DR. MICHIO KAKU, Physicist/Futurist's posts

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Rafael Benitez: +Emmanuel Nazaire First known how function.

Alcubierre metric. The Alcubierre metric defines the warp-drive spacetime. It is a Lorentzian manifold that, if interpreted in the context of general relativity, allows a warp bubble to appear in previously flat spacetime and move away effectively faster than lightspeed.

The Alcubierre drive or Alcubierre warp drive (or Alcubierre metric, referring to metric tensor) is a speculative idea based on a solution of Einstein's field equations in general relativity as proposed by theoretical physicist Miguel Alcubierre, by which a spacecraft could achieve apparent faster-than-light travel if a configurable energy-density field lower than that of vacuum (that is, negative mass) could be created.

Rather than exceeding the speed of light within a local reference frame, a spacecraft would traverse distances by contracting space in front of it and expanding space behind it, resulting in effective faster-than-light travel. Objects cannot accelerate to the speed of light within normal spacetime; instead, the Alcubierre drive shifts space around an object so that the object would arrive at its destination faster than light would in normal space.[1]

Although the metric proposed by Alcubierre is mathematically valid (in that the proposal is consistent with the Einstein field equations), it may not be physically meaningful, in which case a drive will not be possible. Even if it is physically meaningful, its possibility would not necessarily mean that a drive can be constructed. The proposed mechanism of the Alcubierre drive implies a negative energy density and therefore requires exotic matter. So if exotic matter with the correct properties does not exist then the drive could not be constructed. However, at the close of his original paper[2] Alcubierre argued (following an argument developed by physicists analyzing traversable wormholes[3][4]) that the Casimir vacuum between parallel plates could fulfill the negative-energy requirement for the Alcubierre drive.

Another possible issue is that, although the Alcubierre metric is consistent with Einstein's equations, general relativity does not incorporate quantum mechanics. Some physicists have presented arguments to suggest that a theory of quantum gravity (which would incorporate both theories) would eliminate those solutions in general relativity that allow for backwards time travel (see the chronology protection conjecture) and thus make the Alcubierre drive invalid.

But believe different actually can work..

Alcubierre Warp Drive stretches spacetime in a wave causing the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship can ride the wave to accelerate to high speeds and time travel.

Alcubierre Warp Drive Time Control and Time Travel

The Alcubierre drive, also known as the Alcubierre metric or Warp Drive, is a mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional "warp drive" from Star Trek, which can travel "faster than light" (although not in a local sense - see below).

The key characteristics of the application of Alcubierre warp drives for time control and time travel are presented in the picture below. This is followed by more detail describing the effect below.

Alcubierre Warp Drive Time Control and Time Travel

Alcubierre Warp Drive Description

Alcubierre Warp Drive for Spacetime Travel In 1994, the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre proposed a method of stretching space in a wave which would in theory cause the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship would ride this wave inside a region known as a warp bubble of flat space. Since the ship is not moving within this bubble, but carried along as the region itself moves, conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation do not apply in the way they would in the case of a ship moving at high velocity through flat spacetime. Also, this method of travel does not actually involve moving faster than light in a local sense, since a light beam within the bubble would still always move faster than the ship; it is only "faster than light" in the sense that, thanks to the contraction of the space in front of it, the ship could reach its destination faster than a light beam restricted to travelling outside the warp bubble. Thus, the Alcubierre drive does not contradict the conventional claim that relativity forbids a slower-than-light object to accelerate to faster-than-light speeds.

Alcubierre Metric

The Alcubierre Metric defines the so-called warp drive spacetime. This is a Lorentzian manifold which, if interpreted in the context of general relativity, exhibits features reminiscent of the warp drive from Star Trek: a warp bubble appears in previously flat spacetime and moves off at effectively superluminal speed. Inhabitants of the bubble feel no inertial effects. The object(s) within the bubble are not moving (locally) faster than light, instead, the space around them shifts so that the object(s) arrives at its destination faster than light would in normal space.

Alcubierre chose a specific form for the function f, but other choices give a simpler spacetime exhibiting the desired "warp drive" effects more clearly and simply.

