

The child with either ADHD or autism may have great difficulty in making friends or fitting in at school or with their peers.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Allergy Testing
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Who are at risk?

Allergies can develop at any age, possibly even in the womb. They commonly occur in children, but may give rise to symptoms for the first time in adulthood. Asthma may persist in adults while nasal allergies tend to decline in old age.
For some time, it has been known that allergic conditions tend to cluster in families. Your own risk of developing allergies is related to your parents' allergy history. If neither parent is allergic, the chance that you will have allergies is about 15%. If one parent is allergic, your risk increases to 30% and if both are allergic, your risk is greater than 60%.

Allergy season

The key to managing seasonal allergies is figuring out what you are allergic to. It could be trees, grass, ragweed pollen, or even outdoor mold in soil, vegetation and rotting wood.
Work with us to narrow down the specific allergens that seem to cause your allergy symptoms. Once you've discovered your triggers, you can figure out your own allergy season. Where you live plays a big role in when allergy season starts. In general, the farther south you go, the earlier pollination begins. But be careful, the start and end of allergy season can vary by a few weeks depending on the year.

Types of allergies

Food allergy

A food allergy, or hypersensitivity, is an abnormal response to a food that is triggered by the immune system. The immune system is not responsible for the symptoms of food intolerance, even though these symptoms can resemble those of a food allergy.
For example, being allergic to milk is different from not being able to digest it properly due to lactose intolerance.
It is extremely important for people who have true food allergies to identify them and prevent allergic reactions to food because these reactions can cause devastating illness and, in some cases, be fatal.


Pollen allergy

Pollen allergies—also known as “hay fever” or “allergic rhinitis”—affects between 10 and 30 percent of adults and up to 40 percent of children in the United States.
Hay fever is an immune reaction to pollen that typically manifests as cold-like symptoms such as congestion, sneezing, and runny nose. Some people suffer from hay fever year-around, while for others, symptoms get worse at certain times of the year.

Milk Allergy

If you suffer from a milk allergy, strictly avoiding milk and food containing milk and milk products is the only way to prevent a reaction, which can include immediate wheezing, vomiting, and hives.

Dairy Products to stay away
Yogurt
Custard
Butter and butter fat
Cheese, including cottage cheese and cheese sauces
Cream, including sour cream
Milk, including buttermilk, powdered milk, and evaporated milk
Ice cream
Pudding

Egg Allergy

Egg allergies -- especially to egg whites -- are more common in children than in adults and reactions range from mild to severe.

Spring Allergies

Spring is the time of year that we normally think of when it comes to seasonal allergies. As the trees start to bloom and the pollen gets airborne, allergy sufferers begin their annual ritual of sniffling and sneezing.

Summer Allergies

Although spring most readily comes to mind when we think of allergies, many of the same allergic triggers that can make us miserable in the spring persist into summer.

Fall Allergies

The allergy triggers might be slightly different, but they can be just as misery-inducing as the flower pollen that fills the air in the spring and summer.

Mold Allergy

People with mold allergies, however, may have a reaction if exposed to too much of the fungus.

Skin allergy

Something touches your skin, and your immune system thinks it's under attack. It overreacts and sends out antibodies to help fight off the invader, called an allergen. The result is a red, itchy rash where the substance was on your skin.
We call this allergic contact dermatitis. People who have allergies react to things that wouldn't bother most others. The rash looks like irritant contact dermatitis, but it can happen with only a brief touch of a small amount.
Most people's skin will burn if there is enough exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, some people burn particularly easily or develop exaggerated skin reactions to sunlight.

Latex allergy

Latex allergy usually develops after repeated exposure to latex products, including balloons or medical gloves. Symptoms may include hives, itching or a stuffy or runny nose. Some people may experience asthma symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness and difficulty breathing.

There are other allergies too for more details talk to us by visiting our clinic.

Allergy tests

To know the problem accurately -- and determine the treatment – we will ask questions about your symptoms and habits. You’ll also need various tests.

