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Mani Varadarajan
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Mani Varadarajan

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China, with a larger population, uses 28% less fresh water than India.
 
Why India has a water crisis http://econ.st/20z92kQ
AFTER two successive dry years, 330m people in India, around a quarter of the population, are facing acute water shortages. A scorching summer is at its...
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Daaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaamn. We all saw this commercial coming but I have to say it exceeds expectations.

The logo at the end is an especially excellent touch.
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Gaja Lakshmi (Lakshmi lustrated by elephants), Kausambi (?), 1st Century BC.

At the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).


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Kosambi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the Indian district, see Kaushambi district.
For other uses, see Kosambi (disambiguation).

This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation, footnoting, or external linking. (October 2014)
Kosambi
city
Kosambi cast copper coin. 1st century BCE. Inscribed "Kosabi". British Museum.
Kosambi cast copper coin. 1st century BCE. Inscribed "Kosabi". British Museum.
Kosambi is located in Uttar Pradesh KosambiKosambi
Coordinates: 25.338984°N 81.392899°ECoordinates: 25.338984°N 81.392899°E
Country India
Kosambi (Pali) was an important city in ancient India. It was located on the Yamuna about 56 kilometres (35 mi) southwest of what is now Allahabad.[1]

Contents  [hide] 
1 History
2 Buddhist history of Kosambi
2.1 Buddhist monasteries in Kosambi
2.2 The schism at Kosambi
2.3 Other legends and references in literature
3 Mauryan Kosambi
4 Notes
5 References
6 External links
History[edit]
Kosambi was one of the greatest cities in India from the late Vedic period until the end of Maurya Empire with occupation continuing until the Gupta Empire. As a small town, it was established in the late Vedic period.[2][3]

During the Shunga Empire, Kosambi was the capital of Vatsa, a vassal state of the Shungas. After their decline, Vatsa became an independent kingdom,[4]) one of the Mahajanapadas. Kosambi was a very prosperous city by the time of Gautama Buddha, where a large number of wealthy merchants resided. It was an important entrepôt of goods and passengers from north-west and south. It figures very prominently in the accounts of the life of Buddha.

The excavations of the archaeological site of Kosambi was done by G. R. Sharma of Allahabad University in 1949 and again in 1951–1956 after it was authorized by Sir Mortimer on March, 1948.[5] Carbon dating of charcoal and Northern Black Polished Ware have historically dated its continued occupation from 390 BC to 600 A.D.[6]

Kosambi was a fortified town with an irregular oblong plan. Excavations of the ruins revealed the existence of gates on three sides-east, west and north. The location of the southern gate can not be precisely determined due to water erosion. Besides the bastions, gates and sub-gates, the city was encircled on three sides by a moat, which, though filled up at places, it still discernible on the northern side. At some points, however, there is evidence of more than one moat. The city extended to an area of approximately 6.5 km. The city shows a large extent of brickworks indicating the density of structures in the city.

The Buddhist commentarial scriptures give two reasons for the name Kausambi/Kosambī. The more favoured[7] is that the city was so called because it was founded in or near the site of the hermitage once occupied by the sage Kusumba (v.l. Kusumbha). Another explanation is[8] that large and stately neem trees or Kosammarukkhā grew in great numbers in and around the city.

Buddhist history of Kosambi[edit]
In the time of the Buddha its king was Parantapa, and after him reigned his son Udena (Pali. Sanskrit: Udayana).[9] Kosambī was evidently a city of great importance at the time of the Buddha for we find Ananda mentioning it as one of the places suitable for the Buddha's Parinibbāna.[10] It was also the most important halt for traffic coming to Kosala and Magadha from the south and the west.[11]

The city was thirty leagues by river from Benares (modern day Varanasi). (We are told that the fish which swallowed Bakkula travelled thirty leagues through the Yamunā, from Kosambī to Banares[12]). The usual route from Rājagaha to Kosambī was up the river (this was the route taken by Ananda when he went with five hundred others to inflict the higher punishment on Channa, Vin.ii.290), though there seems to have been a land route passing through Anupiya and Kosambī to Rājagaha[13]). In the Sutta Nipāta (vv.1010-13) the whole route is given from Mahissati to Rājagaha, passing through Kosambī, the halting-places mentioned being: Ujjeni, Gonaddha, Vedisa, Vanasavhya, Kosambī, Sāketa, Sravasthi/Sāvatthi, Setavyā, Kapilavasthu/Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā, Pāvā, Bhoganagara and Vesāli.