Mathematics of the Alcubierre drive

Using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity, the spacetime is described by a foliation of space-like hypersurfaces of constant coordinate time t. The general form of the Alcubierre metric is:

where α is the lapse function that gives the interval of proper time between nearby hypersurfaces, βI is the shift vector that relates the spatial coordinate systems on different hypersurfaces and γij is a positive definite metric on each of the hypersurfaces. The particular form that Alcubierre studied is defined by:

where

and

with R > 0 and σ > 0 arbitrary parameters. Alcubierre's specific form of the metric can thus be written;

With this particular form of the metric, it can be shown that the energy density measured by observers whose 4-velocity is normal to the hypersurfaces is given by

Alcubierre Warp Drive for Time Travel where g is the determinant of the metric tensor. Thus, as the energy density is negative, one needs exotic matter to travel faster than the speed of light. The existence of exotic matter is not theoretically ruled out, the Casimir effect and the accelerating universe both lending support to the proposed existence of such matter. However, generating enough exotic matter and sustaining it to perform feats such as faster-than-light travel (and also to keep open the 'throat' of a wormhole) is thought to be impractical. Low has argued that within the context of general relativity, it is impossible to construct a warp drive in the absence of exotic matter. It is generally believed that a consistent theory of quantum gravity will resolve such issues once and for all.

Physics of the Alcubierre drive

Alcubierre Warp Drive Manifold For those familiar with the effects of special relativity, such as Lorentz contraction and time dilation, the Alcubierre metric has some apparently peculiar aspects. In particular, Alcubierre has shown that even when the ship is accelerating, it travels on a free-fall geodesic. In other words, a ship using the warp to accelerate and decelerate is always in free fall, and the crew would experience no accelerational g-forces. Enormous tidal forces would be present near the edges of the flat-space volume because of the large space curvature there, but by suitable specification of the metric, these would be made very small within the volume occupied by the ship.

The original warp drive metric, and simple variants of it, happen to have the ADM form which is often used in discussing the initial value formulation of general relativity. This may explain the widespread misconception that this spacetime is a solution of the field equation of general relativity. Metrics in ADM form are adapted to a certain family of inertial observers, but these observers are not really physically distinguished from other such families. Alcubierre interpreted his "warp bubble" in terms of a contraction of "space" ahead of the bubble and an expansion behind. But this interpretation might be misleading, since the contraction and expansion actually refers to the relative motion of nearby members of the family of ADM observers.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a "warp bubble" in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time. Yet another problem is that, according to Serguei Krasnikov, it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

Difficulties

Alcubierre Warp Drive for Spacetime Travel Significant problems with the metric of this form stem from the fact that all known warp drive spacetimes violate various energy conditions. It is true that certain experimentally verified quantum phenomena, such as the Casimir effect, when described in the context of the quantum field theories, lead to stress-energy tensors which also violate the energy conditions and so one might hope that Alcubierre type warp drives could perhaps be physically realized by clever engineering taking advantage of such quantum effects. However, if certain quantum inequalities conjectured by Ford and Roman hold, then the energy requirements for some warp drives may be absurdly gigantic, e.g. the energy -1067gram equivalent might be required to transport a small spaceship across the Milky Way galaxy. This is orders of magnitude greater than the mass of the universe. Counterarguments to these apparent problems have been offered, but not everyone is convinced they can be overcome.

alcubierre warp drive Chris Van Den Broeck, in 1999, has tried to address the potential issues. By contracting the 3+1 dimensional surface area of the 'bubble' being transported by the drive, while at the same time expanding the 3 dimensional volume contained inside, Van Den Broeck was able to reduce the total energy needed to transport small atoms to less than 3 solar masses. Later, by slightly modifying the Van Den Broeck metric, Krasnikov reduced the necessary total amount of negative energy to a few milligrams.

Krasnikov proposed that, if tachyonic matter could not be found or used, then a solution might be to arrange for masses along the path of the vessel to be set in motion in such a way that the required field was produced. But in this case the Alcubierre Drive vessel is not able to go dashing around the galaxy at will. It is only able to travel routes which, like a railroad, have first been equipped with the necessary infrastructure.

Miguel Alcubierre

Miguel Alcubierre The pilot inside the bubble is causally disconnected with its walls and cannot carry out any action outside the bubble. However, it is necessary to place devices along the route in advance, and since the pilot cannot do this while "in transit", the bubble cannot be used for the first trip to a distant star. In other words, to travel to Vega (which is 26 light-years from the Earth) one first has to arrange everything so that the bubble moving toward Vega with a superluminal velocity would appear and these arrangements will always take more than 26 years.

