Cover photo
The Kahimyang Project
340 followers|1,970,013 views


The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On September 3, 1894, Benigno Aquino Sr. was born in Murcia, Tarlac to Servillano Aquino, a general in the Philippine Revolution who later served as a member of the Malolos Congress and, Guadalupe Quiambao, daughter of a well-to-do couple, Pablo and Lorenza Quiambao.

After being taught the cartilla by a private tutor, the young Aquino studied under Bartolome Tablante in Angeles, Pampanga. Then he boarded at the school of Modesto Joaquin in Bacolor. In 1904, he entered the Colegio de San Juan de Letran as a boarding student. There, he reaped medals in oratory, and was the star pupil in the philosophy class. On March 8,1908, at age 13, he graduated from Letran with a Bachelor of Arts degree. Afterwards, he enrolled at the University of Santo Tomas to take up law. He completed his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1913 and, the following year, passed the bar.

In May 1916, Aquino married Maria Urquico, the youngest daughter of a Capitan Antonio, a rich rice merchant in Tarlac who came from an affluent family in Bulacan. As one of the country's first certified public accountants in 1915, Maria worked as a bookkeeper for the family business at the time of the marriage. She and Benigno lived in a house near the Tarlac market where their first child, Antonio, was born. Three others followed: Servillano, Milagros, and Erlinda.

In 1928, his wife, Maria, died of cancer. Two years later, he married his third cousin Aurora Aquino, who was 16 years his junior. They had seven children: Mauro, Benigno Jr. (Ninoy), Ditas, Lupita, Agapito, Paul and Tessie.

Aquino served as representative of the second district of Tarlac (1919-1928), senator (1928-1934), and assemblyman (1935-1938). In 1938, after his stint in the legislature, he was appointed by President Quezon Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce and served until his resignation in 1941.

During the Japanese occupation, Aquino was among the members of the puppet government of President Jose P. Laurel. He was the secretary general of the KALIBAPI (Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas), a Filipino political party that served as the sole party of the state during the Japanese occupation. When the Japanese surrendered, he was arrested by the American military along with President Laurel and other prominent Filipino officials. In mid-September 1945, they joined the first prisoners of war to be sent to Tokyo's Sugamo Prison. It was in that concentration camp that Aquino developed a heart condition, and twice collapsed from a stroke.

On August 25, 1946, after almost a year at the Sugamo, he was flown home by a US Army plane. He was very haggard, having lost about 30 pounds. Arraigned before the People’s Court, he entered a plea of innocence to the charge of treason and petitioned for bail. On September 11, 1946, he was released provisionally from prison. During the remainder of the year, he stayed in Concepcion and nursed himself back to health.

By 1947, Aquino was ready for a political comeback. He became close to then President Manuel Roxas. However, Roxas could not receive him openly as US Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes had warned that the war-ravaged country could not expect material aid from the United States if the so-called Japanese "collaborators" were allowed to regain their influence in the Philippine government. And Roxas needed rehabilitation money very badly.

On the evening of December 20, 1947, the title fight between Manuel Ortiz, the world bantamweight boxing champion from Mexico, and Tirso del Rosario, the Filipino challenger from Tarlac was held at the Rizal Memorial Stadium in Manila. Aquino was among the spectators. When Del Rosario got knocked down in the fourth round, he suddenly jumped up. He had suffered a heart attack. Del Rosario lost the fight, and Aquino died of cardiac arrest.

Benigno Aquino Sr. was buried in Concepcion, Tarlac.
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On September 1, 1909, Baguio, then a municipality of Benguet province in Northern Luzon, was declared a chartered city by virtue of Act No. 1963.

Then Governor General William Cameron Forbes directed Justice George Malcolm, a young lawyer in the American-led Philippine government, to write the city's charter.

The name of the city is derived from the word "bagiw" in Ibaloi, the indigenous language of the Benguet Region meaning "moss."

The second Philippine Commission, led by William Howard Taft, which arrived in Manila in June 1900, had one express order from then American Secretary of War Elihu Root to search for a cool place in Northern Luzon, high in the ranges of the Cordilleras, and lay out plans for its development.

At that time, the Americans were mostly quartered and sweltering in heat in Manila. They thus began to explore for cooler venues where their government administrative machineries could be installed as well as for health reasons.

Climbing way up Northern Luzon and moving on further, the members of the five-man Taft Commission, including Luke Wright, were rewarded with the discovery of fresh pine growths among rolling beautiful hills, and Baguio was found.

Thus, a development plan was laid out by the Taft Commission and roads were built, followed by a survey for a railroad to Baguio. The Commission assigned Major Lyman Kennon to supervise the building of the road cut through rock cliffs to open a route to Baguio, which was later named after him.

In 1903, the Americans declared Baguio the Summer Capital of the Philippines and as the residence of the American governor-general to escape Manila's summer heat.

Baguio was developed further by the Americans by building parks and public structures such as the Wright Park in honor of Governor General Luke E. Wright, and the Burnham Park in honor of Baguio city planner Daniel Burnham.
Ken Harbit (Pogi)'s profile photoarchie vidaurre's profile photo
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 30, 1951, the Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines was signed in Washington, D. C., by President Harry Truman and President Elpidio Quirino.

The two countries agreed, "separately and jointly by selfhelp and mutual aid", to "maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack" and to recognize that "an armed attack in the Pacific area on either the Parties would be dangerous to its own peace and safety" and further agreed that each "would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes".

The ratification advise was approved by the US Senate on March 20, 1952. The President of the United States ratified the treaty on April 15, 1952. The Philippine Senate on the other hand, ratified the treaty on May 12, 1952.

This mutual defense treaty entered into force on August 27, 1952.

Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines

The Parties to this Treaty,

Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all Governments, and desiring to strengthen the fabric of peace in the Pacific Area,

Recalling with mutual pride the historic relationship which brought their two peoples together in a common bond of sympathy and mutual ideals to fight side-by-side against imperialist aggression during the last war,

Desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense of unity and their common determination to defend themselves against external armed attack, so that no potential aggressor could be under the illusion that either of them stands alone in the Pacific Area,

Desiring further to strengthen their present efforts for collective defense for the preservation of peace and security pending the development of a more comprehensive system of regional security in the Pacific Area,

Agreeing that nothing in this present instrument shall be considered or interpreted as in any way or sense altering or diminishing any existing agreements or understandings between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines,

Have agreed as follows:


The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.


In order more effectively to achieve the objective of this Treaty, the Parties separately and jointly by self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.


The Parties, through their Foreign Ministers or their deputies, will consult together from time to time regarding the implementation of this Treaty and whenever in the opinion of either of them the territorial integrity, political independence or security of either of the Parties is threatened by external armed attack in the Pacific.


Each Party recognizes that an armed attack in the Pacific Area on either of the Parties would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common dangers in accordance with its constitutional processes.

Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall be immediately reported to the Security Council of the United Nations. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.


For the purpose of Article IV, an armed attack on either of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack on the metropolitan territory of either of the Parties, or on the island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific or on its armed forces, public vessels or aircraft in the Pacific.


This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.


This Treaty shall be ratified by the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines in accordance with their respective constitutional processes and will come into force when instruments of ratification thereof have been exchanged by them at Manila.


This Treaty shall remain in force indefinitely. Either Party may terminate it one year after notice has been given to the other Party.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.

DONE in duplicate at Washington this 30th day of August 1951.
(US President Harry Truman (left) and Philippine President Elpidio Quirino (center) in the Oval Office. Photo taken September 13, 1951. Photo credit: Wikipedia Commons) On August 30, 1951, the Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines was signed in Washington, D. C., by President Harry Truman and President Elpidio Quirino. The two countries agreed, "separately and jointly by selfhelp and mutual...
archie vidaurre's profile photo
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 29, 1916, the Jones Law or the Act of Congress known as the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, was approved.
The Jones Law contained the first formal and official declaration of the United States commitment to grant independence to the Philippines.

The law provides that the grant of independence would come only "as soon as a stable government can be established" which gave the United States Government the power to determine when this "stable government" has been achieved.

It aimed at providing the Filipino people broader domestic autonomy though it reserved certain privileges to the United States (Americans) to protect their sovereign rights and interests.

Jones Law replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 (Philippine Bill of July 1, 1902) that served as the de facto initial constitution of the Philippine Islands after it was ceded by Spain to the United States by virtue of the Treaty of Paris.

Among the salient provisions of the Autonomy Act of 1916 was the creation of an all Filipino legislature which created the Philippine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission which had served as the upper chamber of the legislature.
US Congressman William Atkinson Jones, authored the Jones Law. On August 29, 1916, the Jones Law or the Act of Congress known as the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, was approved. The Jones Law contained the first formal and official declaration of the United States commitment to grant independence to the Philippines. The law provides that the grant of independence would come only "as soon as a stable government can be established" which gave the...
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
Perhaps very few people other than Ilocanos (1) know that the first Filipino literary man to achieve more than national renown was Pedro Bukaneg, father of Ilocano literature and prince of Ilocano poets, who has been variously referred to by writers as a Moses, a Socrates, a Milton of the Philippines. This poet and philosopher was born towards the end of the sixteenth century. He is not nationally known now, his fame being confined to the Ilocos region, but during his lifetime and for many years after his death, his fame spread beyond the nation's boundaries, reaching even as far as Madrid and Rome. (2)

Perhaps even fewer people know that the Ilocanos have an epic which deserves a place beside Balagtas' "Florante and Laura", and a permanent place in our national literature. This poem is the "Life of Lam-ang", the only epic in the Ilocano language. Unfortunately for non-Ilocano and non-Spanish reading people, no translation of the poem in English or any of the native dialects exists. There are two Spanish translations, (3) both in prose: one (4) by Cecilio Apostol, and the other (5) by Isabelo de los Reyes.

As in the case of the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey", controversy has arisen over the authorship of the poem. Some Ilocano writers hold that it was originally written by Pedro Bukaneg, but that after his death, together with his other writings, it was condemned and destroyed by the Spaniards, who were jealous of his fame. (6) Fortunately, however, the poem was preserved to posterity by contemporaries of Bukaneg who committed it to memory. It was handed down orally through many generations until it was again committed to writing by one C. Medina, a minor poet about whom little is known. Others believe this Medina to be the real author of the poem, basing their contention on the alleged fact that of the four versions of the poem, Medina's is the oldest, and on the fact that Medina also wrote other romances in Ilocano. Still others hold that the "Life of Lam-ang" is not a literary but a popular epic, and not the work of one poet but of a bardic group. They believe that the epic was probably first composed some time during the seventeenth century, and underwent continuous growth and alteration from generation to generation until it reached its present form. Which of these three views is the true one, remains to be proved.

In 1924 there were, according to the late Epifanio de los Santos, three versions (7) of the epic; namely, the C. Medina version, which is generally believed to be the oldest; the Isabelo de los Reyes (8) version; and the Parayno Hermanos (9) version, which is the most popular of all. In 1926 a new version appeared, the La Lucha, (10) considered to be the most literary. The first three differ from each other in form and thought only slightly. Except for the first three or four and the last two or three stanzas and some lines here and there, which are not worded identically, they are all alike, word for word. Only the La Lucha version differs from the other three to a rather marked degree. Its most distinguishing characteristic is the fact that it is written in the new orthography.

A characteristic peculiar to the Parayno Hermanos version is that, while the other three begin at once without any invocation, it begins with one:(11)

O God, the Holy Spirit,
Light up, my Lord, my thought,
So that I can relate well,
The history of a man.

The Medina version opens with these lines:(12)

I begin to relate,
And listen (to me) carefully,
The life of Lam-ang,
Who was then conceived.

