Profile

Cover photo
John Bartram
776 followers|228,183 views
AboutPosts

Stream

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
Reposted as public.
John Bartram originally shared:
 
#history
Aria - Arian
I suggest that 'Arius' and "Arian' refers to Aria.

Wikipedia:
Aria (Greek: Ἀρ(ε)ία Ar(e)ia, Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua), inhabitants: Arians (Latin: Arii, Greek: Ἄρ(ε)ιοι/Ar(e)ioi), is the name of a region in the eastern part of the Achaemenid Empire, several times confused with Arianē in the classical sources.

Aria was an Old Persian satrapy, which enclosed chiefly the valley of the Hari River (Greek Ἄρ(ε)ιος, this being eponymous to the whole land according to Arrian) and which in antiquity was considered as particularly fertile and, above all, rich in wine...

It is described in a very detailed manner by Ptolemy and Strabo and corresponds, according to that, almost to the Herat Province of today's Afghanistan. In this sense the term is used correctly by some writers, e.g. Herodotus (3.93.3, where the Areioi are mentioned together with the Parthians, Chorasmians, and Sogdians); Diodorus (17.105.7; 18.39.6); Strabo (2.1.14; 11.10.1, cf. also 11.8.1 and 8; 15.2.8 and 9); Arrian (Anabasis 3.25.1); Pomponius Mela (1.12, where we read that “nearest to India is Ariane, then Aria”).

At the time of Alexander the Great, Aria was obviously an important district. It was administered by a satrap, called Satibarzanes, who was one of the three main Persian officials in the East of the Empire, together with the satrap Bessus of Bactria and Barsaentes of Arachosia. In late 330 BC, Alexander the Great, captured the Arian capital Artacoana. The province was part of the Seleucid Empire but was captured by others on various occasions and became part of the Parthian Empire in 167 BC. Aria later on became a province of the Sassanid Empire.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aria_(satrapy)

The old capital is, today, the Afghan city of Herat. Wikipedia:

Situated in a fertile area, Herāt dates back to the Avestan times and was traditionally known for its wine. The city has a number of historic sites, including the Herat Citadel and the Mosallah Complex. During the Middle Ages Herāt became one of the important cities of Khorasan, as it was known as the Pearl of Khorasan...

Herāt lies on the ancient trade routes of the Middle East, Central and South Asia. The roads from Herāt to Iran, Turkmenistan, and other parts of Afghanistan are still strategically important.

The district Aria of the Persian Achaemenid Empire is mentioned in the provincial lists that are included in various royal inscriptions, for instance, in the Behistun inscription of Darius I (ca. 520 BC). Representatives from the district are depicted in reliefs, e.g., at the royal Achaemenid tombs of Naqsh-e Rustam and Persepolis. They are wearing Scythian-style dress (with a tunic and trousers tucked into high boots) and a twisted Bashlyk that covers their head, chin and neck.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herat#History

Scythian: this area became Scythian towards the end of the past era. Two thousand years ago, the Scythian king of kings was Azes (I and II, for they are the same). In this region, they are known by scholars as Indo-Scythian.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Scythians

Reconstruction of Ptolemy's map (2nd century AD) of Aria and neighbouring states by the 15th century German cartographer Nicolaus Germanus
Its original capital was Artacoana (Ἀρτακόανα)[3] or Articaudna (Ἀρτικαύδνα) according to Ptolemy. In its vicinity, a new capital was built, either by Alexander the Great himself or by his successors, Alexandria Ariana (Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις), modern Herat in northwest Afghanistan. Ptolemy lists several other cities, an indication of the province's wealth and fertility.

Below: Map of Aria, Arachosia, Drangiana and Gedrosia.
Cosmographia Claudii Ptolomaei Alexandrini
By Jacob d'Angelo after Claudius Ptolemaeus.
Published Reichenbach Monastery, 1467.
4
 
Having given myself time to digest our findings and see the artefactual evidences in their proper context, I made this site to share the result.
Though I wrote earlier how Christendom is a continuation of the Roman Empire, I now appreciate the logical consequences of our findings.
Christendom continues the Western Roman Empire, which is how it is based in Rome.
Constantine I and later emperors based in the East followed a different faith; its symbols are the Chi-Rho and the Hermes Kriophoros; its sacred text became codices Vaticanus and Sinaiticus - which included The Shepherd of Hermas; I term this faith Chrestianity. It was concerned with magical baptism and resurrection.
Christianity and its Church in Rome appear with the change of Chrest to Christ. We see clearly how the eta was scratched from the sacred texts, to be replaced with an iota; that monumental inscriptions were also largely destroyed, or altered - a further testament to this change.
I hope you find this site interesting.