Near Kosambī, by the river, was Udayana/Udena's park, the Udakavana, where Ananda and Pindola Bharadvaja preached to the women of Udena's palace on two different occasions.[14] The Buddha is mentioned as having once stayed in the Simsapāvana in Kosambī.[15] Mahā Kaccāna lived in a woodland near Kosambī after the holding of the First Buddhist Council.[16]

Pilgrimage to
Buddha's
Holy Sites
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The Four Main Sites
Bodh Gaya Kushinagar Lumbini Sarnath
Four Additional Sites
Rajgir Sankassa Shravasti Vaishali
Other Sites
Chandavaram Devadaha Gaya
Kapilavastu Kesaria Kosambi
Nalanda Pataliputra Pava
Varanasi
Later Sites
Ajanta Caves Barabar Caves Bharhut
Ellora Caves Lalitgiri Mathura
Pandavleni Caves Piprahwa Ratnagiri
Sanchi Udayagiri Vikramashila
v t e
Buddhist monasteries in Kosambi[edit]
Already in the Buddha's time there were four establishments of the Order in Kosambī - the Kukkutārāma, the Ghositārāma, the Pāvārika-ambavana (these being given by three of the most eminent citizens of Kosambī, named respectively, Kukkuta, Ghosita and Pāvārika), and the Badarikārāma. The Buddha visited Kosambī on several occasions, stopping at one or other of these residences, and several discourses delivered during these visits are recorded in the books. (Thomas, op. cit., 115, n.2, doubts the authenticity of the stories connected with the Buddha's visits to Kosambī, holding that these stories are of later invention).

The Buddha spent his ninth rainy season at Kosambī, and it was on his way there on this occasion that he made a detour to Kammāssadamma and was offered in marriage Māgandiyā, daughter of the Brahmin Māgandiya. The circumstances are narrated in connection with the Māgandiya Sutta. Māgandiyā took the Buddha's refusal as an insult to herself, and, after her marriage to King Udena (of Kosambi), tried in various ways to take revenge on the Buddha, and also on Udena's wife Sāmavatī, who had been the Buddha's follower.[17]

The schism at Kosambi[edit]
A great schism once arose among the monks in Kosambī. Some monks charged one of their colleagues with having committed the offence of leaving water in the dipper in the bathroom (which would let mosquitoes breed in it), but he refused to acknowledge the charge and, being himself learned in the Vinaya, argued his case and pleaded that the charge be dismissed. The rules were complicated; on the one hand, the monk had broken a rule and was treated as an offender, but on the other, he should not have been so treated if he could not see that he had done wrong. The monk was eventually excommunicated, and this brought about a great dissension. When the matter was reported to the Buddha, he admonished the partisans of both sides and urged them to give up their differences, but they paid no heed, and even blows were exchanged. The people of Kosambī, becoming angry at the monks' behaviour, the quarrel grew apace. The Buddha once more counselled concord, relating to the monks the story of King Dīghiti of Kosala, but his efforts at reconciliation were of no avail, one of the monks actually asking him to leave them to settle their differences without his interference. In disgust the Buddha left Kosambī and, journeying through Bālakalonakāragāma and the Pācīnavamsadaya, retired alone to keep retreat in the Pārileyyaka forest. In the meantime the monks of both parties repented, partly owing to the pressure exerted by their lay followers in Kosambī, and, coming to the Buddha at Sāvatthi, they asked his pardon and settled their dispute[18]

Other legends and references in literature[edit]
Bakkula was the son of a banker in Kosambī.[19] In the Buddha's time there lived near the ferry at Kosambī a powerful Nāga-king, the reincarnation of a former ship's captain. The Nāga was converted by Sāgata, who thereby won great fame.[20] Rujā was born in a banker's family in Kosambī.[21] Citta-pandita was also born there.[22] A king, by name Kosambaka, once ruled there.

