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John Wehrle
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John Wehrle

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Pinned for the foreseeable future.

198 Methods of Nonviolent Action

Protest and Persuasion

Formal Statements
1. Public Speeches
2. Letters of opposition of support
3. Declarations by organizations and institutions
4. Signed public statements
5. Declarations of indictment and intention
6. Group or mass petitions

Communications with a Wider Audience
7. Slogans, caricatures, and symbols
8. Banners, posters, displayed communications
9. Leaflets, pamphlets, and books
10. Newspapers and journals
11. Records, radio, and television
12. Skywriting and earthwriting

Group Representations
13. Deputations
14. Mock awards
15. Group lobbying
16. Picketing
17. Mock elections

Symbolic Public Acts
18. Displays of flags and symbolic colors
19. Wearing of symbols
20. Prayer and worship
21. Delivering symbolic objects
22. Protest disrobings
23. Destruction of own property
24. Symbolic lights
25. Display of portraits
26. Paint as protest
27. New signs and names
28. Symbolic sounds
29. Symbolic reclamations
30. Rude gestures

Pressure on Individuals
31. “Haunting” officials
32. Taunting officials
33. Fraternization
34. Vigils

Drama and Music
35. Humorous skits and pranks
36. Performances of plays and music
37. Singing

38. Marches
39. Parades
40. Religious processions
41. Pilgrimages
42. Motorcades

Honoring the Dead
43. Political mourning
44. Mock funerals
45. Demonstrative funerals
46. Homage at burial places

Public Assemblies
47. Assemblies of protest or support
48. Protest meetings
49. Camouflaged meetings of protest
50. Teach-ins

Withdrawal and Renunciation
51. Walk-outs
52. Silence
53. Renouncing honors
54. Turning one's back

Social Noncooperation

Ostracism of Persons
55. Social boycott
56. Selective social boycott
57. Lysistratic nonaction
58. Excommunication
59. Interdict

Noncooperation with Social Events, Customs, and Institutions
60. Suspension of social and sports activities
61. Boycott of social affairs
62. Student strike
63. Social disobedience
64. Withdrawal from social institutions

Withdrawal from Social System
65. Stay-at-home
66. Total personal noncooperation
67. “Flight” of workers
68. Sanctuary
69. Collective disappearance
70. Protest emigration

Economic Noncooperation: Economic Boycotts

Actions by Consumers
71. Consumers' boycott
72. Nonconsumption of boycotted goods
73. Policy of austerity
74. Rent withholding
75. Refusal to rent
76. National consumers' boycott
77. International consumers' boycott

Action by Workers and Producers
78. Workmens' boycotted
79. Producers' boycott

Action by Middlemen
80. Suppliers' and handlers' boycott

Action by Owners and Management
81. Traders' boycott
82. Refusal to let or sell property
83. Lockout
84. Refusal of industrial assistance
85. Merchants' “general strike”

Action by Holders of Financial Resources
86. Withdrawal of bank deposits
87. Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments
88. Refusal to pay debts or interest
89. Severance of funds and credit
90. Revenue of a government's money

Action by Governments
92. Domestic embargo
93. Blacklisting of traders
94. International sellers' embargo
95. International buyers' embargo
96. International trade embargo

Economic Noncooperation: The Strike

Symbolic Strikes
97. Protest strike
98. Quickie walkout (lightning strike)

Agricultural Strikes
99. Peasant strike
100. Farm Workers' strike

Strikes by Special Groups
101. Refusal of impressed labor
102. Prisoners' strike
103. Craft strike
104. Professional strike

Ordinary Industrial Strikes
105. Establishment strike
106. Industry strike
107. Sympathetic strike

Restricted Strikes
108. Detailed strike
109. Bumper strike
110. Slowdown strike
111. Working-to-rule strike
112. Reporting “sick” (sick-in)
113. Strike by resignation
114. Limited strike
115. Selective strike

Multi-Industry Strikes
116. Generalize strike
117. General strike

Combination of Strikes and Economic Closures
118. Hartal
119. Economic shutdown

Political Noncooperation

Rejection of Authority
120. Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance
121. Refusal of public support
122. Literature and speeches advocating resistance

Citizens' Noncooperation with Government
123. Boycott of legislative bodies
124. Boycott of elections
125. Boycott of government employment and positions
126. Boycott of government depts., agencies, and other bodies
127. Withdrawal from government and educational institutions
128. Boycott of government-supported organizations
129. Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents
130. Removal of own signs and placemarks
131. Refusal to accept appointed officials
132. Refusal to dissolve existing institutions