The poem (13) consists of 294 stanzas of varying length, ranging from 4 to 8 lines. The total number of lines is 1290, more or less, according to the version, each version containing a different number. The number of syllables to a line varies from 6 to 12. The rime scheme is the single or tail rime (monorimo) a a a a a... The poem does not abound much in figures of speech other than hyperbole and simile. It is heavily interlarded with overstatements the humor of which would seem vulgar to the ears of dilettanti. Throughout the poem one frequently comes across characteristic passages sparkling with wit and humor, as the following:(14)

Kaka ngamin Lam-ang, 
dagusemman ti magnan 
tapno makitak ta echoram 
ken estilo ta pannagnam.

Ta no addanto pangabakian 
isublikanto a di agkurang 
iti biang ni inam 
a inam babain Namongan.

Ay immaddang met itan 
iti pasar ti lima nga addang, 
ket kinona ni Kannoyan, 
kaka ngamin Lam-ang.

Diak la kayat ta kitam 
ta bukroska a bukangkang, 
ta duriripay ta pannagnam, 
ket dayta buokmo mapinggoldan.

A considerable number of Ilocano writers claim for this poem epic status. Others would consider it only a metrical romance. In the strict sense it can not be called an epic because it lacks such important elements of the epic as profundity of theme and sublimity of thought and language. It would be ridiculous to assign it a place beside such works as the "Aeneid" or "Paradise Lost". It would not even be justifiable to compare it with the Anglo-Saxon epic "Beowulf". It attains the nobility and beauty of this epic only at very rare intervals. But its hero possesses the qualities of an epic hero: he is a prodigy of courage and strength, and his deeds are supernatural, incapable of achievement by an ordinary mortal. It is on the line between epic and romance, to assign it to its proper place. But if we would raise "Florante and Laura" to the rank of an epic, we would be as much justified in conferring the same name upon the Ilocano poem.(15)

A comparison of the two poems will reveal many striking differences. In purely literary value, the Ilocano does not equal the Tagalog poem. It has not the beauty and richness of expression, the nobility of sentiment, and the dignity of thought-essential qualities of all great poetry of the Tagalog poem. It does not frequently rise to lofty thought or feeling. It is written in much the same way as the familiar corridos (legendary and religious poems), the only big difference being that it is not an extravagant fantasia on a foreign theme. It is, unlike the popular corridos, "Bernardo Carpio" for one, genuinely native in atmosphere, in setting, and in characters.

Another essential difference between the two poems lies in the theme. Balagtas' masterpiece is an attack, subtly disguised, on Spanish misrule in the Philippines; the Ilocano poem is purely legendary, its chief purpose is entertainment. The former is permeated with an intense feeling of patriotism (we were not aware of this and the highly seditious character of the poem until Epifanio de los Santos discovered and pointed it out); the latter is practically devoid of any patriotic feeling. The two poems, however, are similar in one thing: both are melodramas, both are "and- they-lived-happily-ever-after" stories.

The epic is often sung to the tune of the dallot (16) during wedding and baptismal feasts among the peasantry, usually by old men who know the poem by heart. Many old men and women who can neither read nor write can recite it from beginning to end without error. It is popular among the common people, because it reflects the life, culture, and ideals of the ancient Ilocanos. It glorifies the inborn courage and bravery of the Ilocano, his valor as a fighter, his adventurous spirit, and his rugged honesty.

The theme concerns the successful wooing, by an Ilocano youth, of the most beautiful Ilocano maiden of the time, daughter of an influential native family in northern Ilocos, over scores of other rivals, many of them Spaniards. Summarized briefly, the story runs as follows:

Lam-ang, a youth of superhuman strength, is born to Don Juan and his wife Namongan, of the town of Nalbuan (somewhere in the valley of the Naguilian River, east of Naguilian, La Union), the richest native-born citizen in southern Ilocos. Still a babe but already possessed of tremendous strength, he sets out for the Igorot country, high up in the mountains to the east, in search of his father who, he learns from his mother, had departed for the high lands before his birth to fight the Igorots. On his way, he falls into a deep slumber and in a vision sees the Igorots, arch-enemies of the lowlanders, feasting around the head of his father whom they had murdered in cold blood. Reaching the land of the Igorots, he takes revenge, and alone, single-handed, engages practically the whole tribe in a bloody battle, from which, with the aid of his talismans, he emerges triumphant. He kills and maims thousands of the wild men -with his magic spear, and works such havoc and destruction that the land becomes a desolate waste.

He returns home, satisfied that he has revenged the murder of his father, and goes bathing in the Amburayan River with a bevy of beautiful girls. His hair has become so dirty during his war against the Igorots that the bath the girls give him in the river kills many fish. He kills a huge crocodile after a hard-fought contest, and carries it victoriously ashore on his shoulders amid the plaudits of his girl companions.

Having heard of a beautiful girl, Ines Kannoyan by name, of the town of Kalanutian (now a barrio of Sinait, Ilocos Sur), in northern Ilocos, he intimates to his mother his desire to visit the maiden and ask for her hand in marriage. He meets with discouragement from his mother, who tells him she does not believe Kannoyan would accept him as a husband because there are many other suitors, Spaniards, handsomer and richer than he. He nevertheless dons his best clothes, and, taking with him, among other things, his pet rooster and his hairy white dog, both endowed with such magic powers as those of divination and human speech, he sets out on his important quest.

About the middle of the journey he meets Sumarang, one of the suitors of Kannoyan, who is returning home from Kalanutian. Sumarang tells him derisively that he had better not continue his journey, for Kannoyan would surely not accept the love of such a person as he. Lam-ang, keenly insulted, engages him in a duel. The fight at the beginning is about even, but gradually Lam-ang gets the better of his enemy, and in the end hurls him away over nine hills with his spear.