Skin test

Skin testing is a safe and fairly easy way for us to try to figure out or confirm what's causing your symptoms. A skin prick test, also called a puncture or scratch test, checks for immediate allergic reactions to as many as 40 different substances at once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites and foods. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children may be tested on the upper back.
This type of testing uses needles (lancets) that barely penetrate the skin's surface. You won't bleed or feel more than mild, momentary discomfort.

Patch test

Patch testing is generally done to see whether a particular substance is causing allergic skin irritation (contact dermatitis). Patch tests can detect delayed allergic reactions, which can take several days to develop.
Patch tests don't use needles. Instead, allergens are applied to patches, which are then placed on your skin. During a patch test, your skin may be exposed to 20 to 30 extracts of substances that can cause contact dermatitis. These can include latex, medications, fragrances, preservatives, hair dyes, metals and resins.
You wear the patches on your arm or back for 48 hours. During this time, you should avoid bathing and activities that cause heavy sweating. The patches are removed when you return to our clinic. Irritated skin at the patch site may indicate an allergy.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.



Heart Disease
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Heart disease is an umbrella term for any type of disorder that affects the heart. Heart disease means the same as cardiac disease but not cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease refers to disorders of the blood vessels and heart, while heart disease refers to just the heart.
According to WHO (World Health Organization) and the CDC, heart disease is the leading cause of death in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia.

Some examples of heart disease include:
• Coronary artery disease 
• Heart attack.
• Abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias.
• Heart failure.
• Heart valve disease.
• Congenital heart disease.
• Heart muscle disease (Cardiomyopathy)
• Pericardial disease

Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease:
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The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina, or chest pain. Angina can be described as a discomfort, heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, fullness, squeezing, or painful feeling in your chest. It can be mistaken for indigestion or heartburn. Angina may also be felt in the shoulders, arms, neck, throat, jaw, or back.
Shortness of breath, Palpitations, a faster heartbeat, weakness or dizziness, Nausea and sweating could be other marks.

Manifestation of a Heart Attack:
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Discomfort, pressure, heaviness, or pain in the chest, arm, or below the breastbone
Uneasiness radiating to the back, jaw, throat, or arm, Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling could be other evidences. During a heart attack, symptoms typically last 30 minutes or longer and are not relieved by rest or oral medications. Initial symptoms may start as a mild discomfort those progresses to significant pain. Some people have a heart attack without having any symptoms, which is known as a "silent" myocardial infarction (MI). It occurs more often in people with diabetes.


Mark of Arrhythmias:
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 Weakness or fatigue 
 Fainting
 Palpitations 
 Pounding in your chest
 Dizziness or feeling light-headed
 Shortness of breath
 Chest discomfort


Warning of Heart Failure:
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Shortness of breath noted during activity or at rest, especially when you lie down flat in bed. Cough that produces white sputum, rapid weight gain, swelling in ankles, legs, and abdomen, dizziness, fatigue and weakness, rapid or irregular heartbeats, nausea, palpitations, and chest pain  are some other indications.

Symptoms of Heart Valve Disease:
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Shortness of breath, Palpitations, weakness or dizziness, discomfort in your chest; you may feel a pressure or weight in your chest with activity or when going out in cold air. 

Congenital heart disease:
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In adults 
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Shortness of breath
Limited ability to exercise
Symptoms of heart failure or valve disease

Congenital Heart Defects in Infants and Children

Cyanosis
Fast breathing and poor feeding
Poor weight gain
Recurrent lung infections
Inability to exercise

Symptoms of Heart Muscle Disease:
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Many people with heart muscle disease or Cardiomyopathy have no symptoms or only minor symptoms, and live a normal life. Other people develop symptoms, which progress and worsen as heart function worsens.

 Pericarditis:
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Chest pain which is different from angina (chest pain caused by coronary artery disease); it may be sharp and located in the center of the chest. Low-grade fever, increased heart rate could be other expressions.

When to see a doctor:

Seek emergency medical care if you have these heart disease symptoms:
• Chest pain
• Shortness of breath
• Fainting
Heart disease is easier to treat when detected early, so talk to us about your concerns about your heart health. If you're concerned about developing heart disease, talk to us about steps you can take to reduce your heart disease risk. This is especially important if you have a family history of heart disease.