Coule has argued that schemes such as the one proposed by Alcubierre are not feasible because the matter to be placed on the road beforehand has to be placed at superluminal speed. Thus, according to Coule, an Alcubierre Drive is required in order to build an Alcubierre Drive. Since none have been proven to exist already then the drive is impossible to construct, even if the metric is physically meaningful. Coule argues that an analogous objection will apply to any proposed method of constructing an Alcubierre Drive.

Now in this part you exposed-

You say:

Space time may not be uniform because of entanglement, if one can reacts with itself within space and time, that would suggest the nature of inspiration, wich could be discribe as the tranfert of a knowledge or memory from someone to it self through time because thinking travels faster than light, the nature of quantum foaming would suggest why these memories would'nt arrive at a specific time?

I say :

Yes would arrive if you contain yourself in magnetic bubble traveling 8n frequency and this magnetic bubble have gravitational field .Just like soup of space inside tbe bubble .

You say:

But reaches from time to time. Maybe because the nature of things keep changing as in the moment they may be constantly alternative state in the past and in the future. That would explain why time is'nt uniform, because of the results of some quantum effects?

I say:

Yes and no

Time is bubbles of time suggest to result of some quantum effects and gravitational fields also black matter and black energy interaction .The Arm force is study of this matter how gravitational fields of this affect some grade the results quantum mechanics .

Pay more attention to the Alcubierre work is clue to change space is truth window to dominate all at least in section of universe .

((((((The Casimir effect )))))))is a small attractive force that acts between two close parallel uncharged conducting plates. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The effect was predicted by the Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir in 1948.

Giant Casimir Effect Predicted Inside Metamaterials

Exotic materials should lead to new ways of observing and playing with one of the strangest effects in physics, say Chinese physicists.

by Emerging Technology from the arXiv December 5, 2011

Metamaterials are exotic substances designed to steer electromagnetic waves in ways that are impossible with ordinary stuff. One of their more exciting properties is that they can bend light in a way that is mathematically equivalent to the way spacetime bends light.

This formal equivalence means that metamaterials can reproduce in the lab the exact behaviour of light, not only in our spacetime, but in many others that have only been conjectured until now. This allows physicists to use metamaterials to simulate black holes, big bangs and even multiverses.

Today, Tian-Ming Zhao and Rong-Xin Miao at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei use this kind of thinking to make a startling prediction about the Casimir effect inside certain metamaterials.

The Casimir effect arises because our vacuum is filled with a maelstrom of waves that leap in and out of existence at the smallest scales. The best known consequence of this is the well known Casimir force, which pushes together two conducting plates placed close together.

The explanation is that when the distance between the plates is small enough, it can exclude any waves that are too big to fit in the gap. Since there is nothing between the plates to oppose the effect of these waves, they generate a force that pushes the plates together.

This Casimir force operates on a tiny scale, so small that it was only measured for the first time in 1997. But it is not insignificant. At a separation of 10nm, the force is equivalent to 1 atmosphere (although the actual force depends on various factors such as the precise shape of the objects in close proximity).

Of course, the properties of the vacuum waves depend strongly on the medium in which they exist. So it’s not hard to imagine that different spacetimes might have a significant impact on the size of the Casimir effect.

This is exactly what Zhao and Miao show. They say that in a particular kind of electromagnetic space called a Rindler space, the Casimir effect is huge. The essential idea here is that the space can be designed to allow only certain wavelengths to operate. If the electromagnetic properties of the Rindler space are matched to the ambient temperature, then these kinds of thermal waves can be made to dominate the Casimir energy.

That makes the Casimir energy huge. Zhao and Miao calculate that in a lab at 300K (room temperature), the Casimir energy would be some 10^11 times bigger than the free space value. That’s a significant difference that ought to make these effects accessible in an entirely new way to a much broader audience.

Zhao and Miao also say that this kind of material ought to be relatively straightforward to build, layer by layer.

What that means is that it won’t be long before somebody builds this kind of material and shows off the giant Casimir effect for the first time. We’ll be watching.

Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1110.1919: Huge Casimir Effect At Finite Temperature In Electromagnetic Rindler Space

Northeastern University experimental particle physicists Stephen Reucroft and John Swain put their heads together to write the following answer.