Resuming his journey, he passes by the house of Saridandan, a woman of easy virtue who, with wiles and deceptions attempts to cajol him into remaining a while to partake of the buyo she says she has prepared especially for him. Lam-ang, however, refuses her, gently but firmly.

When he reaches the home of Kannoyan, he finds a big gathering of suitors-wealthy natives and Spaniards from all over the region-entertaining themselves in the yard, so big a crowd that he can hardly manage to get through. Undismayed in his hope of winning her, he edges his way toward the house and bids his rooster to crow, and a small outhouse topples down. Disturbed by the noise, Kannoyan lays aside her work, looks out of the window, and sees the new suitor. In the meantime, his hairy white dog begins to bark, and in a moment the fallen building arises reconstructed. At the instance of her mother Unnayan, Kannoyan adorns herself and goes downstairs to bring Lam-ang in-a favor she has never shown to any other suitor. The other suitors look on crestfallen.

Through his rooster, which does the speaking for him, Lam-ang makes known the reason for his coming. The parents (17) of the girl tell him they would give him their daughter in marriage if he can give a dowry equal to all their wealth. They show him their riches: utensils and furniture wrought in pure gold, and point to vast fields which they have inherited from their ancestors. Lam-ang tells them that all this wealth they are showing him represents only a small fraction of his riches. Satisfied, they grant his suit.

Lam-ang goes home to Nalbuan to prepare himself for the wedding which is to take place at Kalanutian. He and his townspeople sail on two golden ships-tradeships owned by Lam-ang plying regularly between the Ilocos and China ports-for the home town of his bride. At Sabangan, (18) the port nearest Kalanutian, they fire a salvo to announce their arrival. They are warmly welcomed. The wedding, which is solemnized according to the rites of the Catholic church, is celebrated amid splendor befitting the two richest native families in the Ilocos. There is feasting and dancing, and much merriment. After the festivities the married pair, together with their townspeople, embark on the ships for Nalbuan, where the celebrations are resumed.

Lam-ang undergoes one more crucial ordeal. Shortly after the departure of Kannoyan's people for their own town, he is informed by a town Capitan that it is now his turn to go fishing for oysters. He communicates to his wife a premonition that he will be killed and eaten by a monster fish. The premonition comes true, for he is devoured by a big fish called berkakan in the dialect. Lamang's rooster, however, assures the sorrow-stricken wife that her husband can be restored to life if all his bones are found. All the bones, fortunately, are recovered by a certain Marcos, a skilled driver. After a series of incantations performed by the rooster and the dog at which Kannoyan assists, Lam-ang is brought back to life. "And they lived happily ever after."
Perhaps very few people other than Ilocanos (1) know that the first Filipino literary man to achieve more than national renown was Pedro Bukaneg, father of Ilocano literature and prince of Ilocano poets, who has been variously referred to by writers as a Moses, a Socrates, a Milton of the Philippines. This poet and philosopher was born towards the end of the sixteenth century. He is not nationally known now, his fame being confined to the Ilocos ...
Ken Harbit (Pogi)'s profile photo
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 24, 1896, the Katipuneros (revolutionaries) arrived at the house of Melchora Aquino in Banlat (now Tandang Sora District, Quezon City), which became a refuge for sick and wounded Katipuneros.

Melchora Aquino, popularly called Tandang Sora, as she was already 84 at that time when the Philippine Revolution broke out in 1896, played an important role in the Filipino revolution against the Spanish colonizers.

She fed, gave medical attention to and encouraged the revolutionaries with motherly advice and prayers; as well as secret meetings of the Katipuneros were also held at her house. With these, she gained the title Grand Woman of the Revolution and the Mother of Balintawak for her heroic contributions to Philippine history.

The Spanish authorities arrested and exiled her to Guam for her participation in the revolution. In 1903, the Americans allowed her and other exiles to return to the Philippines.

She declined material rewards from the government for her patriotic services and sacrifices.

To her, rewards did not matter despite the fact that she lived in poverty. She was contented with the fact that she had supported the Katipunan.

Because of her heroism, a place in Quezon was named after her. The place is now known as Tandang Sora, Quezon City.

She died on March 2, 1919 at the age of 107.

Her remains lie in her own backyard (now as Himlayang Pilipino Memorial Park, Quezon City).
Ken Harbit (Pogi)'s profile photo
Add a comment...
In their circles
2,518 people
Have them in circles
340 people
Anne Aconda's profile photo
Arquimedes Vidaurre's profile photo
TURGEN J.G.B's profile photo
Lek Phairuang's profile photo
sửa chữa hà nội 1's profile photo
木崎朋美's profile photo
Cebu Pacific Promo's profile photo
Ernesto Sengia's profile photo's profile photo

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On September 3, 1898, La Independencia, the periodical organ of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, came out with its first issue. It was edited and founded by General Antonio Luna, Supreme Chief of the Army under Emilio Aguinaldo.

Publication of the paper continued even during the Filipino-American War, although General Luna was pulled out of its editorial staff because of his military duties and was replaced by Rafael Palma as acting editor.

On this same day in 1899, La Independencia first published the Spanish lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem titled "Filipinas" written by Jose Palma.

Palma a poet and soldier, was in the staff of La Independencia at the time he wrote his "Filipinas".

The La Independencia came out with its last issue on November 11, 1900.
La Independencia, periodical organ of Philippine Revolution came out with its first issue on September 3, 1898. It was edited and founded by General Antonio Luna.
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 31, 1907, Ramon Magsaysay, seventh President of the Philippines, hailed by his countrymen as the "Champion of the Masses", was born in Iba, Zambales from a blacksmith father and a school teacher mother.

Magsaysay was the most endeared Philippine president who reached out to Filipinos even in remote barrios. He opened the Malacanang Palace to the people and declared that it was the palace of the people.

As president, he led a simple life, not showy or materialistic. He did not buy a new car or have Malacanang renovated or even acquire properties for himself, citing people are living in great deprivation.