Risk fixin's:
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Age
Sex
Family history
Smoking
Poor diet
High blood pressure
Diabetes
Obesity
Physical inactivity
Stress

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Hypothyroidism 
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Before I move further in this blog let us first understand what thyroid disease is. Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroidgland doesn't supply the proper amount of hormones needed by the body. If the thyroid is overactive, it releases too much thyroid hormone into the bloodstream, resulting in. An under active thyroid produces too little thyroid hormone, resulting in hypothyroidism. However United States is more affected by hypothyroidism. If left untreated or if it becomes severe it can lead to dementia, irregular heart rhythms and in severe cases can cause coma. The good news is that accurate thyroid function tests are available to diagnose hypothyroidism, and treatment of hypothyroidism with synthetic thyroid hormone is usually simple, safe and effective once we find the right dose for you.

Who could be out on a limb?

Women, particularly older women, are more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men. You are also more likely to develop 
hypothyroidism if you have a close family member with an autoimmune disease. Other risk factors include: Autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, Addison's disease, pernicious anemia.

Hypothyroidism in men

Hypothyroidism is about eight to 10 times less common in men. That's because 80 percent of hypothyroidism is caused by autoimmune disease, and autoimmune diseases are more common in women.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism in Men and women 

"The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of hypothyroidism in men are about the same as in women. The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism vary, depending on the severity of the hormone deficiency.

The most common symptoms are:

Swelling of the thyroid gland, called a goiter
Heavy or irregular menstrual periods and impaired fertility
Hypothyroidism in children and teens

In general, children and teens that develop hypothyroidism have the same signs and symptoms as adults do, but they may also experience:

Delayed development of permanent teeth
Poor growth resulting in short stature

Hypothyroidism in infants

Babies with hypothyroidism may have no symptoms. Congenital hypothyroidism is found in babies at birth. We screen babies at birth for this disease if symptoms do occur, they can include:

Do make an appointment with us if you or your baby has any of these symptoms. It is important to note that these symptoms can be due to other. Pregnant women who are on thyroid hormone should have blood testing frequently during pregnancy. Early studies found that children born to mothers with hypothyroidism during pregnancy had lower IQ and impaired psychomotor mental and motor) development. If properly controlled, often by increasing the amount of thyroid hormone, women with hypothyroidism 
can have healthy, unaffected babies.

Visit us if you're feeling tired for no reason or have any of the other signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as dry skin, a pale, puffy face, iodine deficiency in your diet, constipation or a hoarse voice.You'll also need to see medico for periodic testing of your thyroid function if you've had previous thyroid surgery; treatment with radioactive iodine or
anti-thyroid medications; or radiation therapy to your head, neck or upper.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Health Insurance
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Life is uncertain you never know where life is going to take you. But with the health plans, you can count on the support you need to live a healthier life. The benefits of expanding coverage outweigh the costs for added services. Safety-net care from hospitals and clinics improves access to care.
No one game plan to get sick or hurt, but most people need medical care at some point. Health insurance covers these costs and offers many other eggs in ones beer.

You get free preventive care, like vaccines, screenings, and some check-ups, even before you meet your deductible. Health insurance covers essential health benefits critical to maintaining your health and treating illness and accidents. Health insurance protects you from unexpected, high medical costs. If you have a Marketplace plan or other qualifying coverage, you don’t have to pay the penalty that people without coverage must pay. You pay less for covered in-network health care, even before you meet your deductible.

 If you have health insurance you can:

• Go to the doctor for preventive services and get the care that you need to stay healthy and prevent serious illnesses;
• Be treated sooner if you or one of your family member get sick or diagnosed with a heart condition; and
• Avoid having the condition worsen.