To understand the Casimir Effect, one first has to understand something about a vacuum in space as it is viewed in quantum field theory. Far from being empty, modern physics assumes that a vacuum is full of fluctuating electromagnetic waves that can never be completely eliminated, like an ocean with waves that are always present and can never be stopped. These waves come in all possible wavelengths, and their presence implies that empty space contains a certain amount of energy--an energy that we can't tap, but that is always there.

Now, if mirrors are placed facing each other in a vacuum, some of the waves will fit between them, bouncing back and forth, while others will not. As the two mirrors move closer to each other, the longer waves will no longer fit--the result being that the total amount of energy in the vacuum between the plates will be a bit less than the amount elsewhere in the vacuum. Thus, the mirrors will attract each other, just as two objects held together by a stretched spring will move together as the energy stored in the spring decreases.

Casimir

illustration

Image: Scientific American

CASIMIR EFFECT

This effect, that two mirrors in a vacuum will be attracted to each other, is the Casimir Effect. It was first predicted in 1948 by Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir. Steve K. Lamoreaux, now at Los Alamos National Laboratory, initially measured the tiny force in 1996.

It is generally true that the amount of energy in a piece of vacuum can be altered by material around it, and the term "Casimir Effect" is also used in this broader context. If the mirrors move rapidly, some of the vacuum waves can become real waves. Julian Schwinger and many others have suggested that this "dynamical Casimir effect" may be responsible for the mysterious phenomenon known as sonoluminescence.

One of the most interesting aspects of vacuum energy (with or without mirrors) is that, calculated in quantum field theory, it is infinite! To some, this finding implies that the vacuum of space could be an enormous source of energy--called "zero point energy."

But the finding also raises a physical problem: there's nothing to stop arbitrarily small waves from fitting between two mirrors, and there is an infinite number of these wavelengths. The mathematical solution is to temporarily do the calculation for a finite number of waves for two different separations of the mirrors, find the associated difference in vacuum energies and then argue that the difference remains finite as one allows the number of wavelengths to go to infinity.

Although this trick works, and gives answers in agreement with experiment, the problem of an infinite vacuum energy is a serious one. Einstein's theory of gravitation implies that this energy must produce an infinite gravitational curvature of spacetime--something we most definitely do not observe. The resolution of this problem is still an open research question.

So is easy..

Alcubierre metric. The Alcubierre metric defines the warp-drive spacetime. It is a Lorentzian manifold that, if interpreted in the context of general relativity, allows a warp bubble to appear in previously flat spacetime and move away effectively faster than lightspeed.

The Alcubierre drive or Alcubierre warp drive (or Alcubierre metric, referring to metric tensor) is a speculative idea based on a solution of Einstein's field equations in general relativity as proposed by theoretical physicist Miguel Alcubierre, by which a spacecraft could achieve apparent faster-than-light travel if a configurable energy-density field lower than that of vacuum (that is, negative mass) could be created.

Rather than exceeding the speed of light within a local reference frame, a spacecraft would traverse distances by contracting space in front of it and expanding space behind it, resulting in effective faster-than-light travel. Objects cannot accelerate to the speed of light within normal spacetime; instead, the Alcubierre drive shifts space around an object so that the object would arrive at its destination faster than light would in normal space.[1]

Although the metric proposed by Alcubierre is mathematically valid (in that the proposal is consistent with the Einstein field equations), it may not be physically meaningful, in which case a drive will not be possible. Even if it is physically meaningful, its possibility would not necessarily mean that a drive can be constructed. The proposed mechanism of the Alcubierre drive implies a negative energy density and therefore requires exotic matter. So if exotic matter with the correct properties does not exist then the drive could not be constructed. However, at the close of his original paper[2] Alcubierre argued (following an argument developed by physicists analyzing traversable wormholes[3][4]) that the Casimir vacuum between parallel plates could fulfill the negative-energy requirement for the Alcubierre drive.

Another possible issue is that, although the Alcubierre metric is consistent with Einstein's equations, general relativity does not incorporate quantum mechanics. Some physicists have presented arguments to suggest that a theory of quantum gravity (which would incorporate both theories) would eliminate those solutions in general relativity that allow for backwards time travel (see the chronology protection conjecture) and thus make the Alcubierre drive invalid.

But believe different actually can work..

Alcubierre Warp Drive stretches spacetime in a wave causing the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship can ride the wave to accelerate to high speeds and time travel.