Elected president of the Philippines in November 1953, with campaign slogan "Magsaysay is my Guy" capitalized on his charismatic leadership. He created the President's Complaint Action Committee (PCAC) as his action line for assisting the masses where people found the courage to air their complaints as he allowed them to send telegrams to the PCAC free of charge.

Magsaysay broke down large estates and acquired land settlements for the people. Greater protection for tenants was provided for by the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954. The prices of consumer goods were lowered.

Notably, it was during Magsaysay's presidency that the Huk threat finally came to an end with the surrender of Luis Taruc.

His active coordination with the Japanese government led to the Reparation Agreement, obligating the Japanese government to pay $550 million as reparation for war damages in the Philippines.

Magsaysay did not finish his term as president when his plane crashed in Cebu on March 17, 1957 after speaking before an educational institution in Cebu. He died at the age of 49.

The gravesite of President Magsaysay is at the Manila North Cemetery.
archie vidaurre's profile photo
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 30, 1850, Marcelo H. Del Pilar, one of the leading propagandists for reforms in the country, known by his pen name Plaridel, was born in Cupang (now Barangay San Nicolas), Bulacan, Bulacan.

His parents were Don Julian H. del Pilar, an excellent Tagalog grammarian, speaker, and poet, and Doña Blasa Gatmaytan, familiarly known as Blasica. Don Julian was three times gobernadorcillo of the pueblo of Bulacan and later oficial de lecsa of the alcalde mayor of the province.

Marcelo had 9 siblings, Toribio (priest, deported to the Marianas in 1872), Fernando, Andrea, Dorotea, Estanislao, Juan, Hilaria (married to Deodato Arellano), Valentin, and Maria. The name of the family was Hilario; but pursuant to a decree of Claveria's, in 1849, the name of the grandmother, Del Pilar, had to be added. Inasmuch as "Gat" which precedes the mother's family name indicates noble origin, it will not be an exaggeration to affirm that the family belonged to the Tagalog nobility or descended from the ancient Tagalog kings.

Marcelo H. del Pilar began his studies in the school of a certain Sr. Flores; he then passed to the Colegio de San Jose, and thence to the University of Santo Tomas. A disagreement with the parish priest of San Miguel, Manila, concerning baptismal fees, in 1869 or 1870, caused a regrettable break of 8 years in the fourth year of the study of his profession, jurisprudence. He finally succeeded in graduating in 1880.

Prior to leaving the country, the friars found their match in Del Pilar who seized every occasion to attack them with his tirades and stinging criticisms. During those times, the friars were the most hated persons in the Philippines who protested against the teaching of the Spanish language to Filipinos; campaigned against press freedom; the secularization of parishes; the enjoyment of civil rights and liberties. They blocked the introduction of reforms in the country for fear that an enlightened citizenry would diminish their powers and prerogatives.

He made speeches in crowds, whether a cockpit, tienda, or town plaza. He delivered his tirades against the friars during fiestas, parties and funeral wakes. Notably, on August 1, 1882, he published Diariong Tagalog, which exposed the abuses of the friars and the need for reforms. He also wrote poems and essays defending Filipino interests and fought for the equality of Filipinos and Spaniards in his book "La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas" (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines).

For their part, the church wielded its influence to secure an order to banish Del Pilar. But before the order's release, del Pilar managed to flee to Spain, arriving in Barcelona on January 1, 1889. His coming gave empetus to the establishment of the paper "La Solidaridad" the primary organ of the propaganda. Just before leaving the Philippines, del Pilar organized the "Comite de Propaganda", to solicit contributions to support the propaganda in Spain. The Filipino community in Barcelona decided to support the paper before the arrival of funds from Deodato Arellano, his brother-in-law.

Deodato Arellano was in charge of the Comite de Propaganda in Manila ably aided by Doroteo Cortez, Ambrosio Bautista, and Pedro Serrano Laktaw.

"Propaganda" refer to the campaign intended to acquaint the Spaniards in the Peninsula of actual conditions in the Philippines in the latter half of the 19th century. The propaganda was a two-sided movement, one waged in Spain for the extension to the Philippines of freer governmental institutions, for an honest administration, and for the speedy replacement of the friars by Filipino priests; and waged in the Islands themselves for the improvement of educational facilities, the removal of espionage upon the press and public opinion, and above all, the awakening of the lethargic masses.

Prior to 1888. Filipinos in Spain had already started the propaganda, but this was sporadic, isolated and lacked direction. Marcelo del Pilar was the first to see the need for organization, hence, before leaving the Islands, he organized the Comite de Propaganda. In spain, he and his friends organized the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina in January 12, 1889, so that it would help in the campaign. The Spanish-Filipino Association was composed of all Filipinos in Europe, together with their sympathizers, whether Spaniards or not. Professor Miguel Morayta was its President, and Felipe de la Corte, former resident of the Philippines, its Vice-President. While Marcelo H. del Pilar was a simple chairman of its political committee, he was in reality the directing intelligence of the association. Miguel Morayta and Del Pilar were closely bound by friendship and mutual respect. We honor him with a street called "Morayta" in the city of Maanila, as Blumentritt, the great friend of Rizal and Del Pilar, who wrote so many articles in La Solidaridad, is remembered by Filipinos by another street named in his honor.

On February 15, 1889, La Solidaridad released it first issue, Graciano Lopez Jaena, who already established a name for himself in Barcelona, was made editor and Pablo Rianzares, business manager. On its 19th issue, to make the paper more effective organ of the propaganda, the La Solidaridad was transferred to Madrid, it being the capital of Spain. Marcelo del Pilar assumed management of the paper and continued to do so until November 15, 1895, its last issue.

For almost seven years the paper continued its missionary work and converted many Spanish Liberals, learned men and Socialists, who, seeing the justness of the demands of the Filipinos, joined and aided the patriots. Their voices, however, were drowned in the wilderness of indifference, if not downright stubbornness on the part of the Spanish rulers. La Solidaridad had to be discontinued for lack of funds, and also because Del Pilar was finally convinced that all peaceful efforts at securing reforms were in vain. He decided to return, to the Philippines to start a revolution.