Good health insurance covers catastrophic costs when people get very sick – requiring long and successive hospital admissions and expensive treatments. For people without health insurance, medical debt can lead to lower credit scores. Uninsured people are at greater risk of filing for personal bankruptcy. Medical expenses are a leading cause of bankruptcy in the U.S.
Taking time to understand your health plan is worth it: you can save money and get certain health services that may be covered for free by your health plan to encourage you to receive them.
Be well aware of HMO, PPO, CDHP, HSA and your tax returns which will help you in Medicare services.

We accept all major insurances including uhc, Aetna, Cigna, blue cross etc If you do not have insurance no need to worry at all we can help you out. Please feel free to call us to discuss in detail. Doctors aren’t just for the insured. If you don’t have health insurance, the immediate reaction is not to go, and to chew on a couple of pain killers and hope for the best. People think of health insurance as some kind of entry card to the entire health care system, but it doesn’t work that way. Plain old cash can get you through the door too. A trip to a doctor costs around $200–$300, or about the price of a nice dinner.
The other thing to keep in mind is that unless it’s a true emergency (severed limbs, heart attacks); don’t go to the emergency room. Visit our urgent care clinic for things like broken bones, pink eye, and other non-life threatening illnesses, or a private walk-in clinic. They’re pleasant, faster, and much, much cheaper. Drugs can be dime a dozen. Don’t assume that you can’t afford any medicine at all without health insurance.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Mansfield Primary Care Doctors
221 Regency Parkway Suite 125
Mansfield, TX 76063
Phone: (817) 477-5884



Zika Virus
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Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
People with Zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.

Prognostics
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The most common manifestations of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week.
People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika.
Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week but it can be found longer in some people. The indication   of Zika is similar to those of dengue and chikungunya.

Transmission 
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Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito they are aggressive daytime biters. They can also bite at night.
Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.


Can humans protect themselves against Zika?

The best way to prevent Zika is to prevent mosquito bites. Here’s how

• Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
• Stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.
• Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents (bug spray). Always follow the instructions on the label and reapply every few hours.
• Eliminate mosquito breeding sites, like containers with standing water.

Is there a vaccine or medicine for Zika?

Nope. There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika.

 Mothers can pass Zika on to their babies during pregnancy

Zika virus can be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy. 

Can Zika virus sweep through sex?

What we apprehend:

There is evidence that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted by a man to his sex partners.
The virus is present in semen longer than in blood.

Possible defects in infants

Zika has caused a big rise in cases of microcephaly, a birth defect in which babies are born with abnormally small heads and may have developmental problems. When babies have such small heads, their brains are also underdeveloped. Babies born with a birth defect blamed on the Zika virus may also often have serious eye problems. They may have a grave and unusual pattern of brain and nerve damage; the effects will be lifelong and severely disabling.

Traveling precautions 
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According to the CDC and WHO avoid traveling to these places as a precautionary measure. Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Martin, Suriname, Samoa, Tonga, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Venezuela, 
Zika has arrived in the United States from travelers returning from these infected areas and, in one case, through sexual transmission. The concern, of course, is whether imported cases could result in more locally transmitted cases within the United States.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

New born screening
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Preponderance of new born screening-CDC
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All babies are screened, even if they look healthy, because some medical conditions cannot be seen by just looking at the baby. Finding these 
conditions soon after birth can help prevent some serious problems, such as brain damage, organ damage, and even death. To encourage uniform and comprehensive newborn screening throughout the United States, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) issued a report that recommends screening for 29 specific conditions. The recommendations also include a test for hearing loss in newborns. In this article we are discussing a few.

Phenylketonuria PKU
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New born with PKU lack an enzyme needed to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which is necessary for normal growth in kids and for normal protein use throughout life. However, if too much phenylalanine builds up, it damages brain tissue and eventually can cause substantial developmental. 
If kids born with PKU are put on a special diet right away, they can avoid the developmental delay the condition caused in past generations and lead. 

Galactosemia
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Babies with Galactosemia lack the enzyme that converts galactose (one of two sugars found in lactose) into glucose, a sugar the body is able to use. As a result, milk (including breast milk) and other dairy products must be eliminated from the diet. Otherwise, galactose can build up in the system and damage the body's cells and organs, leading to blindness, severe mental retardation, growth deficiency, and even death.