During the time of the Vajjian heresy, when the Vajjian monks of Vesāli wished to excommunicate Yasa Kākandakaputta, he went by air to Kosambī, and from there sent messengers to the orthodox monks in the different centres (Vin.ii.298; Mhv.iv.17).

It was at Kosambī that the Buddha promulgated a rule forbidding the use of intoxicants by monks (Vin.ii.307).

Kosambī is mentioned in the Samyutta Nikāya.[23]

Mauryan Kosambi[edit]
Historically, Kosambi remained a strong urban center through the Mauryan period and during the Gupta period. Pillars of Ashoka are found both in Kosambi and in Allahabad. The present location of the Kosambi pillar inside the ruins of the fort attests to the existence of Mauryan military presence in the region. The Allahabad Pillar is an edict issued toward the Mahamattas of Kosambi, giving credence to the fact that it was originally located in Kosambi.[24]

The schism edict of Kausambi (Minor Pillar Edict 2) states that, "The King instructs the officials of Kausambi as follows: ..... The way of the Sangha must not be abandoned..... Whosoever shall break the unity of Sangha, whether monk or nun from this time forth, shall be compelled to wear white garments, and to dwell in a place outside the sangha."[25]

All sources cite Kausambi as an important site during the period. More than three thousand stone sculptures have been recovered from Kausambi and its neighbouring ancient sites – Mainhai, Bhita, Mankunwar and Deoria. These are currently housed in the Prof. G.R. Sharma Memorial Museum of the Department of Ancient History, Allahabad University, Allahabad Museum and State Museum in Lucknow.

Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ CAGI.448f
Jump up ^ A. L. Basham (2002). The Wonder That Was India. Rupa and Co. p. 41. ISBN 0-283-99257-3.
Jump up ^ Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2.
Jump up ^ J.iv.28; vi.236
Jump up ^ Rohan L. Jayetilleke (2007-12-05). "The Ghositarama of Kaushambi". Daily News. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
Jump up ^ S. Kusumgar and M. G. YadavaMunshi Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi (2002). K. Paddayya, ed. Recent Studies in Indian Archaeology. pp. 445–451. ISBN 81-215-0929-7.
Jump up ^ E.g., UdA.248; SNA.300; MA.i.535. Epic tradition ascribes the foundation of Kosambī to a Cedi prince, while the origin of the Vatsa people is traced to a king of Kāsī, see PHAI.83, 84
Jump up ^ e.g., MA i.539; PsA.413
Jump up ^ MA.ii.740f; DhA.i.164f
Jump up ^ D.ii.146,169
Jump up ^ See, e.g., Vin.i.277
Jump up ^ AA.i.170; PsA.491
Jump up ^ See Vin.ii.184f
Jump up ^ Vin.ii.290f; SNA.ii.514; J.iv.375
Jump up ^ S.v.437
Jump up ^ PvA.141
Jump up ^ DhA.i.199ff; iii.193ff; iv.1ff; Ud.vii.10
Jump up ^ Vin.i.337-57; J.iii.486ff (cp.iii.211ff); DhA.i.44ff; SA.ii.222f. The story of the Buddha going into the forest is given in Ud.iv.5. and in S.iii.94, but the reason given in these texts is that he found Kosambī uncomfortable owing to the vast number of monks, lay people and heretics. But see UdA.248f, and SA.ii.222f).
Jump up ^ MA.ii.929; AA.i.170
Jump up ^ AA.i.179; but see J.i.360, where the incident is given as happening at Bhaddavatikā
Jump up ^ J.vi.237f
Jump up ^ J.iv.392
Jump up ^ S.iv.179; but see AA.i.170; MA.ii.929; PsA.491, all of which indicate that the city was on the Yamunā) as being "Gangāya nadiyā tīre." This is either an error, or here the name Gangā refers not to the Ganges but to the Yamunī.
Jump up ^ Romila Thapar (1997). Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. pp. 290–291. ISBN 0-19-564445-X.
Jump up ^ Vincent Smith (1992). The Edicts of Aśoka. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi. p. 37.
References[edit]
¤ Official website of Kaushambi district