There was for sometime a steady flow of contributions from the Committee on Propaganda in Manila. Native Filipinos did not hesitate to give their contributions to the reform movement, but after several years, many of them lost their interest and fervor, and one by one they dropped out until Deodato Arellano had to confess that it was getting hard to collect funds. Most of them were discouraged when they saw that nothing tangible had been achieved. It was then that Del Pilar was reduced to penury, extreme poverty.

Doodato Arellano had no more money to send to Europe. Del Pilar sought the aid of his family to help finance the great undertaking. The Del Pilar clan had no money either, and Marcelo's immediate family was in dire straits. But they managed to send Del Pilar money with which to enable him to return to the Philippine so, Marcelo could have returned, but upon advice of his friends, he stayed in Spain lest his coming might cause tragedies like the Calamba troubles that accompanied Rizal's visit to the Philippines in 1887. He must continue the good work and in deciding to stay longer, he had to undergo all kinds of tribulations, hunger included. Every now and then he had to forego breakfast, luncheon or supper just so that the money saved might help to prolong the life of La Solidaridad. Now, a hungry man might forget his hunger by enjoying a good smoke. But he had no money to buy cigars or cigarettes. So walking along the streets of Madrid, he would pick up cigar and cigarette stubs on the sidewalks and smoke them. Temporarily he forgets his hunger. Under these circumstances, his athletic body gave way, he weakened, and weakening, he succumbed to tuberculosis.

There is the very touching story of his daughter Ana, who was only over one year old when Marcelo left the Philippines. Overhearing the conversation of the grown-ups, Ana learned of the sufferings of her father in Spain. One Christmas she received from her Ninang a Christmas gift of one paso. Thinking that she would do her duty to her father, Ana sent her only peso to Spain. Upon receipt of that peso, Marcelo cried like a baby. He was again reminded of his failure to do a father's duty to his daughters, and their orphanhood broke his heart.

Epifanio de los Santos describes vividly Del Pilar's sufferings:

"He frequently dreams he has Anita on one knee and Sofia on the other, each other disputing his love, and retaining him at home and he kisses them passionately, he wake up terrified and bathed in tears; it was a dream, nothing but a dream. He then goes out in the streets and smothers the daughter of his friends with kisses The orphanhood of his daughters broke his heart; he considers himself the unhappiest of fathers because of the great misfortune of his daughters ..."

After Marcelo del Pilar stopped the publication of the La Solidaridad, he and his secretary, Mariano "Naning" Ponce decided to return to the Philippines. So from Madrid they moved to Barcelona which was the point of embarkation for the Philippines. Marcelo was already sick, had been sick for sometime but he was determined to return home. His illness however worsened in Barcelona and it was there that he breath his last on July 4, 1896, and it was only the faithful Naning who saw him depart. With the aid of a few friends, the great del Pilar was given a pauper's burial in a borrowed vault.

In 1890, Ferdinand Blumentritt said "Marcelo del Pilar has a warlike character; is foxy; has much energy and a great talent for satire; kindness; intrepid; ambitious; has no considerations when anything serious is to be done."

Mariano Ponce in the newspaper La Independencia (1898) wrote "Del Pilar was tireless propagandist; an expert in political warfare, formidable in attack and defence, a skilful wielder of the pen, unshakable in his arguments; his knowledge and powerful intelligence were respected even by his enemies whom he routed on more than one occasion in the peaceful contest of thoughts."

To Governor General Blanco, Marcelo H. del Pilar was the most redoubtable of the Filipino politicians: "the most intelligent, the real soul of the separatists, very superior to Rizal".

In 1920 his remains were brought back to the Philippines and was buried at the Manila North Cemetery. It was later transferred to his birthplace in San Nicolas, Bulacan, Bulacan, on his birthday anniversary on August 30, 1984. His final resting place is now known as "Dambana ni Plaridel" (Shrine of Plaridel) which stands on the same site of his birthplace.

Marcelo married his cousin Marciana H. del Pilar in Tondo in the month of February 1878. From this marriage sprang Sofia, Jose, Maria Rosario, Maria Consolacion, Maria Concepcion, Jose and Ana.

Today, Plaridel is the chosen "patron saint" of journalists as his life and works prized freedom of thought and opinion most highly above any material gain. He is also considered as the Father of Philippine Masonry who spearheaded the secret organization of Masonic lodges in the Philippines as a means of strengthening the Propaganda Movement.
Marcelo H. del Pilar On August 30, 1850, Marcelo H. Del Pilar, one of the leading propagandists for reforms in the country, known by his pen name Plaridel, was born in Cupang (now Barangay San Nicolas), Bulacan, Bulacan. His parents were Don Julian H. del Pilar, an excellent Tagalog grammarian, speaker, and poet, and Doña Blasa Gatmaytan, familiarly known as Blasica. Don Julian was three times gobernadorcillo of the pueblo of Bulacan and later o...
archie vidaurre's profile photo
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 28, 1851, Nazaria Lagos, maker of the first Philippine flag in Iloilo, was born in in barrio Burongan (now Jaguimit) Dueñas, Iloilo.

Also known as the "Florence Nightingale of Panay", she was the only child of Juan de la Cruz Lagos and Saturnina Labrilloso. It was from her mother that she learned the caton and cartilla. Then she studied under maestro Gregorio Tingson, who taught her the ofrecemiento, tocsin, cent, planar, and grammatical castellan.

She was only 12 years old when she was married to Segundo Lagos, son of Bartolome Lagos, founder of the town of Dueñas. Her husband was serving as chief sacristan at the town church when he was appointed municipal president by Gen. Martin Delgado on October 27, 1898. This placed her "in the good graces of both the government and church authorities".

