As of now the White House will be making its own alternative maps. The President makes the best maps.
The “most important” and “most detailed” map of the Utah Territory to appear in the 1880s (Moffat).
Offered here is an extremely rare, large-scale edition of the first official map of the Utah Territory, compiled and published at the behest of the Territorial Assembly. The map is immensely detailed, its most noticeable features being careful hachuring delineating the Territory’s mountainous terrain (probably based on USGS maps) and the grid of townships and sections established by General Land Office surveyors. Superimposed on the landscape are the boundaries of counties, mining districts and reservations; the locations of cities, towns and settlements; and the routes of telegraph lines, railroads (completed and proposed), roads and wagon roads. A table at lower right gives demographic and geographic statistics, and arrayed across the bottom are detailed plans of Salt Lake, Ogden and five other Utah cities (This feature is clearly derived from the 1871 Froiseth’s New Sectional & Mineral Map of Utah.) In all, while incorporating a number of earlier cartographic sources, West’s map more detailed, more comprehensive and certainly more up to date than earlier maps such as the Froiseth, Roeser’s Territory of Utah (1875), and the USGS Map of Utah Territory (1878).
Moffat’s cartobibliography of Utah records three issues of the map at scales of 16 miles:inch, 8 miles:inch (our copy), and a mammoth 6 miles:inch. I have not had opportunity to inspect the 6 miles:inch variant, but the 16 miles:inch and 8 miles:inch issues appear to be identical in content, though the scale and scale bars are different. The poor image quality of the 16 miles:inch variant suggests that it is a photo-reproduction on a reduced scale of one of the larger editions.
Joseph Alva West (1851-1926)
A Salt Lake City native and member of the Church of Latter-Day Saints, West’s energy, integrity, intelligence and accomplishments earned him a prominent place in Utah Territory life. He was trained at a young age as a telegraph operator, then learned surveying in the office of Territorial Surveyor General Jesse Fox. By age eighteen he was sufficiently qualified to be appointed a Deputy Territorial Surveyor and soon thereafter was named Surveyor of both Ogden City and Weber County. He soon shifted to the burgeoning railroad sector in which he had a long and successful career in a series of surveying, engineering and managerial roles for lines in Utah, California, Idaho, Nevada and Oregon. One paper wrote of him:
“Joseph A. West is said to be one of the best field engineers in the west. We are informed by a prominent railway man yesterday that he accomplished the unusual feat of surveying for the Salt Lake and western over a distance of 350 miles of desert last year.” (Deseret Evening News, Feb. 25, 1881)
In or around 1883 he became clerk of the lower house of the Territorial Assembly, and the following year he was tasked with compiling the official map of Utah. Soon thereafter he was elected to the Assembly, in which he served with distinction for many years, including a stint in Washington representing that body in its dispute with rabidly anti-Mormon Governor Houston Murray. West also served as a senior officer in the Utah militia, published a number of Utah newspapers, and held a high position in the Church of Latter-Day Saints. Some time around the turn of the century he moved to Ogden, Utah, where he died in 1926.
I have been unable to learn more about the particular circumstances under which the Assembly assigned West to compile this state map. As discussed earlier, he clearly relied on earlier maps, no doubt incorporating information from his own surveys for the GLO and railroads, but the full range of sources he drew on is not known. No doubt an examination of the records of the Utah Territory Assembly as well as his autobiography (a manuscript of which is held in microform at Utah State University) would shed more light on the project.
Rarity and references
While reduced-scale issues turn up, this large-scale edition is extremely rare. I find no record of another having appeared on the antiquarian market, and institutional holdings only at the British Library and Yale. The on-line catalog of the Church History Library of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints lists an example of the mammoth 6 miles:inch edition, the only one I have located.