Alcubierre Warp Drive Time Control and Time Travel

The Alcubierre drive, also known as the Alcubierre metric or Warp Drive, is a mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional "warp drive" from Star Trek, which can travel "faster than light" (although not in a local sense - see below).

The key characteristics of the application of Alcubierre warp drives for time control and time travel are presented in the picture below. This is followed by more detail describing the effect below.

Alcubierre Warp Drive Time Control and Time Travel

Alcubierre Warp Drive Description

Alcubierre Warp Drive for Spacetime Travel In 1994, the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre proposed a method of stretching space in a wave which would in theory cause the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship would ride this wave inside a region known as a warp bubble of flat space. Since the ship is not moving within this bubble, but carried along as the region itself moves, conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation do not apply in the way they would in the case of a ship moving at high velocity through flat spacetime. Also, this method of travel does not actually involve moving faster than light in a local sense, since a light beam within the bubble would still always move faster than the ship; it is only "faster than light" in the sense that, thanks to the contraction of the space in front of it, the ship could reach its destination faster than a light beam restricted to travelling outside the warp bubble. Thus, the Alcubierre drive does not contradict the conventional claim that relativity forbids a slower-than-light object to accelerate to faster-than-light speeds.

Alcubierre Metric

The Alcubierre Metric defines the so-called warp drive spacetime. This is a Lorentzian manifold which, if interpreted in the context of general relativity, exhibits features reminiscent of the warp drive from Star Trek: a warp bubble appears in previously flat spacetime and moves off at effectively superluminal speed. Inhabitants of the bubble feel no inertial effects. The object(s) within the bubble are not moving (locally) faster than light, instead, the space around them shifts so that the object(s) arrives at its destination faster than light would in normal space.

Alcubierre chose a specific form for the function f, but other choices give a simpler spacetime exhibiting the desired "warp drive" effects more clearly and simply.

Mathematics of the Alcubierre drive

Using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity, the spacetime is described by a foliation of space-like hypersurfaces of constant coordinate time t. The general form of the Alcubierre metric is:

where α is the lapse function that gives the interval of proper time between nearby hypersurfaces, βI is the shift vector that relates the spatial coordinate systems on different hypersurfaces and γij is a positive definite metric on each of the hypersurfaces. The particular form that Alcubierre studied is defined by:

where

and

with R > 0 and σ > 0 arbitrary parameters. Alcubierre's specific form of the metric can thus be written;

With this particular form of the metric, it can be shown that the energy density measured by observers whose 4-velocity is normal to the hypersurfaces is given by

Alcubierre Warp Drive for Time Travel where g is the determinant of the metric tensor. Thus, as the energy density is negative, one needs exotic matter to travel faster than the speed of light. The existence of exotic matter is not theoretically ruled out, the Casimir effect and the accelerating universe both lending support to the proposed existence of such matter. However, generating enough exotic matter and sustaining it to perform feats such as faster-than-light travel (and also to keep open the 'throat' of a wormhole) is thought to be impractical. Low has argued that within the context of general relativity, it is impossible to construct a warp drive in the absence of exotic matter. It is generally believed that a consistent theory of quantum gravity will resolve such issues once and for all.

Physics of the Alcubierre drive

Alcubierre Warp Drive Manifold For those familiar with the effects of special relativity, such as Lorentz contraction and time dilation, the Alcubierre metric has some apparently peculiar aspects. In particular, Alcubierre has shown that even when the ship is accelerating, it travels on a free-fall geodesic. In other words, a ship using the warp to accelerate and decelerate is always in free fall, and the crew would experience no accelerational g-forces. Enormous tidal forces would be present near the edges of the flat-space volume because of the large space curvature there, but by suitable specification of the metric, these would be made very small within the volume occupied by the ship.