When the military governor ordered Fr. Lorenzo Suarez to organize the first Red Cross in Iloilo in 1897, she was appointed as Red Cross president of Dueñas, with the priest giving her blanket authority to name its other officers.

Despite their good relationship with both the church and government authorities, she and her husband always aspired for the freedom of the Filipino people. They supported the revolutionary movement by freely giving their time and facilities to the Visayan rebels. Their house in barrio Burongan served as venue for the secret meetings of the revolutionary leaders.

In one of those meetings, Nazaria was appointed chief and director of the proposed rebel hospital in Jaguimit, including the food supply and equipment depot established in the secluded Lagos hacienda, adjoining Jaguimit. She lost no time in asking her father to help build the hospital, as well as provide bamboo beds, chairs, tables, shelves, and cabinets, and in soliciting clothing materials and beddings from her town mates. She also collected medicinal plants, such as alibhon, adgaw, buyo, luy-a, beta, amargoso, and guava, since there were no readily available medicines and drugs at the time, and mobilized traditional healers.

During the Philippine-American War, that hospital rendered invaluable service to wounded Filipino soldiers who had fought with valor in the battle at the Tacas-Tucud-SambogBalantang line in February 1899. When the need for supplies and manpower increased, Nazaria tapped the Red Cross women, who helped her in nursing the sick and the wounded and in soliciting contributions of food and other supplies. As the news about the hospital spread, a number of civilians also went there for treatment.

It was during this time of danger and strife that Nazaria and her husband lost two of their children to smallpox, but the twin tragedies did not stop her from continuing to perform her noble duties for the country.

On June 12, 1899, when Panay observed the first anniversary of the proclamation of Philippine independence, Nazaria showed up with a beautifully embroidered Philippine flag which was raised with solemnity at the Dueñas town plaza. It was made by Nazaria herself, with the help of Gorgonia Somera, Lorenza Calatan and Pomposa and Caridad, her daughters.

When the American troops occupied Iloilo, they burned the Lagos home and the hospital buildings. Nazaria’s family fled to different towns and experienced great difficulties. They were reunited and started life anew when peace settled back in the province. Nazaria worked hard on the farm.

Nazaria was blind when she died on January 27, 1945. She was survived by seven children, all of them successful in their chosen fields. Caridad was the donor of the Jaguimit barrio school site. Felicita became a nurse. Ramon turned out to be a pharmacist, politician, and historian. Pomposa and Filomena were teachers. Discoro became the first elementary school principal of Dueñas. Jose was the first Filipino district supervisor for five Iloilo towns.

In her honor, on August 28, 1973, the National Historical Institute installed a marker at her birthplace.
AKA "Florence Nightingale of Panay" maker of the first Philippine flag in Iloilo Nazaria Lagos was born in Burongan Dueñas, Iloilo.
archie vidaurre's profile photo
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 26, 1930, on the 34th anniversary of the 1896 Katipunan Revolt , Crisanto Evangelista announced the birth of the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP), the Communist Party of the Philippines. Less than three months later, on the 13th anniversary of the Russian Bolshevik Revolution, he formally established the PKP and proclaimed its objectives. In his address of November 7, he set forth five guiding principles for the Philippine communist movement:

to mobilize for complete national independence;
to establish communism for the masses;
to defend the masses against capitalist exploitation;
to overthrow American imperialism in the Philippines; and
to overthrow capitalism.

With these guidelines and the PKP banner that displayed the communist hammer and sickle emblem on a red background, surrounded by the words "Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas", Evangelista set out on his mission.

In 1932, two years after the birth of the PKP, the Philippine Supreme Court declared it illegal and Evangelista and several of his chief lieutenants were imprisoned. They were charged with plotting the overthrow of the government and instigating large-scale, bloody riots in Manila. Other PKP members went underground and began to fight against landlords on behalf of the peasants. Although not widespread, PKP attacks unsettled central Luzon. Landlords were murdered, farm animals slaughtered, and many fields were put to the torch. In reaction, President Quezon instituted several minor land reform measures, including putting a 30 percent limit on the amount of a tenant's crop that could be demanded by the landlord. Although highly lauded at its conception, this reform was all but ignored by landlords, courts, and the government.

An unfortunate side-effect of the 1932 court decision was a dramatic rise in prestige and size of the heretofore weak Philippine Socialist Party (formed in Pampanga under the leadership of Pedro Abad Santos in April 1932) and the militant Worker and Peasant's Union (WPU). With the PKP in an outlaw status, the socialists and WPU became the legal foci for many PKP supporters. Both organizations gained considerable influence during the next six years as poor socio-economic conditions remained unchanged for Luzon's tenant farmers and urban poor.

Amidst increasing incidents of violent communist-sponsored demonstrations in Manila in 1938, President Manuel Quezon released PKP leaders Evangelista, Luis Taruc, and Isabelo de Los Reyes when they pledged their loyalty to the government and to American efforts to resist fascist and Japanese expansion. This action soon proved less than desirable for Quezon. Almost immediately after his parole, Evangelista assumed leadership of a united socialist front when the PKP merged with the Socialist Party on November 7, 1938. The new organization openly proclaimed the communist doctrine and spread from its traditional stronghold in central Luzon to Bataan, Zambales, and to the islands of Cebu, Panay, and Negros.

Evangelista's bitter opposition to Quezon and his administration continued until 1941 when the threat of Japanese invasion brought a temporary truce and offers from the PKP to support the Commonwealth. President Quezon, who trusted neither Evangelista nor the PKP coalition, refused the offer.
Earlier, in 1920, the Third International, or Communist International (Comintern), headquartered in Moscow, met in Canton, China. The worldwide growth of interest in communism coincided with the rising level of disaffection in the Philippines. Following the International, an American Comintern representative, Harrison George, joined with several Philippine socialists to form the base for the first Philippine communist party. Together with Isabelo de los Reyes, Dominador Gomez, Crisanto Evangelista, and Antonio Ora, he fought the influential Catholic Church and established a small foothold for the communist cause in Luzon. In May 1924 they founded the Kapisanang Pambansa ng mga Magbudukid sa Filippinas (KPMP), or National Peasant's Union in Nueva Ecija Province, a stronghold of peasant unrest and violence. Soon the National Peasant's Union spread across Luzon and into the Philippine capital of Manila.