Citizens' Alternatives to Obedience
133. Reluctant and slow compliance
134. Nonobedience in absence of direct supervision
135. Popular nonobedience
136. Disguised disobedience
137. Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse
138. Sitdown
139. Noncooperation with conscription and deportation
140. Hiding, escaping, and false indentities
141. Civil disobedience of “illegitimate” laws

Action by Government Personnel

142. Selective refusal of assistance by government aides
143. Blocking of lines of command and information
144. Stalling and obstruction
145. General administrative noncooperation
146. Judicial noncooperation
147. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents
148 . Mutiny

Domestic Government Action
149. Quasi-legal evasions and delays
150. Noncooperation by constituent governmental units

International Governmental Action
151. Changes in diplomatic and other representations
152. Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events
153. Withholding of diplomatic recognition
154. Severance of diplomatic relations
155. Withdrawal from international organizations
156. Refusal of membership in international bodies
157. Expulsion from international organizations

Nonviolent Intervention

Psychological Intervention
158. Self-exposure to the elements
159. The fast: a) Fast of moral pressure, b) Hunger strike, c) Satyagraphic fast
160. Reverse trial
161. Nonviolent harassment

Physical Intervention
162. Sit-in
163. Stand-in
164. Ride-in
165. Wade-in
166. Mill-in
167. Pray-in
168. Nonviolent raids
169. Nonviolent air raids
170. Nonviolent invasion
171. Nonviolent interjection
172. Nonviolent obstruction
173. Nonviolent occupation

Social Intervention
174. Establishing new social patterns
175. Overloading of facilities
176. Stall-in
177. Speak-in
178. Guerrilla theater
179. Alternative social institutions
180. Alternative communication system

Economic Intervention
181. Reverse strike
182. Stay-in strike
183. Nonviolent land seizure
184. Defiance of blockades
185. Politically motivated counterfeiting
186. Preclusive purchasing
187. Seizure of assets
188. Selective patronage
190. Alternative markets
191. Alternative transportation systems
192. Alternative economic institutions

Political Intervention
193. Overloading of administrative systems
194. Disclosing identities of secret agents
195. Seeking imprisonment
196. Civil disobedience of “neutral” laws
197. Work-on without collaboration
198. Dual sovereignty and parallel government
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Act casual.
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What I'm reading now.

Danville, Virginia 1937
Lorenzo Ivy (born a slave in 1850) interviewed by Claude Anderson (WPA):

"My mother's master was named William Tunstall. He was a mean man. There was only one good thing he did, and I don't reckon he intended to do that. He sold our family to my father's master George H. Gilman."
. . .

"Old Tunstall caught the 'cotton fever.' There was a fever going round, leastways it was like a fever. Everyone was dying to get down south and grow cotton to sell. So old Tunstall separated families right and left. He took two of my aunts and left their husbands up here, and he separated altogether seven husbands and wives. One woman had twelve children. Yessir. Took 'em all down south with him to Georgia and Alabama."
. . .

"They sold slaves here and everywhere. I've seen droves of Negroes brought in here on foot going South to be sold. Each one of them had an old tow sack on his back with everything he's got in it. Over the hills they came in lines reaching as far as the eye can see. They walked in double lines chained together by twos. They walk 'em here to the railroad and shipped 'em south like cattle.

Truly, son, the half has never been told."

Anyone who has read about the industrial revolution will remember that textiles were a main driver of that revolution. We know about the advent and explosion of textile factories. But somehow, unbelievably when you think about it, we never stop to ask where all of that raw material came from.

Once the colonies broke with Britain they lost market access to British cotton.

Slavery was our national economic engine. It produced the preeminent raw material of our industrial revolution and turned an economic backwater into an oligarchy whose scions married Europe's bankrupt aristocracy.

It was an economic model built on two different sorts of castes: the poor and slaves. And make no mistake - these were not identical or even roughly comparable (not to belittle the suffering of being poor during that time). If you read just a few slave accounts it becomes clear very quickly that there was nothing bucolic about slavery and everything slave owners did was done for money or cruelty or both.
A historian argues that the slave states were not a world apart but were crucial to American development.
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Recently I've been thinking about the inner lives of those who commit treason. What makes them tick, how are they perceiving themselves and the world around them?

My searches led me to this interesting resource which is derived from the Defense Personnel Security Research Center - apparently part of the Department of Defense, specifically the Defense Human Resources Activity (

You may also find this interesting for reasons other than employment decisions; as in, "Things that make you go hmmmm."