The original warp drive metric, and simple variants of it, happen to have the ADM form which is often used in discussing the initial value formulation of general relativity. This may explain the widespread misconception that this spacetime is a solution of the field equation of general relativity. Metrics in ADM form are adapted to a certain family of inertial observers, but these observers are not really physically distinguished from other such families. Alcubierre interpreted his "warp bubble" in terms of a contraction of "space" ahead of the bubble and an expansion behind. But this interpretation might be misleading, since the contraction and expansion actually refers to the relative motion of nearby members of the family of ADM observers.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a "warp bubble" in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time. Yet another problem is that, according to Serguei Krasnikov, it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

Difficulties

Alcubierre Warp Drive for Spacetime Travel Significant problems with the metric of this form stem from the fact that all known warp drive spacetimes violate various energy conditions. It is true that certain experimentally verified quantum phenomena, such as the Casimir effect, when described in the context of the quantum field theories, lead to stress-energy tensors which also violate the energy conditions and so one might hope that Alcubierre type warp drives could perhaps be physically realized by clever engineering taking advantage of such quantum effects. However, if certain quantum inequalities conjectured by Ford and Roman hold, then the energy requirements for some warp drives may be absurdly gigantic, e.g. the energy -1067gram equivalent might be required to transport a small spaceship across the Milky Way galaxy. This is orders of magnitude greater than the mass of the universe. Counterarguments to these apparent problems have been offered, but not everyone is convinced they can be overcome.

alcubierre warp drive Chris Van Den Broeck, in 1999, has tried to address the potential issues. By contracting the 3+1 dimensional surface area of the 'bubble' being transported by the drive, while at the same time expanding the 3 dimensional volume contained inside, Van Den Broeck was able to reduce the total energy needed to transport small atoms to less than 3 solar masses. Later, by slightly modifying the Van Den Broeck metric, Krasnikov reduced the necessary total amount of negative energy to a few milligrams.

Krasnikov proposed that, if tachyonic matter could not be found or used, then a solution might be to arrange for masses along the path of the vessel to be set in motion in such a way that the required field was produced. But in this case the Alcubierre Drive vessel is not able to go dashing around the galaxy at will. It is only able to travel routes which, like a railroad, have first been equipped with the necessary infrastructure.

Miguel Alcubierre

Miguel Alcubierre The pilot inside the bubble is causally disconnected with its walls and cannot carry out any action outside the bubble. However, it is necessary to place devices along the route in advance, and since the pilot cannot do this while "in transit", the bubble cannot be used for the first trip to a distant star. In other words, to travel to Vega (which is 26 light-years from the Earth) one first has to arrange everything so that the bubble moving toward Vega with a superluminal velocity would appear and these arrangements will always take more than 26 years.

Coule has argued that schemes such as the one proposed by Alcubierre are not feasible because the matter to be placed on the road beforehand has to be placed at superluminal speed. Thus, according to Coule, an Alcubierre Drive is required in order to build an Alcubierre Drive. Since none have been proven to exist already then the drive is impossible to construct, even if the metric is physically meaningful. Coule argues that an analogous objection will apply to any proposed method of constructing an Alcubierre Drive.

Now in this part you exposed-

You say:

Space time may not be uniform because of entanglement, if one can reacts with itself within space and time, that would suggest the nature of inspiration, wich could be discribe as the tranfert of a knowledge or memory from someone to it self through time because thinking travels faster than light, the nature of quantum foaming would suggest why these memories would'nt arrive at a specific time?

I say :

Yes would arrive if you contain yourself in magnetic bubble traveling 8n frequency and this magnetic bubble have gravitational field .Just like soup of space inside tbe bubble .

You say:

But reaches from time to time. Maybe because the nature of things keep changing as in the moment they may be constantly alternative state in the past and in the future. That would explain why time is'nt uniform, because of the results of some quantum effects?

I say:

Yes and no

Time is bubbles of time suggest to result of some quantum effects and gravitational fields also black matter and black energy interaction .The Arm force is study of this matter how gravitational fields of this affect some grade the results quantum mechanics .

Pay more attention to the Alcubierre work is clue to change space is truth window to dominate all at least in section of universe .

((((((The Casimir effect )))))))is a small attractive force that acts between two close parallel uncharged conducting plates. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The effect was predicted by the Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir in 1948.

Giant Casimir Effect Predicted Inside Metamaterials

Exotic materials should lead to new ways of observing and playing with one of the strangest effects in physics, say Chinese physicists.

by Emerging Technology from the arXiv December 5, 2011

Metamaterials are exotic substances designed to steer electromagnetic waves in ways that are impossible with ordinary stuff. One of their more exciting properties is that they can bend light in a way that is mathematically equivalent to the way spacetime bends light.

This formal equivalence means that metamaterials can reproduce in the lab the exact behaviour of light, not only in our spacetime, but in many others that have only been conjectured until now. This allows physicists to use metamaterials to simulate black holes, big bangs and even multiverses.

