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Juliet Hawk
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San Diego Tutoring Service, Tutor, College Admissions Counselor, Test Prep Instructor, CA Credentialed Teacher, Master's Degree
San Diego Tutoring Service, Tutor, College Admissions Counselor, Test Prep Instructor, CA Credentialed Teacher, Master's Degree

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M104_galaxy
Messier 104, or the Sombrero Hat Galaxy.

8 hours of exposure through a RCOS 14.25 " telescope with a SBIG STL11000 CCD & AOL.
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Flame Nebula

The Flame Nebula sits on the eastern hip of Orion the Hunter, a constellation most easily visible in the northern hemisphere during winter evenings. This view of the nebula was taken by WISE, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.
This image shows a vast cloud of gas and dust where new stars are being born. Three familiar nebulae are visible in the central region: the Flame Nebula, the Horsehead Nebula and NGC 2023. The Flame Nebula is the brightest and largest in the image. It is lit by a star inside it that is 20 times the mass of the sun and would be as bright to our eyes as the other stars in Orion's belt if it weren't for all the surrounding dust, which makes it appear 4 billion times dimmer than it actually is.
The bright star Alnitak (ζ Ori), the easternmost star in the Belt of Orion, shines energetic ultraviolet light into the Flame and this knocks electrons away from the great clouds of hydrogen gas that reside there. Much of the glow results when the electrons and ionized hydrogen recombine. Additional dark gas and dust lies in front of the bright part of the nebula and this is what causes the dark network that appears in the center of the glowing gas. The Flame Nebula is part of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex, a star - forming region that includes the famous Horsehead Nebula.
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Spiral galaxy A1689B11

According to researchers, the galaxy, namely 'A1689B11' existed 11 billion years ago or 2.6 billion years after the Big Bang when the universe was way more younger and only one - fifth of its present age. The galaxy is also believed to provide insights into the early cosmos.
During the process, scientists applied a powerful technique that combines gravitational lensing with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii to verify the vintage and spiral nature of the galaxy.
Gravitational lenses are natures largest telescopes, created by massive clusters composed of thousands of galaxies and dark matter.
The cluster bends and magnifies the light of galaxies behind it in a manner similar to an ordinary lens, but on a much larger scale.
" This technique allows us to study ancient galaxies in high resolution with unprecedented detail," lead author Tiantian Yuan from ANU was quoted while talking about their findings.
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NASA. .Galaxy Zoo 2 ..
The second phase of a crowdsourcing effort to categorize galaxies in our universe, has leveraged more than 83,000 citizen scientists to obtain over 16 million galaxy classifications and information on more than 300,000 galaxies.

That's what you get when you ask the public for help in learning more about our universe. Computers are good at automatically measuring properties such as size and color of galaxies, but more challenging characteristics, such as shape and structure, can only be determined by the human eye.

"This catalog is the first time we've been able to gather this much information about a population of galaxies," said Kyle Willett, a physics and astronomy postdoctoral researcher in the University of Minnesota's College of Science and Engineering and the paper's lead author. "People all over the world are beginning to examine the data to gain a more detailed understanding of galaxy types."

Between Feb. 2009 and April 2010, more than 83,000 Galaxy Zoo 2 volunteers from around the world looked at images online gathered from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They answered questions about the galaxy, including whether it had spirals, the number of spiral arms present, or if it had galactic bars, which are long extended features that represent a concentration of stars. Each image was classified an average of 40-45 times to ensure accuracy. More than 16 million classifications of more than 300,000 galaxies were gathered representing about 57 million computer clicks.

When volunteers were asked why they got involved in the project, the most common answer was because they enjoyed contributing to science. Researchers estimate that the effort of the volunteers on this project represents about 30 years of full-time work by one researcher.

"With today's high-powered telescopes, we are gathering so many new images that astronomers just can't keep up with detailed classifications," said Lucy Fortson, a professor of physics and astronomy in the University of Minnesota's College of Science and Engineering and one of the co-authors of the research paper. "We could never have produced a data catalog like this without crowdsourcing help from the public."

Fortson said Galaxy Zoo 2 is similar to a census of the galaxies. With this new catalog, researchers now have a snapshot of the different types of galaxies as they are today. The next catalog will tell us about galaxies in the distant past. The catalogs together will let us understand how our universe is changing.

Galaxy NGC 4565 is a disk galaxy viewed at nearly an edge-on angle. The darker line running down the middle of the disk is a feature called a dust lane, identified by users in the Galaxy Zoo 2 project. Dust in galaxies can act as shadows, absorbing the starlight from the center of the galaxy and showing up as a dark feature. Galaxies like these are of particular interest for their links to star formation and the speeds at which galaxies rotate. Credit: University of Minnesota

International group of researchers has produced a catalog of this new galaxy data, 10 times larger than any previous catalog of its kind, and a paper describing the project and data.

http://data.galaxyzoo.org/
By News Staff | Science 2.0
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