Some excerpts (quoting):

There is no single profile of the employee who is likely to betray an employer's trust. However, clinical assessment of Americans arrested for espionage, academic research findings on white-collar criminals in general, and research with senior adjudicators in the Intelligence Community do identify a number of behavior patterns or personality characteristics that are commonly found among such persons. The following patterns of undesirable behavior are discussed here.

Antisocial Behavior
Borderline Personality Organization
Inability to Form a Commitment
. . .


Persons with antisocial personality disorder shamelessly take others for granted and manipulate them to serve their own self-interest or indulge their own desires. Such persons take pleasure in beating the system without getting caught. Lying to others is common, as is lack of gratitude. Stealing, shoplifting, cheating on taxes, failure to pay parking tickets, aggressive or reckless driving, failure to pay bills even though money is available, picking fights, extreme promiscuity, sexual harassment, cruelty to animals, and spouse, child, or elder abuse are examples of antisocial behaviors. There is little remorse about the adverse effects of one's behavior on others.
. . .

Example: John Walker

One author who spent about 160 hours interviewing Walker after his conviction wrote: "He is totally without principle. There was no right or wrong, no morality or immorality, in his eyes. There were only his own wants, his own needs, whatever those might be at the moment." He betrayed his country, crippled his wife emotionally, corrupted his children, and manipulated his friends. Yet all the while, he didn't see himself as different from others, only a little smarter. In his view, "Everyone is corrupt...everyone has a scam."
. . .


Wholly unwarranted feelings of self-importance or self-esteem are referred to by psychologists as grandiosity. Grandiose persons grossly overestimate their abilities and inflate their accomplishments. They are often preoccupied with fantasies of success, power, beauty, or love. They may need constant reinforcement of this fantasy image of themselves. Grandiose persons expect to be viewed as "special" even without appropriate accomplishments.

Need for praise and sensitivity to criticism dominate relationships with others. Personal friendships, relationships with supervisors and coworkers, and amorous relationships turn quickly from love to hate, and vice versa, depending upon whether the relationship supports or undermines the subject's self-esteem. The narcissist demands unconditional acceptance of his or her specialness, and relationships blossom only when this is given, and sour quickly when it is not.

Self-esteem is almost always fragile. An unreasonably high, overt self-evaluation masks inner doubts and insecurities. It is paradoxical that someone with such a crippling sense of inadequacy should act in such an arrogant, imperious, and grandiloquent manner.
Grandiose persons feel they are so smart or so important that the rules, which were made for ordinary people, do not apply to them. Rules and social values are not necessarily rejected as they are by the antisocial personality; it is just that one feels above the rules.
. . .

When narcissists fail to perform adequately at work, it is always someone else's fault. The many arrested spies who exhibited this characteristic blamed others for their treason. They blamed their behavior on an insensitive and intrusive Intelligence Community, poor security practices, supervisors who failed to recognize their potential, spouses for not being understanding, or government for not taking the right political stance. Few saw themselves as traitors; they saw themselves as victims.
. . .

Example: Jonathan Pollard
. . .

Pollard's need to feel important, and to have others validate that importance, led him to pass several classified political and economic analyses to three different friends whom he felt could use the information in their business. This was before he volunteered his services to Israel. Although he hoped to eventually get something in return, his principal motive was simply to impress his friends with his knowledge and the importance of his work.
Several years later, under a different supervisor, it was again Pollard's grandiosity that attracted adverse attention, contributing to his eventual compromise and arrest. The supervisor caught Pollard lying about his dealings with another government agency. The only purpose of the lie was apparently to make Pollard appear to be a more important person than he was.
. . .


Impulsive and immature individuals lack self-control. They are a security concern because they may use poor judgment or be irresponsible or unpredictable in their behavior. A person who is impulsive or immature often also shows a pattern of dishonest, unreliable or rule-breaking behavior.
. . .

Example: Robert Hanssen

. . .

Hanssen's impulsivity and lack of self-control continued into his adult years, where it took on a more sexual nature. Within days of his marriage to his wife, he cheated on her with an ex-girlfriend. Twice during the early years of his marriage, he snuck up on his sister-in-law and touched her breast while she was breastfeeding, prompting suspicion from many of his relatives. He also liked to post erotic stories about himself and his wife on websites, risking identification by using their real names and real situations. His most disturbing sexual adventure, unbeknownst to his wife, was asking his best friend to watch them having sex through the window of their bedroom, and later, on closed circuit TV wired from the bedroom into his very own living room.

There is evidence that Hanssen's first deal to sell classified information to the Russians was impulsive as well. From childhood, Robert Hanssen had been enthralled with KGB spycraft and fascinated with the spy game in general. When he joined the FBI he was idealistic. He was ready to nab Russian spies in what seemed the most exciting job of his life. Unfortunately, his idealistic start turned to sour disregard, and even disdain, for his fellow FBI agents when he thought they did not share his enthusiasm for thwarting Russian Intelligence activities in the United States.