Today, Tian-Ming Zhao and Rong-Xin Miao at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei use this kind of thinking to make a startling prediction about the Casimir effect inside certain metamaterials.

The Casimir effect arises because our vacuum is filled with a maelstrom of waves that leap in and out of existence at the smallest scales. The best known consequence of this is the well known Casimir force, which pushes together two conducting plates placed close together.

The explanation is that when the distance between the plates is small enough, it can exclude any waves that are too big to fit in the gap. Since there is nothing between the plates to oppose the effect of these waves, they generate a force that pushes the plates together.

This Casimir force operates on a tiny scale, so small that it was only measured for the first time in 1997. But it is not insignificant. At a separation of 10nm, the force is equivalent to 1 atmosphere (although the actual force depends on various factors such as the precise shape of the objects in close proximity).

Of course, the properties of the vacuum waves depend strongly on the medium in which they exist. So it’s not hard to imagine that different spacetimes might have a significant impact on the size of the Casimir effect.

This is exactly what Zhao and Miao show. They say that in a particular kind of electromagnetic space called a Rindler space, the Casimir effect is huge. The essential idea here is that the space can be designed to allow only certain wavelengths to operate. If the electromagnetic properties of the Rindler space are matched to the ambient temperature, then these kinds of thermal waves can be made to dominate the Casimir energy.

That makes the Casimir energy huge. Zhao and Miao calculate that in a lab at 300K (room temperature), the Casimir energy would be some 10^11 times bigger than the free space value. That’s a significant difference that ought to make these effects accessible in an entirely new way to a much broader audience.

Zhao and Miao also say that this kind of material ought to be relatively straightforward to build, layer by layer.

What that means is that it won’t be long before somebody builds this kind of material and shows off the giant Casimir effect for the first time. We’ll be watching.

Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1110.1919: Huge Casimir Effect At Finite Temperature In Electromagnetic Rindler Space

Northeastern University experimental particle physicists Stephen Reucroft and John Swain put their heads together to write the following answer.

To understand the Casimir Effect, one first has to understand something about a vacuum in space as it is viewed in quantum field theory. Far from being empty, modern physics assumes that a vacuum is full of fluctuating electromagnetic waves that can never be completely eliminated, like an ocean with waves that are always present and can never be stopped. These waves come in all possible wavelengths, and their presence implies that empty space contains a certain amount of energy--an energy that we can't tap, but that is always there.

Now, if mirrors are placed facing each other in a vacuum, some of the waves will fit between them, bouncing back and forth, while others will not. As the two mirrors move closer to each other, the longer waves will no longer fit--the result being that the total amount of energy in the vacuum between the plates will be a bit less than the amount elsewhere in the vacuum. Thus, the mirrors will attract each other, just as two objects held together by a stretched spring will move together as the energy stored in the spring decreases.

Casimir

illustration

Image: Scientific American

CASIMIR EFFECT

This effect, that two mirrors in a vacuum will be attracted to each other, is the Casimir Effect. It was first predicted in 1948 by Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir. Steve K. Lamoreaux, now at Los Alamos National Laboratory, initially measured the tiny force in 1996.

It is generally true that the amount of energy in a piece of vacuum can be altered by material around it, and the term "Casimir Effect" is also used in this broader context. If the mirrors move rapidly, some of the vacuum waves can become real waves. Julian Schwinger and many others have suggested that this "dynamical Casimir effect" may be responsible for the mysterious phenomenon known as sonoluminescence.

One of the most interesting aspects of vacuum energy (with or without mirrors) is that, calculated in quantum field theory, it is infinite! To some, this finding implies that the vacuum of space could be an enormous source of energy--called "zero point energy."

But the finding also raises a physical problem: there's nothing to stop arbitrarily small waves from fitting between two mirrors, and there is an infinite number of these wavelengths. The mathematical solution is to temporarily do the calculation for a finite number of waves for two different separations of the mirrors, find the associated difference in vacuum energies and then argue that the difference remains finite as one allows the number of wavelengths to go to infinity.

Although this trick works, and gives answers in agreement with experiment, the problem of an infinite vacuum energy is a serious one. Einstein's theory of gravitation implies that this energy must produce an infinite gravitational curvature of spacetime--something we most definitely do not observe. The resolution of this problem is still an open research question.

So is easy..