The Peasant's Union exploited social conditions, the continued colonial status of the islands, the land-tenure system, and the deteriorating climate between landlords and peasants, to become the leader of a confederation of labor unions, the Philippine Labor Congress.

In 1927, the organization officially associated itself with the Comintern and organized the nation's first legal communist political party, the Worker's Party. Within the year, Evangelista, as head of the Worker's Party, took advantage of his position and visited China's Chou En Lai and Joseph Stalin of Russia. Upon his return to Luzon, he organized four new socialist and communist organizations and began to plan the "class struggle" against the Manila government.

The Japanese invasion of the Philippines in December 1941 provided the impetus that enabled a small number of untrained, unorganized, communist rebels to become an effective guerrilla force. Although the PKP sought to expand its support base in Luzon before the war, the Japanese invasion provided the opportunity to do this. With an invader occupying Phillippine soil, the PKP grasped the chance to continue their cause, but now as patriotic freedom fighters facing an evil and numerically superior foe.

Willing to fight the invaders but unable to secure agreement with the Quezon administration; Evangelista took to the mountains of Luzon with a small band of PKP activists. With few trained fighters and even fewer weapons, the communists established a base of operations in the vicinity of Mount Arayat and the neighboring Candaba Swamp. Protected by dense mountain jungles and vast swamps, Evangelista planned a campaign to harass the Japanese. Here he adopted the slogan, "Anti-Japanese Above All", and sought to form a united, nationalist organization that would integrate communist and non-communist groups alike. From his Mount Arayat stronghold, Evangelista and his forces launched small but annoying forays from this base against the Japanese as they advanced across Luzon toward Bataan and Corregidor. The KPMP and the socialist Peasant and Workers' Union, who merged into a united front in 1938, were consolidated totally and placed under the overall control of Evangelista and the PKP.

On December 10, 1941, PKP leaders issued a manifesto in which they vowed to support the Commonwealth and U.S. efforts to resist the Japanese and urged the people to support their united anti-Japanese front. Aware of his military weakness, Evangelista directed attacks against the Japanese-controlled Police Constabulary, whose mission was to suppress opposition in the countryside. His attacks, mainly raids and ambuscades, succeeded in a number of important areas. First, they allowed the accumulation of arms and ammunition, items that remained in constant shortage. Second, many individual members of the constabulary were convinced to join the guerrilla movement as an alternative to execution. Third, the raids showed the peasants that an organized resistance movement existed and kept many villages from accepting total Japanese domination. Finally, the raids intimidated the Police Constabulary. Taking casualties from an enemy who disappeared into the countryside, the constabulary developed a great deal of resistance to venturing far afield.

By the end of 1941, Evangelista's raids gained his forces the respect of local peasants and, as often is the case with patriotic "Robin Hoods", their fame spread rapidly. The Japanese could do very little to suppress these popular feelings and often contributed to them through their harsh, often brutal, treatment of Luzon's peasantry. Time and time again, the Kempei Tai (Japanese secret police) committed atrocities against the populace in attempts to get information about the guerrillas. Often assisted by the Makapili, the Japanese secret police spread terror across Luzon and drove many Filipinos to the PKP guerrillas. Because the PKP were the best organized and most active resistance group on Luzon during the early years of the Japanese occupation, peasants often viewed them as the most effective and visible opposition to the Japanese.
Add a comment...

The Kahimyang Project

Shared publicly  - 
On August 23, 1896, in a then hilly and forested sitio of Pugad Lawin in Balintawak, now part of Quezon City, the Katipuneros led by Andres Bonifacio tore their "cedulas" as an expression of their open defiance of Spanish rule in the country.

This event, called the "Cry of Pugad Lawin", officially marked the beginning of the Philippine Revolution against Spain.

Founded by Bonifacio, Ladislaw Diwa, Deodato Arellano and others on July 7, 1892, the Katipunan was initially a secret society aiming for independence from Spain through armed revolt.
Bonifacio was forced to bring the fight to the field upon the discovery of the secret organization. He issued a manifesto inciting people to take up arms against Spanish tyranny simultaneously in all towns.
The revolt eventually grew in strength and spread to eight provinces -Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija - which were later represented by the eight rays of the sun in the present Filipino flag.

After the death of Bonifacio on May 10, 1897 in Maragondom, Cavite, General Emilio Aguinaldo continued the revolution and declared Philippine independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 at Kawit, Cavite.

Filipino historians offer differing accounts on the date and place of the Cry of Pugad Lawin. From 1908 until 1963, this event was officially recognized to have occurred on August 26 in Balintawak. In 1963 the Philippine government declared a shift to August 23 in Pugad Lawin, Quezon City.
archie vidaurre's profile photoKen Harbit (Pogi)'s profile photo
Add a comment...
In their circles
2,518 people
Have them in circles
340 people
Anne Aconda's profile photo
Arquimedes Vidaurre's profile photo
TURGEN J.G.B's profile photo
Lek Phairuang's profile photo
sửa chữa hà nội 1's profile photo
木崎朋美's profile photo
Cebu Pacific Promo's profile photo
Ernesto Sengia's profile photo's profile photo
Contact Information
Contact info
A compilation of significant daily events in ancient and recent Philippine history, howto blogs and code snippets and more.
Collection of daily historical events in Philippine history including notable birthdays.   Also includes a section in Philippine culture.  Code blogs and snippets is a  collection of code in HTML, JavaScript/CSS, Java, JSF, C/C++, database and server administration.