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The Theme of Jealousy in Othello.

Answer: Throughout Shakespeare’s Othello, jealousy is apparent. The tragedy Othello focuses on the doom of Othello and the other major characters as a result of jealousy. In Shakespeare’s Othello, jealousy is mainly portrayed through the two major characters: Iago and Othello. It utterly corrupts their lives because it causes Iago to show his true self, which in turn triggers Othello to undergo an absolute conversion that destroys the lives of their friends.

Othello represents how jealousy, particularly sexual jealousy, is one of the most corrupting and destructive of emotions. It is jealousy that prompts Iago to plot Othello’s downfall; jealousy, too, is the tool that Iago uses to arouse Othello’s passions. Roderigo and Bianca demonstrate jealousy at various times in the play, and Emilia demonstrates that she too knows the emotion well. Only Desdemona and Cassio, the true innocents of the story, seem beyond its clutches. Shakespeare used the theme in other plays, but nowhere else is it portrayed as quite the “green- eyed” monster it is in this play. Since it is an emotion that everyone shares, we watch its destructive influence on the characters with sympathy and horror.
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Swift attack on man in part 4 on the basis of Gulliver’s Travels.

Answer: Gulliver’s Travels examines human nature through a misanthropic lens and through satire examines the changes English society was undergoing. The tale depicts the journey of Lemuel Gulliver, an Englishman, and his peculiar encounters. This critical work has caused a lot of discord as a satirical commentary on the political and social issues of England in the eighteenth century. Gulliver’s trips lead him to places of opposite societies causing an examination of human nature itself. While the character of Gulliver eventually reveals himself as a misanthrope, the author Jonathan Swift does not. Actually there is very little in Gulliver’s Travels, including in the fourth part, to signify that he shares Gulliver’s outlook on the hopelessness of humanity.
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What was the poet’s emotion after seeing the Daffodils?

Answer: First, the author experiences much of nature starting with the sky by imagining himself a cloud. This point of view gives him the opportunity to see how vast the beautiful and happy flowers are. It seems to him that at a glance his eye can capture tens of thousands of them. Also, he considers the daffodils in comparison to the sparkling waves of the ocean. He seems to say that the daffodils are happier than the waves.

Second, the author uses word choice to express how the daffodils make him feel: pleasure, jocund, glee, and gay.

Third, he gives the daffodils action, the ability to dance. This could also be considered personification. Dancing is an act that occurs out of celebration, not depression.

Finally, the author reflects later upon this image and he can re-create the image in his head, especially when he’s in an empty mood. This image is one he wishes to remember and upon remembering it, his mood is brightened:

For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitud;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.
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Discuss Wordsworth’s Definition of Poet and Poetry as Expressed in his Preface To The Lyrical Ballads.

Answer: Wordsworth is a prominent one in English literature. In Preface to Lyrical Ballads Wordsworth expresses his opinion about the function of a poet and the subject matter of poetry. He rejects the classical concept in his attitude towards poet and poetry. He holds a romantic view in both the cases.

The Neo- classical poets have expressed their allegiance/ obedience to the classical rules as set by Aristotle. According to the rules the poets are to depend on reason and arguments. There is no scope for any imaginative expression of feeling and emotion. Therefore, the subjects of the classical poets don’t consent the common human feelings. They are of separate type reflecting only the lives of the Aristocratic people of the society. William Wordsworth has painfully observed this sad picture of English poetry. Therefore he makes an attempt to extend the area of poetry by including subjective elements and describing the natural objects that are contributing silently to our lives and supplying different feelings to our senses and sensibilities.
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Discuss the significance of the events in the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India.
Answer: Marabar Caves serve a very remarkable significance in the famous humanitarian novel “A Passage to India”. In the Marabar Caves the cross cultural tensions rises to its climax. In these caves Mrs. Moore, Adela Quested and Aziz are totally changed. The visit to these cause causes the physical and spiritual breakdown of Mrs. Moore, leads Adela Quested to the verge of madness and lads Aziz to his absolute ruin. The visit to the Marabar Caves shows that a passage to India is never possible. It also shows the racial prejudice of the Christians against Islam. Now we shall see what happens in the Marabar Caves.

Dr. Aziz invites Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested to become his guest and visit the caves. They all respond to the cordial invitation of Aziz and he is proud of it. He says. “I am like a Babur.” Actually he thinks that one of the dreams of his life is fulfilled. But the incident goes reverse. Mrs. Moore and Adela lose their charm of visit or journey even in the train before going to the destination. They feel unwell. But they visit the caves and everything goes reverse.
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Draw the image of the West Wind as a destroyer and preserver as you find in the poem ‘Ode to the West Wind’.

Answer: The faculty of the visionary and revolutionary zeal was inherent in the mind of Shelley, because he entered in the world of poetry during the storm and stress of the French Revolution. From his earliest years, Shelley found himself in opposition to the convention of the class to which he belonged. So he denounced the existing order of things and assailed the barrier which checked the free development of human spirit. The pain which inflicted his heart was the cruelty of society which instead of hailing him as an intellectual apostle and liberator regarded him as a moral outcast. Ode to the West Wind written under the influence of the French Revolution expresses Shelley’s idea of Revolution.