Riley Moore Moffat, Printed Maps of Utah to 1900, pp. 19, #193. Phillips, Maps of America, p. 949 (no dimensions given). Rumsey #5425. OCLC records examples of this 8 miles:inch variant only at the British Library (557805870) and Yale (54637029). Oldmaps.com lists no version of the map having appeared on the antiquarian market, though Ken Sanders offered an example of the 16 miles:inch issue in Catalog Forty Five, item 70 for $1500.
Biographies of West are found in Latter-Day Saints Biographical Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City, 1902); Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah (Salt Lake City, 1913); and Utah Since Statehood: Historical and Biographical, Volume 4 (Chicago & Salt Lake City, 1920). Utah State University holds a microfilm of his manuscript autobiography, which alas I have been unable to examine.
See the details: http://bostonraremaps.com/inventory/joseph-west-utah-territory/
Back to Estonia with todays #GlobeFacts. Saaremaa Island, also called Saare in German, in Swedish Ösel, Russian Sarema. It is the largest of the islands in the Muhu archipelago that divides the Baltic Sea from the Gulf of Riga.
Located at the important seaways, Saaremaa has been familiar to seafarers for a long time. Saaremaa was a land in its own right, in some historians’ opinion the centre of a prehistoric maritime state, which has an important role to play in the interaction between the West and East. Anyone who sailed from London to Novgorod, saw the largest Baltic island on the horizon.
#Saaremaa took its share, looting many a beautiful ship. Both in Scandinavian Sagas and in the Chronicle of Henry the Livonian numerous references have been made to Osilian piracy.
The island is low-lying and is composed largely of limestones and dolomites.
The island was occupied in 1227 by the Brothers of the Sword, who founded a bishopric there. It came under Danish (1559), Swedish (1645), and Russian (1721) rule before becoming part of Estonia in 1918.
On the south coast is the main city, Kuressaare (Kingisepp). Saaremaa is connected by causeway to the neighbouring island of Muhu.
Economic activities include agriculture, livestock rearing, and fishing.
The majority of the population is Estonian (97%). The biggest minority nationality is Russian, comprising 2% of the inhabitants. Compared to the Republic of Estonia on the whole, the population of Saare County and particularly of Kuressaare town is younger, whereas the number of the retired people is considerably smaller.
Islanders themselves have recently stated ‘What could be better than holidays on Saaremaa? The islands off the coast are virtual dreamlands, unlike anything in Europe. Most romantic landscape dotted with windmills, thatched cottages and sleepy fishing villages.'
Globes : www.bellerbyandco.com | #EstoniaFacts
A unique surviving census of approximately two thirds of the African-American population residing in the Roanoke Freedmen’s Colony in 1864, giving much demographic detail on each individual recorded.
Roanoke Island lies off the coast of North Carolina, between the mainland and the Outer Banks. Fortified by the Confederates at the beginning of the war, it came under Union control when captured in February 1862 by a force under Ambrose Burnside. There followed a rapid influx of slaves and freedmen seeking refuge. In May 1863 the camp was given a new status as a government-sanctioned colony. Army Chaplain Horace James was instructed by Major General John G. Foster, commander of the Department of North Carolina, “to settle the colored people on the unoccupied lands and give them agricultural implements and mechanical tools… and to train and educate them for a free and independent community.” Thus did Roanoke Island become “the setting for an historic experiment during the Civil War…. This colony, similar to others established by the Union Army, gave African Americans their first tastes of independence and freedom.” (National Park Service)
Recorded in this notebook are the names of approximately 1485 of the several thousand freed and escaped slaves who, beginning in 1862, became inhabitants of Roanoke. According to the National Park Service, “a local census in 1864 reported that 2212 black freedman resided on the island.” This volume, denoted Census 1864 No. II was presumably part of that local census, its 1485 names constituting about two thirds of the total population. To the best of my knowledge, no other portion of this census is extant—nor for that matter is material from any other census taken during the colony’s brief existence between 1862 and 1867.