Early history of Kausambi, IIT Delhi archive
Entry on Kosambi in the Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names
Tripathi, Aruna; The Buddhist Art of Kausambi from 300 BC-AD 550, New Delhi, D.K. Printworld, 2003, ISBN 81-246-0226-3
External links[edit]
Entry on Kosambi in the Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names
Description of Kausambi by the Chinese pilgrim monk Faxian (399-414 AC)
UP Government Website on Kausambi
Categories: Ancient Indian citiesTourism in Uttar PradeshBuddhist pilgrimagesFormer populated places in IndiaFormer capital cities in India
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Mani Varadarajan

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About 280 people have died across Tamil Nadu since torrential rains on December 1 submerged tracts of Chennai under up to eight feet of water, trapping people on rooftops with no communication.
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Looks like Chennai took modi,s clean India very seriously.
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Short Answers to Hard Questions About Climate Change http://nyti.ms/1NBc6Lx
The issue can be overwhelming. The science is complicated. We get it. This is your cheat sheet.
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There's been a spirited debate about whether opposition to welcoming Syrian refugees is morally or situationally equivalent to American indifference in the 1930s toward Jewish victims of the Nazi state. Is the analogy a good one? In short, yes.
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Sunset @ Wailea, Hawaii
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All of your pictures have been so ridiculously gorgeous that I'm convinced you took them all on a Hollywood back lot.
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वेदाः  - 
 
 
(தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு கீழே; English translation below)

केन्द्रीयसर्वकारस्य “e-PG पाठशाला”-प्रकल्पाङ्गत्वेन गतस्य “सप्तम्भर”मासस्य आदौ देहलीस्थे लालबहादुरशास्त्रिसंस्कृतविद्यापीठे चित्रात्मना गृहीताः मया कृताः तैत्तिरीयप्रातिशाख्यविषयकाः चत्वारः पाठाः, अपि च अष्टाध्याय्याः ६,७,८-अध्यायान् अधिकृत्य कृताः चत्वारः पाठाश्च अत्र विश्वजाले आरोपिताः –

http://epgp.inflibnet.ac.in/view_f.php?category=1303 M33-M36
http://epgp.inflibnet.ac.in/view_f.php?category=1304 M17-M20

अत्र लिखिताः पाठाः PDF-रूपेण e-text इति नाम्ना वामतो दले (tab) चित्रं च self-learning इति नाम्ना दक्षिणदले च भवन्ति । (एतावता मम लिखितपाठाः न आरोपिताः इति भाति...)

“त्वंनाले” च अत्र आरोपिताः –

तैत्तिरीयप्रातिशाख्यस्य –
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydvUmDg524c
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VKg-Ff6SIc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sCvQRD8uVuo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TcuvaRaehcM

अष्टाध्यायी-६७८-अध्यायानाम् –
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fos_uNoZmv8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivx2X3k8MK8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3o8pxLzCzM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnv3Eeg9gGI

-

மத்திய அரசின் e-PG கல்விக்கூட திட்டத்தின்கீழ் கடந்த செப்டம்ர் மாதம் தில்லியில் உள்ள லால் பஹதூர் ஶாஸ்த்ரி ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத வித்யாபீடத்தில் படம்பிடிக்கபட்ட எனது (நான் நடத்திய) பாடங்கள் – தைத்திரீய ப்ராதிஶாக்யம் குறித்து நான்கும், பாணினியின் அஷ்டாத்யாயியின் 6, 7 மற்றும் 8வது அத்யாயங்கள் குறித்து நான்கும் இணையத்தில் மேற்கண்டவிடங்களில் பதிவேற்றம் செய்யப்பட்டுள்ளன.

மேலே முதலில் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட சுட்டிகள் அரசாங்கத்தின் அதிகாரபூர்வ வலைத்தளத்தவை. அங்கு எழுதப்பட்ட பாடங்கள் PDF-உருவில் e-text என்ற பெயருள்ள tab-இலும் படம் self-learning என்ற பெயருள்ள tab-இலும் உள்ளன. (என்னுடைய எழுதப்பட்ட பாடங்கள் இன்னும் பதிவேற்றம் செய்யப்படவில்லைபோலும்...)

