What a useful post! This offers a lot for those of us who design courses to think about. I try to make my courses work on all three of these levels because I have students for sure who might be strongly or exclusively in one of those three categories:
• Goal-oriented learners – Well, the university takes care of this for me. My class meets a Gen. Ed. graduation requirement. So even the students who are not motivated in any other way in the class are making progress towards graduation.
• Activity-oriented learners – The sense of "doing" that comes from blogging and creating webpages, and then interactive with other students, is strongly motivating for many students... I build in extra credit activities that involve more tech and more socializing for the students who do like this.
• Learning-oriented learners – I offer a huge range of reading and am constantly recommending things to read for students who are on a knowledge quest. Free books online: limitless! I love it!
What is the adult student's motivation for learning?

What is the adult student's motivation for learning? What makes them seek out a class, a book or a teacher? Why do they do it, and what is the payoff?
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