#history #historiography #archaeology #rome #gospels
6
5
Betty Guman's profile photoRon Shtigliz's profile photo
 
Resharing to make this public.
John Bartram originally shared:
 
#history #mythology

The Magic of Eight
I mentioned earlier how many of the baptisteries and fonts ascribed as Arian, or as I describe, Chrestian, are octagonal. In later times, this was explained in various ways. The first author quoted here relates it to Pythagoreanism and the occult:

> We've already looked at some roots in our unit on number symbolism: the Pythagoreans, astrology, the Old Testament, and mythology. Here we'll mention some new influences: the Cabbala and Gematria, the New Testament, neoPythagoreanism, neoPlatonism, Islam, alchemy, the Masons, Medieval magic, Tarot.
Eight and the octagon represent resurrection and rebirth, because Christ rose from grave 8 days after entry into Jerusalem. Thus they became symbols of baptism, the spiritual rebirth of a person, and many baptistries and baptismal fonts are octagonal.
The Sacred Cut
An octagon can also be constructed in the following way:
Place a compass at each corner of a square and strike an arc which intersects the two adjacent sides and passes through the center of the square. This subdivides the square into a nine-module grid with modules of different proportions. Connecting the points where the arcs cut the square gives an octagon.
The Danish engineer Tons Brunes calls this construction the Sacred Cut. He claims it is the fundamental construction which forms the basis for system of geometry which has governed the construction of monuments in every period, from the Egyptian to the Medieval.
- Eight and Baptism
https://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.geometry/unit8/unit8.html

Others see the baptismal octagon as deriving from the eight-spoked Wheel of Life, an ancient theme picked up by Buddhism, which knows it by various terms, such as Wheel of rebirth and Wheel of cyclic existence.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhavacakra

Buddhism also used the "Eight" theme for Dharma, with, for example, the Noble Eightfold Path.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Noble_Eightfold_Path

Dharma is used often in texts claimed by Buddhism but which pre-date the appearance of Buddha (in Bactria in the late 1st-early 2nd century CE). The use of this term is used to claim these texts as Buddhist, although the concept and symbolism pre-date - by a long period - the appearance of Buddha.

Christians also claim the Wheel of Life, as well as the hexagon:
4
 
Scholars of "Early Christianity"
experts in unicorns farting rainbows

As there is no Early Christianity - no Christ, no Christians, no Christianity - for the first centuries of the modern era, expertise in this area ought to be limited to mythology; instead, these experts are part of State-supported academia, living off the fat of the land, travelling the world at your expense to puff themselves up and meanwhile reinventing the meaning of words (such as knowledge).

    "I don't know what you mean by 'glory,' " Alice said.
    Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. "Of course you don't — till I tell you. I meant 'there's a nice knock-down argument for you!' "
    "But 'glory' doesn't mean 'a nice knock-down argument'," Alice objected.
    "When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less."
    "The question is," said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many different things."
    "The question is," said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master — that's all."
(Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll)

And power is what it is all about - the power of the state, a continuing tradition begun with the founding of the Roman Empire.

A blog I follow is by one of these leading experts, one Larry Hurtado.

And I repeat, these people aren't interested in finding out that their views have no basis, or have been soundly debunked decades ago, or are just plain bonkers.  So, no matter how often you patiently answer specific questions (often coy, baited ones), or offer reasons and evidence for why their view is baseless, they persevere with impressive determination.  If you tell them that their view has no standing among scholars in the field, this has no effect, and they might then allege some sort of conspiracy among scholars to suppress what they know is the real truth!
And
The noisy folk who likewise are convinced (I guess they really mean it and aren't putting us all on) that Jesus of Nazareth is a fictional character are another such category.
- Sense and Nonsense: Observations on Running a Blog Site
Larry W. Hurtado, PhD, FRSE
http://larryhurtado.wordpress.com/2014/04/05/sense-and-nonsense-observations-on-running-a-blog-site/

It was our aim to try to bridge this unhelpful divide in establishing our Centre for the Study of Christian Origins here in Edinburgh...