பிறகு ஒவ்வொரு பாடத்தின் நேரடி “நீகுழாய்” (😏) சுட்டிகளையும் மேற்கண்ட விஷய வரிசையில் கொடுத்துள்ளேன்.

-

My classes on Taittiriya Pratishakhya (4 modules) and Ashtadhyayi's 6th-8th chapters (4 modules) recorded in September at the Lal Bahadur Shastri Samskrita Vidyapeetham, Delhi as part of the Central Gov't-s e-PG Pathashala scheme have been uploaded to the web at the above locations.

First are the links to the Gov't's official website. The written modules in PDF format are found in the e-text tab on the left and the videos in the self-learning tab on the right. (Apparently my written modules haven't yet been uploaded.) I have also provided the YouTube direct links to each video in the above order of subject.
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Thomas Piketty to India’s Elite: ‘Learn From History’ http://nyti.ms/1ORuI9e
On a visit to Mumbai, the economist and author hopes India’s elite can “learn from the stupid mistakes of the other elites.”
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I've always felt that iOS is indeed very difficult to use and that Google is not doing as well as it could to be better here.

It's really hard to convince people that the emperor has no clothes, though.
 
How Apple Is Giving Design A Bad Name
For years, Apple followed user-centered design principles. Then something went wrong.
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Yes, this should not be a surprise.
Donald Trump, who has now called for a ban on Muslim immigration, has ushered the spirit of bigotry onto the main stage of American politics more overtly than any figure in decades. Credit Photograph by Joe Raedle / Getty
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This is no joke. Trump is not going away. His ability to appeal to the insecurities of Americans is real. He is skilled at rhetoric and a master at demagoguery.

This is an emergency. I am ashamed that his statements reflect the views of a nontrivial number of Americans.

http://qz.com/557494/the-american-moral-emergency-that-is-donald-trump/
Trump's willingness to spread racially-motivated lies represents something very ominous about the state of our union.
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'' GIVE EM' HELL HILLARY.''
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Good lever macchiato, excellent gelato albeit limited flavor selection. Five stars for very good service - our server knew for certain whether the gelato had eggs or not (it doesn't, which is important for us) and was very friendly and personable.
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Say Ray completely exceeded my expectations for Volvo service. They told me exactly what to do to solve my Check Engine Light problem, and made sure I didn't spend any extra money on unnecessary repairs.
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Excellent cappuccino, complex and not overly milky. Hard to find with minimal parking, but worth it.
Food: ExcellentDecor: Very GoodService: Excellent
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reviewed 3 years ago
Very good cappuccino ($3.75). This is a pretty casual operation. The mugs aren't fancy and will be mismatched. The machine looks old. But the coffee is good. Edit: coffee was just OK the second visit, not great, and we were served in cheap Pyrex mugs. So minus 1 point on quality.
Food: Very GoodDecor: Very GoodService: Excellent
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Got a good deal on my '12 GTI from Hardik. He let me test drive the car multiple times without a salesman. Only criticism is that he wouldn't commit to giving me an allotment on a rare color.
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These guys are dishonest. Don't trust them. Here's my story. I came here to buy a bike for my daughter. We found one we liked after a bunch of test rides and put it on hold to pick up the next day. I come by the next day first thing in the morning, and surprise! The bike had been sold. The salesman apologized and said he had no idea what happened. I was surprised but willing to accept that mistakes happen. So we look around and try to find another bike. We find a similar model and tell the salesman that we'd like to buy it. He looks the bike over, starts doing the paperwork and I pay. As the bike is in line to get prepped for delivery, I take a closer look at it and notice a lot of tell-tale signs of use. I ask the salesman what's up with that - is it used? He apologizes again, talks to his manager, and comes back and says, you know what - it's part of our rental fleet. Do you want $50 off? I promptly ask for a refund and walk out. Two bad experiences in a row sounds like a pattern. That salesman is still working there as of this writing. Don't trust these guys.
• • •
Quality: Poor - FairAppeal: GoodService: Poor - Fair
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Prompt and professional service for flat tire for a good price.
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