On this day:At 17th August of 1982, in Langenhagen near Hanover, Germany began the first mass production of the compact disc. The first title released was ABBA's 'The Visitors'.
A Compact Disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. The CD, available on the market since late 1982, remains the standard playback medium for commercial audio recordings to the present day. A standard audio CD consists of from one to 99 stereo tracks stored using 16-bit PCM coding at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz per channel. Early CDs could hold 74 minutes of stereo sound; 80 minute CDs are now common.
Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 mm and can hold up to 80 minutes of audio. There are also 80 mm discs, sometimes used for CD singles, which can store up to 24 minutes of audio. The technology was later adapted and expanded to include data storage (CD-ROM), write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), SACD, VCD, SVCD, PhotoCD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced CD.
CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry. The CD and its extensions have been extremely successful: in 2004, worldwide sales of CD audio, CD-ROM, and CD-R reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.
It was way back in 1974 when a project kickstarted from within the audio industry group at Philips in the Netherlands. The premise was to develop an optical audio disc with superior sound to that of the incumbent vinyl format, and coming in at 20cm, the initial dabblings were far chunkier than the products that eventually went to market.
Fast forward three years to 1977, and the group established a lab with the sole mission of building CDs and players – they opted for the name ‘Compact Disc’ because it was in line with another Philips offering, the compact cassette. Oh, and it was also sheared by 8.5cm in diameter, with the new discs offering awesome audio packed in to a mere 11.5cm.
In 1979, Sony and Philips Consumer Electronics set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. The task force, led by prominent members Kees Immink and Toshitada Doi, progressed the research into laser technology and optical discs that had been started by Philips in 1977.
After a year of experimentation and discussion, the taskforce produced the Red Book, the Compact Disc standard. Philips contributed the general manufacturing process, based on video LaserDisc technology. Philips also contributed Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM), which offers both a long playing time and a high resilience against disc defects such as scratches and fingerprints, while Sony contributed the error-correction method, CIRC.
The first Compact Disc for commercial release rolled off the assembly line on August 17, 1982, at a Philips factory in Langenhagen, near Hanover, Germany. The first title released was ABBA's The Visitors (1981). CDs and Sony's CD player CDP-101 reached the market on October 1, 1982 in Japan, and early the following year in the United States and other markets. Sony’s player, which retailed for about $674 at 1982 exchange rates (that’s roughly $1609 in 2015 dollars), launched alongside a group of 50 classical and pop CDs published by CBS Records.
Names like Mozart, Tchaikovsky, and Schubert shared the bill with more modern artists such as Billy Joel, Pink Floyd, and Journey. Each disc cost $14 or $15.25 apiece (about $33 to $36 in 2015 dollars), with the classical discs on the high end. This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution. And the rest, as they say, is history.
The new audio disc was enthusiastically received, especially in the early-adopting classical music and audiophile communities and its handling quality received particular praise. As the price of players sank rapidly, the CD began to gain popularity in the larger popular and rock music markets. The first artist to sell a million copies on CD was Dire Straits, with their 1985 album 'Brothers in Arms.'
The CD was originally thought of as an evolution of the gramophone record, rather than primarily as a data storage medium. Only later did the concept of an "audio file" arise, and the generalising of this to any data file. From its origins as a music format, Compact Disc has grown to encompass other applications. In June 1985, the CD-ROM (read-only memory) and, in 1990, CD-Recordable were introduced, also developed by Sony and Philips.
By the early 2000s, the CD player had largely replaced the audio cassette player as standard equipment in new automobiles, with 2010 being the final model year for any car in the US to have a factory-equipped cassette player. With the increasing popularity of portable digital audio players and solid state music storage, CD players are being phased out of automobiles in favour of minijack auxiliary inputs and connections to USB devices.
What does the future hold for CDs ? Well, they’re on their way out for sure if we’re to believe recent stats, though there may still be a little life left in them yet. CDs are increasingly being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that audio CD sales rates in the U.S. have dropped about 50% from their peak; however, they remain one of the primary distribution methods for the music industry.
Interestingly, however, Vinyl album sales went through the roof (relatively speaking), with 3.9 million records sold in the US, compared to 2.8 million the previous year. #CD #CompactDisc#Oldschool #Retro#Vintage #TheGoodOldDays#Onthisday #DataStorageFormat #80sMemories #OpticalDisc#90sMemories