Please See More Cats http://goo.gl/bKC1CY
Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.
The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.
Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.
Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).
Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.
Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.
The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.
The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".
Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.
One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.
It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.
The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.
Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.
Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.
#cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS #trendingnow #lolcats
Brilliant or bumble? Remember what happened with the Bill Cosby Memes? (wasn't a good idea in hindsight)
To find a death cafe near you, visit DeathCafe.com
FREE. No agenda. No ideology. No RSVP required
Just open discussion about death and dying.
- Medical Social Worker
Lizzy is a passionate advocate for hospice and end-of-life issues and has presented her research and experiences with death and dying at national and international grief conferences.
Via fundraising from a successful Kickstarter campaign, Lizzy was the host of the very first death cafe in the United States in Columbus, Ohio. She has now hosted more than twenty events in her city and has provided guidance to dozens of other facilitators on how to host the death cafe events. Lizzy's Death Cafe work has been featured by a variety of media outlets including New York Times, USA Today, Huffington Post and on public radio.
She is an active member of the Association for Death Education and Counseling (ADEC) and a contributing author at Opentohope.com. She recently authored a book about her hospice experiences titled, Somewhere In Between: The Hokey Pokey, Chocolate Cake and The Shared Death Experience. She is obsessed with the #magicageof91 and has been collecting stories for 4 years (It's worth a Google). She openly admits that she believes in spirit communication and has been blogging about synchronicities and signs from the universe for over seven years at www.followthesigns.blogspot.com. Lizzy lives in Central Ohio with her husband and two cats.
Lizzy Miles changes her mind frequently about her career identity, but has always held true to her enthusiasm for written and oral storytelling. She has two masters degrees but still can't spell well. She has been published in a wide variety of formats including: award-winning Hallmark cards, academic journal articles, and retail training manuals.
She recently published The Downside of Dream Jobs: Video Game Tester, The Downside of Dream Jobs: Sportscaster, and The Downside of Dream Jobs: Upset Recovery Flight Instructor These are the first three Kindle Single in a series of interviews with subjects who have dream jobs.
Sooo... that's my formal profile but I don't really think it adds a lot of dimension. I am also into new technology, trend watching, social networking, postcards, greeting cards (basically correspondence), photography, travel (someplace new every time except for Vegas which is a regular trip). I am a military brat and lived half my childhood overseas. I don't eat vegetables and I play poker. Do you feel like you know me better now?
Good luck picking a circle for me. Perhaps 'positive people'?
"Life is not a journey to the grave with the intention of arriving safely in a pretty & well preserved body, but rather to skid in broadside, totally worn out and proclaiming, 'Wow, what a ride!'" - (unknown)
"Life is pleasant. Death is peaceful. It's the transition that's troublesome." - Isaac Asimov
"Plan for this world as if you expect to live forever; but plan for the hereafter as if you expect to die tomorrow." - Gabirol, Ibn
"Everyone wants to go to heaven, but nobody wants to die." - Joe Louis
“I want to die in my sleep like my grandfather... Not screaming and yelling like the passengers in his car.” - Will Shriner
"To die proudly when it is no longer possible to live proudly. Death of one's own free choice, death at the proper time, with a clear head and with joyfulness, consummated in the midst of children and witnesses: so that an actual leave-taking is possible while he who is leaving is still there. "- Friedrich Nietzsche, Expeditions of an Untimely Man
"According to most studies, people's number one fear is public speaking. Number two is death. Death is number two. Does that sound right? This means to the average person, if you go to a funeral, you're better off in the casket than doing the eulogy.” - Jerry Seinfeld
"Ignore death up to the last moment; then, when it can't be ignored any longer, have yourself squirted full of morphia and shuffle off in a coma. Thoroughly sensible, humane and scientific, eh?" - Huxley, Aldous
“Judge not, lest ye be judged judgmental” - Florence King
“Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow.” - Albert Einstein
"Does Jesus like chocolate?" – a patient/friend of mine
“Deep inside of us we all know there is someone we were meant to be.” – David Kessler
“If life is a school, loss is a major part of the curriculum.” – Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
“Our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life.” - Victor Frankel
"I like living. I have sometimes been wildly, despairingly, acutely miserable, racked with sorrow, but through it all I still know quite certainly that just to be alive is a grand thing." - Agatha Christie
"Forgive all who have offended you, not for them, but for yourself" - Harriet Uts Nelson
"What doesn't kill you makes for good stand up" – me