*Cognitive Biases *
The Ambiguity Effect is the tendency to avoid decisions about items that seem incomplete. The individual perceives one of the options as ambiguous and thus less trustworthy.
This can lead to choosing a more known but less good item over an incompletely known better item. This is driven by the fear of poisoned fruit or of the unknown.
The tendency to anchor our decisions on a single point of reference, frequently the first item presented.
The Anchoring Bias is the tendency to rate the range of information coming based on the assumption that the first item is the prototypical item. That is, all subsequent items of information are compared to the first item as if the first item is correct. This bias is also known as the Focalism Bias.
Consider a bag of apples. The first apple I pull out is about the size of an apricot. This first apple sets up my assumptions for how the rest of the apples should look. The next I pull out is the size of a large orange and so will seem quite large. The next is also the size of a large orange, the fourth is the size of a medium orange. The first small apple means the next three all seem very generous. Yet the average size is between the size of a medium and large orange, so in reality the first apple taken out is undersized. The Anchoring Bias makes it hard for us to look at all the information on its own merits and instead pushes us to base it on the first item’s merits.
The tendency to give human traits to non humans.
We understand people quite well and can empathise with others as if they are ourselves. This has some inherent weaknesses. Consider the male trying to imagine what a menstrual cycle is like, or a female attempting to imagine what being hit in the testicals is like. Imagining that non-humans experience the universe in the same way as humans is even further removed, and imagining that non-sentient life or inanimate objects such as rocks perceive and interact with the universe in the same way as humans is even less feasible. Yet the bias is to give non-human life and objects human attributes.
Our recurring thoughts affect what we perceive, blinding us to what is actually there.
For example, someone who is feeling negative will filter their perception of the world around them such that they only perceive negative events, or someone who is concerned with their own clothing may pay more attention to what people around them are wearing. This filter of perception is driven by what the individual is thinking about at the time, usually based on a recent experience and can blind the individual to parts of the environment that do not match the recent thought, such as oncoming traffic.
Also known as Automation-Induced Complacency, the tendency to rely on automated systems to make decisions, giving greater credence to the automatically generated information over a manual suggestion.
This is a form of the appeal to authority logical fallacy. The individual has found the the automated system has so far given accurate enough information and forms a trust of the system, perhaps expecting the makers of the system to have an inherent expertise in the decisions or information rather than just automation. When the individual is presented with information that is not from the automated system, the automated system is attributed with high trust than the non-automated information when the two conflict. The error is not investigating why the conflict exists and just trusting the automated system as if it has greater authority and thus greater accuracy. The information is either right or wrong on its own merits, the source is not the merit of accuracy.