Lack of support and enthusiasm from his colleagues left Hanssen reeling. It also sparked an old fantasy--to become the best spy the world had ever seen. Hanssen had access to classified information that he knew was useful to the KGB. During the 20 years that Hanssen worked as a spy for the KGB, his impulsive behavior affected his spycraft. He would often not show up for "drops" or cancel a transaction without cause. He insisted that the KGB do things his way or no way. He felt this put him a step ahead of the KGB and ensured his personal anonymity and security. He believed that his intellectual superiority to both his fellow FBI agents and to the KGB rendered him untouchable. Although he knew the great risk of his spying, he was confident that he was invincible.
. . .


Desire for revenge can trigger sabotage, espionage, violent attack, or other illegal behavior. Several well-known spies are known to have had a strong propensity toward vindictiveness.

Vindictiveness is often found in narcissists whose self-esteem is based on a grossly inflated opinion of their own abilities. They interpret criticism, disagreement, or failure to recognize their special talents as a personal insult that merits retribution. The retribution is a means of restoring injured self-esteem.

Behavior Patterns Associated with Espionage. There is no single profile of the employee who is likely to betray an employer's trust. However, clinical assessment of Americans arrested for espionage,1 academic research findings on white-collar criminals in general, 2 and research with senior ...
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Well, there goes my unquestionably clever plan to be the best spy in the world.
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Funny, Republicans always take credit for Lincoln but rarely quote him.

Full text of Abe's letter here (the excerpt is near to bottom).
3h. ⛓Huck Finn⛓ @ohiospud. @Kasparov63 "I like to see a man proud of the place in which he lives, I like to see a man live so that his place will be proud of him" Abe Lincoln. Jim Bonbright. 3h. Jim Bonbright @3rdandKing. @Kasparov63 It would appear Honest Abe was one of the dreaded "elites.".
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Are Obamacare and the ACA the same thing?

(I'm curious to see these results.)
21 votes  -  votes visible to Public
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Your demographic is fairly smart. 
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Tom Clancy is eating his heart out.
The Trump - Rosneft connection

Massive oil firm involvment? Check.
Extant US sanctions against firm? Check.
Quid-pro-quo compensation for political favour? Check.
To the tune of $13 billion? Check.
Subsequent sale of corresponding corporate assets to a shady-as-fuck intermediary? Check.
Dead bodies piling up? Check.

I'm quoting nearly in full for preservation of record.

From the Orbis Trump dossier, memo dated 18 October 2016:

In terms of the substance of their discussion, SECHIN’s associate said that the Rosneft President was so keen to lift personal and corporate western sanctions imposed on the company that he offered PAGE/TRUMP’s associates the brokerage of up to a 19 per cent (privatised) stake in Rosneft in return. PAGE had expressed interest and confirmed that were TRUMP elected US president, then sanctions on Russia would be lifted.

Reuters, 7 December 2016:

Russia said on Wednesday it sold a stake in oil giant Rosneft (ROSN.MM) for 10.5 billion euros ($11.3 billion) to Qatar and commodities trader Glencore (GLEN.L), confounding expectations that the Kremlin’s standoff with the West would scare off major investors.

The deal, to acquire a 19.5 percent stake in Rosneft from the Russian state, suggests the lure of taking a share in one of the world’s biggest oil companies outweighs the risks that come with Western sanctions imposed on Russia over the conflict in Ukraine.

Moscow Times, 14 January 2017:

A top executive from Russia’s state-controlled oil company, Rosneft, has been found dead in central Moscow, according to the news site.

Oleg Erovinkin, Rosneft President Igor Sechin’s chief of staff, was discovered in the back seat of a company Lexus by his driver, who alerted the emergency services.

According to The Independent, the US intelligence services were receiving the Orbis memos from September 2016 onwards:

By September, information to the FBI began to grow in volume: Mr Steele compiled a set of his memos into one document and passed it to his contacts at the FBI.

Part of +mathew's Donald Trump timeline:
In terms of the substance of their discussion, SECHIN's associate said that the Rosneft President was so keen to lift personal and corporate western sanctions imposed on the company that he offered PAGE/TRUMP's associates the brokerage of up to a 19 per cent (privatised) stake in Rosneft in return.
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John Napier Tye:

FBI director James Comey was criticized last week for refusing to comment publicly, or even in a classified setting, on whether the FBI is investigating Donald Trump’s possible connections to Russia. While we understand that emotions are running high, it is time to reaffirm longstanding bureau policy. The FBI will not comment on ongoing investigations of anyone not named Hillary Clinton.