The notebook begins with an introductory page of “Directions” for recording each category of information gathered during the census. This is followed by 55 openings, each with facing pages arranged as a spreadsheet containing twelve columns with the following headings: “Name,” “Age,” “Free or Slave in 1861,” “Last owner’s name,” “Occupation or Trades,” “Employ’d by Gov,” “Enlisted in,” “Not Emp,” “Helped by Gov,” “Can read,” “Cannot Read,” and “Remarks.” The name and surname of each and every individual—men, women and children—is given along with his or her age (Regarding the age, item 2 of the Directions reads, “If unknown guess at it.”) All are designated as either free before or enslaved before the war, and for most of the freed slaves the name of their last owner is given. Entries for “Occupation” are naturally spottier, as many of the individuals named are children. Relatively few are noted as employed by the government; most so noted are in the service of the Quartermaster Department. Details of enlistment are given for only a very few. Most are listed as “not employed,” likewise “helped by the government” and “cannot read.” This may be explained by the fact that in 1864 that the colony had begun to decline, as the Army impressed increasing numbers of male inhabitants into service as laborers.
In a recent exhaustive study, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen’s Colony, 1862-1867 (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2001) author Patricia Click, writes “No roster of the Roanoke Island colonists has surfaced. Given the constant change in the colony, it is not likely that one existed. The following documents do, however, include lists of some of the names of Roanoke Island colonists.” (Appendix E, p. 215) She then lists the names of approximately 360 individuals, 65 of whom are designated “& Wife.” The author cites two sources: “Report of Transportation furnished to Freedmen during the month of January 1866” and “List of names of freedpeople living on Roanoke Island N.C. likely to become destitute during the ensuing Winter [1866-1867],” both found in the Records of the Assistant Commissioner for North Carolina, held in the National Archives. Click’s extensive bibliography contains an exhaustive listing of manuscript sources, published documents and other primary sources. Given the consummate scholarship apparent in this study, none of those, we can safely assume, contain information such as that presented in the notebook offered here. The sheer number of names, four times the number given by Click, together with related details not available elsewhere, constitutes a unique sample with significant potential for historical and genealogical research.
The front endpaper bears the inscription of Samuel S[tickney] Nickerson (1835-1930). A native of Tamworth, New Hampshire, Nickerson was a Baptist minister who served the freedmen of Roanoke as a missionary and educator from late 1863 to 1867. Though not trained as a teacher, Nickerson opened his own missionary school. His role in conducting this census is unclear, as his signature seems to differ from the hand in which the preliminary instructions and tabular headings are written. Whether he directed or otherwise took part in the census, or whether this notebook simply came into his possession—not improbable considering his leadership role—I cannot say.
The Roanoke Colony was short-lived. At the end of the war, lands confiscated by the Union Army and used to settle African American residents were restored, by order of President Johnson, to their original owners.
“The black residents on Roanoke Island failed to receive the rights and privileges to their homesteads promised by the government when they established the colony. Further government orders that reduced food rations… ushered in the beginning of the end…. By late 1866, the Freedmen’s population had dwindled to a few families and by 1867 the colony was officially decommissioned. The Freedmen’s colony on Roanoke Island never became the self-sufficient community its planners envisioned. Its isolation and the transfer into the army of most of the working men made the residents more and more dependent on the government for support. [As noted earlier, the widespread dependency of inhabitants in 1864 may reflect this fact.] It did, however, provide homes for the families of soldiers, brought education for the first time to the colony’s residents, and gave them a renewed sense of hope. Furthermore, while most of the freedmen returned to the mainland, many descendants still live, work and raise their families on Roanoke Island today.… its contribution to the betterment of the African American community in particular and American society in general cannot be overlooked.” (National Park Service)
Patricia C. Click, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen’s Colony, 1862-1867. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. See also Click, The Roanoke Island Freedman’s Colony (http://www.roanokefreedmenscolony.com/index.html).
See it up close: http://bostonraremaps.com/inventory/roanoke-freedmens-colony/
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