Christian Cardenas: hello my name is Christian cardenas from California fontana CA am 21 years old I wanted to tall you if the universe is going to end can we travel to hiperspece in a spaceship that can tack all human race to a new universe.we need to bild a spaceship right now and we need to stop bing lazy and about the future of the human race. please tell the NASA or the spacex to bild a ship right now for all the human race can get on bord for we can get out of this universe and got to a new universe. please help the human race we dont want to die here in this universe.

Christian Cardenas: hi michio kaku my name is Christian cardenas from California I wanted to now wud the NASA or the sience people can make a parallel mashing to go to a nother universe befor this one is ending the human don't want to stay in this universe that is ending we wont to live in a nother universe that dosent have bade stuff like this universe.

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johen wilson: hello Mr.Kaku I am john from Kurdistan/Iraq and I am making a TV documentaries for kurdsitan24 and because my documentaries are about your ideas.

so I want you to let me make it.

so I want you to let me make it.

johen wilson: I saw your books, documentaries and TV shows. that make me make a documentaries for my people about your ideas

John Garcia: String Theory and subatomic irregularity in the strings. What if in the strings or subatomic realm we have one string that is identical to our own but subtly different. What if by chance it harmonically becomes identically to ours for a trillionth of a second would it not interfere with our final out come in time and space??? And let's just say that string almost has another string identical to it?? Would then see the outcome of both during it cross over into our dimension in space and time??? Just thinking that irregularity of the could crossover and create different outcomes??? Like I said just have been thinking that time is in a constant state of manipulation due to these irregularity.

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Awesome Video of Dr. Michio Kaku discussing his newest book.

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Дмитрий Поляков: Probably mr Kaku reed this. Wt u mind mr Kaku?

https://plus.google.com/108661686988826894684/posts/N6RPdudv1nN

https://plus.google.com/108661686988826894684/posts/N6RPdudv1nN

Yoda the wise (jedi master): can we have another hangouts call with mechio kaku

Peter K: how-to-contact-Michio?

scientist-from-Carlow-Ireland

Eye-Of-Horus-my-device

sparticles-triscalion-

Clear-Fusion

PHI

Artificial-Star!

important

scientist-from-Carlow-Ireland

Eye-Of-Horus-my-device

sparticles-triscalion-

Clear-Fusion

PHI

Artificial-Star!

important

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BUY "THE FUTURE OF THE MIND" NOW...

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ahmed facaci: تصبح البداية كالنهاية عندها نثبت اننا عباد الله و ما دكره الانبياء و الرسل يثبت بالعلم مكرها و ليس مخيرا و تصبح علوم الروح هي مصدر و ملهم علم المستقبل و السلام

Nathan Fleischman: What is the next book being written?

Srecko Sorli: eternity is NOW www.fopi.info

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Join Dr. Michio Kaku for a special Google+ Hangout on Friday, March 14th, 2014 at 11:30 AM EST about his latest book, THE FUTURE OF THE MIND: http://goo.gl/pImVLr

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Peter K: Agree, same type of energy we discovered, my type of an engine generated

s-particles 6 times faster then light speed, from an Artificial Sun by

coincident generated more out come I could expect, 33 years young man,

scientists from Carlow Town, we looking at fluid as dark mater and all is

connected move matter from one point galaxy into another it's mater of an

matter creation from a source I could not explain before until 10 July 2015

test of an eye

s-particles 6 times faster then light speed, from an Artificial Sun by

coincident generated more out come I could expect, 33 years young man,

scientists from Carlow Town, we looking at fluid as dark mater and all is

connected move matter from one point galaxy into another it's mater of an

matter creation from a source I could not explain before until 10 July 2015

test of an eye

Peter K: No string theory but G 4 forces generation is important...

Gary Martin: this is way beyond string theory. makes it look like a pile of spaghetti.

matter/anti-matter mixed. speed total. so far I don't glow in the dark. I

am currently interacting with it. sounds wild but true. you have to see to

believe. I do not know how to write Dr Kaku to invite him to the show.

these things are crazy. be nice if he would contact me before I become

x-tra crispy, I hope not. thanks.

matter/anti-matter mixed. speed total. so far I don't glow in the dark. I

am currently interacting with it. sounds wild but true. you have to see to

believe. I do not know how to write Dr Kaku to invite him to the show.

these things are crazy. be nice if he would contact me before I become

x-tra crispy, I hope not. thanks.

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