Shelley believes that both nature and the society of men are suffering from deadly diseases like tyranny, oppression, corruption and injustice. These deadly diseases are like pestilence which can be cured by a miraculous change. This change can be brought about by power and the West Wind has this power because it is a destructive as wet as a creative agent of nature. Shelley has created the image of the West Wind by some technical means such as similes, metaphors, personification, a special verse pattern, music of words etc. The figures of speech lie scattered here and there in the poem. Of them the remarkable ones are in the comparison of the West Wind to a magician (simile), the West Wind is the dirge of the dying year (metaphor), the Mediterranean dreaming of his palaces and towers (personification). To depict the onward and zigzag motion of the wind, the poet has used a special verse pattern known as ‘Terza Rima’ (a b a, b c b, c d c, de d, e e).
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Satire on science in the ‘Book- III’ of Gulliver’s Travels.

Answer: To remind people about the fundamental moral duties to society and fellow beings, Jonathan Swift has brought science in ‘Book- III’ of Gulliver’s Travels. In this book Swift satirizes the scientist’s science and the intellectuals. It does not mean that he was against scientific experiments. Many of Swift’s critics misunderstand when he ridicules scientist and science. He was adequately aware of the values of pure science. He has attacked science for a moral purpose. If we read, analyze and justify the third book of Gulliver’s Travels, we will be able to understand the fact. 
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Answer: Michael was published in the 1800 edition of Lyrical Ballads. The poem is one of William Wordsworth’s best known poems and the subject of much critical literature. It tells the story of an aging shepherd, Michael, and his only child Luke.

As a pastoral poem “Michael” is the first attempt of William Wordsworth. It is the concluding poem of Lyrical Ballads. A pastoral poem is defined as poem set in idealized, often artificial rural surroundings. “Michael” begins with Wordsworth taking us to the mystical place near Greenhead Ghyll, where Michael and his family live.
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Discuss the effect of daffodils to the poet.

What was the poet’s emotion after seeing the Daffodils?

Answer: First, the author experiences much of nature starting with the sky by imagining himself a cloud. This point of view gives him the opportunity to see how vast the beautiful and happy flowers are. It seems to him that at a glance his eye can capture tens of thousands of them. Also, he considers the daffodils in comparison to the sparkling waves of the ocean. He seems to say that the daffodils are happier than the waves.

Second, the author uses word choice to express how the daffodils make him feel: pleasure, jocund, glee, and gay.

Third, he gives the daffodils action, the ability to dance. This could also be considered personification. Dancing is an act that occurs out of celebration, not depression.

Finally, the author reflects later upon this image and he can re-create the image in his head, especially when he’s in an empty mood. This image is one he wishes to remember and upon remembering it, his mood is brightened:
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Justify Agamemnon as a tragedy of Sin, Punishment and Redemption.
Answer: Every sin is punished but in the punishment innocents are hurt. “While Zeus abides enthroned… the wrongdoer suffers,” but often so does the wrongdoer’s children or wife or concubine. This “curse of the gods” is not unique to Aeschyls plays; it is the condition of our fallen world. Protestants in Northern Ireland cannot identify the IRA members who kill their police so they murder innocent Catholic children, at Versailles the Allies punished the German people in general because they could not punish war-criminals in particular. In the American West settlers called for the extermination of all Indian tribes because some tribes attacked them. Unless the gods intervene justice will never come to all, as new innocents are tangled in the web of revenge.

Agamemnon is what we would call a Greek tragedy of sin in the form of a family tragedy. It stresses violence in the form of sacrificing a child (Iphigenia), murdering a spouse (Agamemnon), and murdering a parent (Clytemnestra). Stressing family violence is typical in the Greek tragedy, stemming from the fact that the importance of family is such a large part of the Greek culture. Greeks believed that the most serious crimes committed were those enacted against family, ‘shedding of kindred blood’, and incest.
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Ode to the west wind’ strikes the characteristically, Shelleyan note of self-pity and exaltation” — discuss.

Answer: The faculty of the visionary and revolutionary zeal was inherent in the mind of Shelley, because he entered the world of poetry during the turmoil of the French Revolution. From his earliest years, he found himself in opposition to the convention of the class to which he belonged. So he denounced the existing order of things and assailed the barrier which checked the free development of human spirit. The pain which inflicted his heart was the hard-heartedness of society, which instead of hailing him as an intellectual apostle and liberator, hugged its chains and regarded him as a moral outcast.

‘Ode to the West Wind’ is a matchless ode in which Shelley passes from a magnificent realization of Nature’s power to self-description. His very being is blended with Nature and thus he himself and Nature together declare the coming of the Golden age of mankind.

In the first three stanzas, the West Wind is – presented as a terrible Natural power with its influence on land, in the air and on and under ocean. In these stanzas the West Wind appears as a destructive and creative agent of Nature In the fourth stanza, Shelley Involves himself with the West wind. He sees the West Wind as a He finds an affinity between himself symbol of his own personality too, and the West Wind. Once he, in his boyhood, was wild, West Wind. But now he feels bent uncontrollable and swift like the and Oppressed under misfortune, under the hard rules of society.
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