Perhaps the FBI’s critics fail to understand the rationale for this policy. An investigation is just that—an investigation, not a conclusion, or even an accusation of guilt. Were the FBI to comment publicly on investigations of people not named Hillary Clinton, the public might infer, improperly and without evidence, that the person is guilty.

As any high school civics student knows, our government sets a high bar for tarnishing someone not named Hillary Clinton’s reputation with allegations of criminal conduct. Before the government can even publicly accuse someone not named Hillary Clinton of a crime, a prosecutor first submits the allegations in secret to a grand jury, which must vote to indict him or her.

Then the person not named Hillary Clinton is entitled to a public trial by jury of their peers. Prosecutors must convince the jurors, unanimously, that the person not named Hillary Clinton is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. It’s not enough if the accused is merely very likely to be guilty—to convict in the US, there can be no reasonable doubt. If they’re not named Hillary Clinton.

These procedures relate to another FBI policy designed to protect the integrity of American elections. When candidates for high office are suspected of crimes, it puts the FBI in a bind.

On the one hand, voters are entitled to know the facts about candidates that they might vote for. On the other hand, in the absence of a conviction or even compelling evidence, voters might improperly infer that a candidate is untrustworthy based merely on partial facts or allegations.

For this reason, the FBI has for decades, across both Republican and Democratic administrations, followed a longstanding practice: The FBI will not take any action in the 60 days before an election that might affect the electoral prospects of someone not named Hillary Clinton.

In fact, during the 60-day period, the Department of Justice may not even seek grand jury indictments for candidates not named Hillary Clinton. To do so could leave voters casting ballots on the basis of mere allegations instead of proven facts.

For instance, over the summer of 2016, the FBI was provided intelligence from a reliable source that Republican candidate Trump’s campaign had been communicating improperly with Russian intelligence services, and may be subject to ongoing blackmail by a hostile foreign power. If true, Trump and his associates may be guilty of serious crimes.

But without more evidence, and because even Trump’s most vocal critics do not allege that he is named Hillary Clinton, it would have been completely inappropriate for the FBI to comment on the opening of an investigation of Trump.

Unless new evidence emerges that Trump has in fact called himself Hillary Clinton, at minimum as a nickname, criticism of the bureau in this case is simply misplaced.

These answers may not satisfy everyone, but we hope critics can see past their personal grievances and appreciate the FBI’s logic. The bureau has been given the solemn charge of enforcing the law impartially. Critics should ask themselves whether their preferred course of action could unwittingly tarnish innocent Americans, undermine our electoral system, or even politicize the administration of justice itself.

Via +Joseph Milan​​
Unless new evidence emerges that Trump has in fact called himself Hillary Clinton, at minimum as a nickname, the FBI's hands are tied.
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Today is Martin Luther King Jr. Day.

I thought about trying to say something inspirational, or of quoting one of Dr. King's speeches. But sometimes it seems his speeches are quoted so often that, not unlike sacred texts, their novelty wears off with use and unscrupulous people misuse his words to disparage protesters or to associate themselves with our nation's true heroes.

So instead I hit upon the idea of showing you what this day means when the light of history is refracted by the lens of current events.

Remember and be strong.
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Another. With pics not seen by many. Note the update at the bottom with more.
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TIL How to watch the news in 2017.
HTScotPol .@newsundayherald .@BBCNews .@BBCWorld To all our friends across the pond, in the face of more #russianhack: Turn off the telly! norm. 6h6 hours ago. norm @norm1037. @HTScotPol @MrBlanding @newsundayherald Is it fake news or have the printers messed up? NAB Smith-Harris.
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I never really understood Schadenfreude until just now.
They voted for a guy who said "I'm going to repeal and replace it".

And then they're surprised and upset when he carries through on it.

I'm having a very hard time generating any sympathy for anybody who voted Republican and is now upset about where we are heading.
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J Stone
Those folks do not realize that
"Obamacare" is a nickname
for the Affordable Care Act.
Here in Redneckistan it is always called Obamacare by the radio talk show hosts and said with a snarl or an eyeroll. I would be interested to know the percentage of trump voters that knew that.
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This is not a tagline.
"Put a little about yourself here so people know they've found the correct John"

I am the correct John

That is . . .
Newly minted software engineer exploring mobile development.  Was a philosophy professor for 10 years.  Likes rain.
Bragging rights
I make a mean roast beef tenderloin.
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Seattle, WA
Independent Android Developer
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