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Joshua Davidson
Attended University of Western Australia
Lived in Perth, Australia
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Cognitive Biases

Availability Heuristic
The tendency to overestimate the prevalence of the most recently remembered items. This memory can be because of recentness, an unusual item or strong emotions.

There are two aspects to predicting the future. One is listing the options available, the second is to list how likely each of those options is. For simplicity, let us assume that we have 10 potential outcomes. When one of these outcomes has been recently known, either because it has been seen recently, it was an item that stood out from the crowd due to unusualness, or it is reinforced by a strong emotion, that item will be over represented in the second aspect - the probability of that item occurring. This is an estimation error caused by recent occurrence in our memory.

To bias against this, be aware that if an item on the list has cropped up recently, be aware of the tendency to overestimate its likelihood of coming up again.

Availability Cascade
A tendency to overestimate the importance of an item because it is being constantly repeated in the public forum. This can become cyclic as the public forum overestimates the importance of the item because it is in the public forum.

This is related to the Availability Heuristic in that recent events affect our estimation of that event in relation to other things. The Availability Cascade specifically addresses public awareness increasing our estimation of the importance of an item in that public awareness. This helps explain how some people are famous for no reason except that they are in the public awareness, or issues that are being discussed (however poorly) in the public eye are seen as more important than issues that are not being discussed publicly (it must be important - everyone is talking about it).
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I wonder if his name is Sir Real?
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Today's cute
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Let's e-race this concept. People first.
 
Banishing Race from Genetics studies
The social concept of Race has no Biological support in science and adds more problems than it solves. While defenders of "race" claim that race is a proxy for diversity, it has no scientific basis. While ethnicity and ancestry may be proxies for various genetic factors, race fails to represent those variables. Indeed notions of race have caused misdiagnosis of diseases by physicians who associate various diseases with race. Time to develop more precise vocabulary and language to capture and represent human variations without bringing social and historical baggage. 
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/02/french-company-bungled-clinical-trial-led-death-and-illness-report-says
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That's what you get when you splice in some triffid dna.
 
SOCORRO, NM—Initiating emergency procedures and sealing security doors throughout the complex, scientists at Monsanto reportedly placed the agrochemical company’s main laboratory on lockdown Thursday after discovering a shattered, empty tomato containment unit.
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OMG I KNEEWWWWWWW IIIIIIIITTTTTTT.
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Wow. From 8 years to 30 is a huge step. These suckers are pretty much indestructible.
 
Frozen Tardigrade Brought Back to Life After 30 Years

Researchers at the National Institute of Polar Research in Tokyo defrosted and revived two of the tiny animals, which are also known as water bears, from a batch collected in the Antarctic in 1983, The Asahi Shimbun newspaper reports. While one tardigrade died after 20 days, the other began reproducing. It laid 19 eggs, of which 14 hatched successfully.

Read Here: http://sciencehook.com/biology,science-blog-lifesci/frozen-tardigrade-brought-back-to-life-after-30-years/
Researchers at the National Institute of Polar Research in Tokyo defrosted and revived two of the tiny animals, which are also known as water bears, from a batch collected in the Antarctic in 1983, The Asahi Shimbun newspaper reports. While one tardigrade died after 20 days, the other began reproducing. It laid 19 eggs, of which 14 hatched successfully.Image: Megumu Tsujimotoa et. al.Tardigrades (also known as water bears, be Read Morecause of t...
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Perfect.

(And everyone should have confetti for just such occasions...)
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Ah the real Scotsman fallacy, surprising how often that pops up. 
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Ok, I'm quite tempted by this.
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*Cognitive Biases *
====================
Ambiguity Effect
The Ambiguity Effect is the tendency to avoid decisions about items that seem incomplete. The individual perceives one of the options as ambiguous and thus less trustworthy.

This can lead to choosing a more known but less good item over an incompletely known better item. This is driven by the fear of poisoned fruit or of the unknown.

Anchoring Bias
The tendency to anchor our decisions on a single point of reference, frequently the first item presented.

The Anchoring Bias is the tendency to rate the range of information coming based on the assumption that the first item is the prototypical item. That is, all subsequent items of information are compared to the first item as if the first item is correct. This bias is also known as the Focalism Bias.

Consider a bag of apples. The first apple I pull out is about the size of an apricot. This first apple sets up my assumptions for how the rest of the apples should look. The next I pull out is the size of a large orange and so will seem quite large. The next is also the size of a large orange, the fourth is the size of a medium orange. The first small apple means the next three all seem very generous. Yet the average size is between the size of a medium and large orange, so in reality the first apple taken out is undersized. The Anchoring Bias makes it hard for us to look at all the information on its own merits and instead pushes us to base it on the first item’s merits.

Anthropomorphism
The tendency to give human traits to non humans.

We understand people quite well and can empathise with others as if they are ourselves. This has some inherent weaknesses. Consider the male trying to imagine what a menstrual cycle is like, or a female attempting to imagine what being hit in the testicals is like. Imagining that non-humans experience the universe in the same way as humans is even further removed, and imagining that non-sentient life or inanimate objects such as rocks perceive and interact with the universe in the same way as humans is even less feasible. Yet the bias is to give non-human life and objects human attributes.

Attentional Bias
Our recurring thoughts affect what we perceive, blinding us to what is actually there.

For example, someone who is feeling negative will filter their perception of the world around them such that they only perceive negative events, or someone who is concerned with their own clothing may pay more attention to what people around them are wearing. This filter of perception is driven by what the individual is thinking about at the time, usually based on a recent experience and can blind the individual to parts of the environment that do not match the recent thought, such as oncoming traffic.

Automation Bias
Also known as Automation-Induced Complacency, the tendency to rely on automated systems to make decisions, giving greater credence to the automatically generated information over a manual suggestion.

This is a form of the appeal to authority logical fallacy. The individual has found the the automated system has so far given accurate enough information and forms a trust of the system, perhaps expecting the makers of the system to have an inherent expertise in the decisions or information rather than just automation. When the individual is presented with information that is not from the automated system, the automated system is attributed with high trust than the non-automated information when the two conflict. The error is not investigating why the conflict exists and just trusting the automated system as if it has greater authority and thus greater accuracy. The information is either right or wrong on its own merits, the source is not the merit of accuracy.
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Have a daughter - that's right, I managed to breed!
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    Bachelor of Social Work, 2001 - 2007
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