Congenital Hypothyroidism
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This is the disorder most commonly identified by routine screening. Affected babies don't have enough thyroid hormone and so develop retarded growth and brain development. 

Sickle Cell Disease
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Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disease in which red blood cells mutates into abnormal "sickle" shapes and can cause episodes of pain, damage to vital organs such as the lungs and kidneys, and even death. Young children with sickle cell disease are especially prone to certain dangerous bacterial infections, such as pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs) and meningitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord).

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
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Babies with MSUD are missing an enzyme needed to process three amino acids that are essential for the body's normal growth. When not processed properly, these can build up in the body, causing urine to smell like maple syrup or sweet, burnt sugar. These babies usually have little appetite and are. If not detected and treated early, MSUD can cause mental retardation, physical disability, and even death.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
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This is actually a group of disorders involving a deficiency of certain hormones produced by the adrenal gland. It can affect the development of the genitals and may cause death due to loss of salt from the kidneys.

Biotinidase Deficiency
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Babies with this condition don't have enough Biotinidase, an enzyme that recycles biotin (a B vitamin) in the body. The deficiency may cause seizures, 
poor muscle control, immune system impairment, hearing loss, mental retardation, coma, and even death. If the deficiency is detected in time, however, problems can be prevented by giving the baby extra biotin.

Toxoplasmosis
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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection that can be transmitted through the mother's placenta to an unborn child.

Hearing Screening
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Most but not all states require newborns' hearing to be screened before they're discharged from the hospital.

MCAD Deficiency
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MCAD (medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase) deficiency is a fatty acid metabolism disorder. Kids who have it are prone to repeated episodes of low.

The information contained on this Website should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your health care provider. There may be 
variations in treatment that your health care provider may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

High blood pressure
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Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.
High blood pressure generally develops over many years, and it affects nearly everyone eventually. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected.
However you can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms. Even without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and your heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.

Causes of hypertension
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1) Age - The older you are the higher your risk of having high blood pressure.
2) Family history- If you have close family members with hypertension, your chances of developing it are significantly higher.
3) Physical inactivity - Lack of exercise, as well as having a sedentary lifestyle, raises the risk of hypertension.
4) Smoking - Smoking causes the blood vessels to narrow, resulting in higher blood pressure. Smoking also reduces the blood's oxygen content so the heart has to pump faster in order to compensate, causing a rise in blood pressure.
5) Alcohol intake - People who get sloshed regularly have higher systolic blood pressure than people who do not.
6) High salt intake - People who don't eat much salt have lower blood pressures than places where people eat a lot of salt.
7) High fat diet - Many health professionals say that a diet high in fat leads to a raised high blood pressure risk. However, most dietitians stress that the problem is not how much fat is consumed, but rather what type of fats. Fats sourced from plants, such as avocados, nuts, olive oil, etc., as well as omega oils which are common in some types of fish, are good for you - while, saturated fats which are common in animal sourced foods, as well as trans fats are bad for you.
8) Mental stress Mental stress, especially over the long term, can have a serious impact on blood pressure. 
9) Diabetes - People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing hypertension. Among patients with diabetes type 1, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) is a risk factor for incident hypertension in type 1 diabetes - intensive insulin therapy reduces the long-term risk of developing hypertension. People with diabetes type 2 are at risk of hypertension due to hyperglycemia, as well as other factors, such as overweight/obesity, certain medications, and some cardiovascular diseases.
10) Psoriasis - An American study that followed 78,000 women for 14 years found that having psoriasis was linked to a higher risk of developing high blood pressure and diabetes. Psoriasis is an immune system condition that appears on the skin in the form of thick, red scaly patches.
When to get examined
You'll likely have your blood pressure taken as part of a routine doctor's appointment. Ask for a blood pressure reading at least every two years starting at age 18. If you're age 40 or older, or you're age 18-39 with a high risk of high blood pressure, ask for a blood pressure reading every year. Children age 3 and older will usually have blood pressure measured as a part of their yearly checkups.
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