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Leslie ONeill
Works at Scuba Explorers
Lives in Kansas City, MO
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Leslie ONeill

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Are you ready for a little fun in the sun?  
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Leslie ONeill

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Smart kitty cat, I'm not so sure I could do that! :  )
 
Cat talent




Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

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Life quotes, it's easier to be happy, it feels better too!
Everything positive comes from action! Do whatever it takes to stay in motion. << See Inside>>
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One thing I know about entrepreneurs and business owners; they love shortcuts!
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Please hold your mother's tight spend as much quality time possible while you still can.
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幸せいつぱいですね、
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If you've ever thought of taking scuba class...now is the time to begin! 
Click the link below if you live near Kansas City  : )     
>>> http://eepurl.com/bbdhiP <<<
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Hi +Janine Marriott!  You totally can if you really want to, I promise!  It takes time and perseverance.  But you can do anything once you decide you're going to.  : ) 
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To each's own.  Respect everyone for they walk a different path with their own set of experiences, truths & realities.  

The best way to be!

When others mettle in our lives or gossip about us, they are to be pitied, for they haven't a solid grasp of their own.  

Walk your path, it's beautiful, yes, even the temporarily dark areas, for when we make it through to the light again, we have grown immensely,

It's a lifelong journey, it's our sloe responsibility to shape it to the best of our abilities and encourage one another along the way.

Peace be with you! 
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I figured so +Neil Steiner!
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Are you an entrepreneur?  
Become An Entrepreneur! Seize the opportunity and create the job you always wanted.
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What are you? 
There' s nothing wrong not being an entrepreneur. However, it is wrong not being your authentic self!
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Are you using video in your marketing?  It's easier than you think!

#video   #videoMarketing   #Google   #Ranking  
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Who wants in?     Hi, Leslie here!  I hope you are doing well and preparing for fun times over the holidays!  

I've been receiving last minute requests for scuba classes before, during and after Christmas, as well as, requests for CHRISTMAS GIFT CERTIFICATES.    If you need me, please call or email!   :  )    

Click link for more:  http://eepurl.com/-8gqT

#ScubaDivingClasses    #ScubaVacations   #GiftCertificates  
#ChristmasGifts  
To my OCEAN BOUND buddies flying SOUTH for the winter... I've got you covered! Hello! Leslie here. I hope you are doing well and preparing for some fun times over the holidays. I've been receiving lots of last minute requests for scuba training before, during and after Christmas.
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Story
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Live your dream, find passion in everything you do, surround yourself with people who appreciate you.
Introduction
I've been an entrepreneurs since age 21; I've been happy, sad, rich, poor, broken hear-ted and happy again.  

At the end of the day I've discovered, nothing is more pleasurable than hanging out with my family and friends, being a foodie and having fun.

Sometimes we make life more difficult than it truly is; we can control the outcome simply by choosing how we react or think about things. It is actually simple once we let go of all things and people that are not a good influence and those that are only out to take and not give back to society. 

We are all here to serve one another and to help each other ...not people that take advantage.  It's taken many years to learn this.  Life has not been rosy.

There are many amazing people out there, my quest is to make friends and to give time to  those worthy of it. Good business, good friends and good relationships all are a two way reciprocal exchange of giving and receiving.

Please stop in and say hello! I would love to get to know you!



Bragging rights
My best accomplishments ever...mother and grandma-hood!
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
Kansas City, MO
Previously
Overland Park, KS - Daytona Beach, FL - Los Angeles, CA - Naperville, IL - Chicago, IL - Grand Cayman Islands - Nassau, Bahamas - Cozumel, Mexico - Maui, Hawaii - Grand Turks & Caicos - Buenos Aries, Argentina - Santiago, Chile - Ambergris Caye, Belize - Roatan, Honduras - Mayan Riviera, Mexico -
Work
Occupation
Scuba Instructor & business consultant to make your brand go social, mobile, global, viral.
Skills
Working with all types of businesses on all media platforms.
Employment
  • Scuba Explorers
    Founder/Owner, 1984 - present
    Scuba Instructor, certifications, lead Caribbean excursions and other ocean vacations, worldwide.
  • Market Immersion
    Founder/Owner, 2009 - present
    Internet marketing, social media training for entrepreneurs. Bring panels of experts together for HOA to train businesses and offer digital products.
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Gender
Female
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Noel
Leslie ONeill's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
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