This is part of the University of Edinburgh:

The Centre for the Study of Christian Origins (CSCO) was established to promote research on the emergence and developments in Christianity in the first two centuries of the common era.
- the first two centuries of the Christian movement, the historical "background" (both Jewish and non-Jewish)
- all relevant historical evidence (e.g., linguistic, literary, archaeological, iconographic)
- all relevant historiographical and hermeneutical questions directly pertaining to this focus

Historians just love to claim archaeological support for their fantasies. There is no archaeology for Christ/Christians/Christianity until the medieval period. To see premier universities claim otherwise is an embarrassment, for them.
2

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
NOAH
and  the Eridu Genesis

Segment C
1-27. ……seat in heaven. …… flood. …… mankind. So he made ……. Then Nintur ……. Holy Inana made a lament for its people. Enki took counsel with himself. An, Enlil, Enki and Ninḫursaĝa made all the gods of heaven and earth take an oath by invoking An and Enlil. In those days Zi-ud-sura the king, the gudug priest, ……. He fashioned ……. The humble, committed, reverent ……. Day by day, standing constantly at ……. Something that was not a dream appeared, conversation ……, …… taking an oath by invoking heaven and earth. In the Ki-ur, the gods …… a wall. Zi-ud-sura, standing at its side, heard: "Side-wall standing at my left side, ……. Side-wall, I will speak words to you; take heed of my words, pay attention to my instructions. A flood will sweep over the …… in all the ……. A decision that the seed of mankind is to be destroyed has been made. The verdict, the word of the divine assembly, cannot be revoked. The order announced by An and Enlil cannot be overturned. Their kingship, their term has been cut off; their heart should be rested about this. Now ……. What ……." 
approx. 38 lines missing

Segment D
1-11. All the windstorms and gales arose together, and the flood swept over the ……. After the flood had swept over the land, and waves and windstorms had rocked the huge boat for seven days and seven nights, Utu the sun god came out, illuminating heaven and earth. Zi-ud-sura could drill an opening in the huge boat and the hero Utu entered the huge boat with his rays. Zi-ud-sura the king prostrated himself before Utu. The king sacrificed oxen and offered innumerable sheep.
12-17. 
six lines fragmentary
approx. 33 lines missing

Segment E
1-2. "They have made you swear by heaven and earth, ……. An and Enlil have made you swear by heaven and earth, ……."
3-11. More and more animals disembarked onto the earth. Zi-ud-sura the king prostrated himself before An and Enlil. An and Enlil treated Zi-ud-sura kindly ……, they granted him life like a god, they brought down to him eternal life. At that time, because of preserving the animals and the seed of mankind, they settled Zi-ud-sura the king in an overseas country, in the land Dilmun, where the sun rises.
12. "You ……." 
approx. 39 lines missing
http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.7.4#

Sumerian creation myth
The earliest record of the Sumerian creation and flood is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur, sometimes called the Eridu Genesis. It is written in the Sumerian language and dated to around 1600 BC during the first Babylonian dynasty, where the language of writing and administration was still Sumerian. Other Sumerian creation myths from around this date are called the Barton Cylinder, the Debate between sheep and grain and the Debate between Winter and Summer, also found at Nippur.
4

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
I was just asked if Claudius is the "missing link" between Ptolemy III and his chi-rho, and Constantine I, with his. Well, maybe, but his mother is Antonia Minor, a Chrestian:
https://www.academia.edu/6473191/Origins_of_Chrestianity
An ancient stone carving on the walls of an Egyptian temple depicts the Roman emperor Claudius dressed as an Egyptian pharaoh, wearing an elaborate crown, a team of researchers has discovered. Egyptian hieroglyphs in the carving call Claudius the "Son of Ra, Lord of the Crowns," and say he is "King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands." The hieroglyphs say he is raising the pole of the tent (or cult chapel) of Min (an ancient Egyptian ...
7
Have them in circles
776 people

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
Reposted as public.
John Bartram originally shared:
 
"maybe it was a solar symbol" says the expert. Yes, that is it and one of the earliest.
I wonder if the swastika led to the "Arian" cross.
4

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
Resharing to make this post public.
John Bartram originally shared:
 
#history #archaeology #Goths

To which religion does "Arian" Ravenna belong?

There is neither a bishop Arius, nor Arianism within the cultural layers attributed to them - all the textual artefacts come from a later time (though claiming, with no evidence, to be contemporaneous), which is the principle reason I reject both. Similarly, I see no reliable evidence for Jesus/Christ/Christianity until after. These observations force the question asked here.

Wikipedia:
The Arian Baptistry in Ravenna, Italy was erected by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great between the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the sixth century, at the same time as the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo.
Theodoric was an Arian and decided to let the Goths (Arians) and the Latins ("orthodox" in the sense that they followed canon doctrine), live together but separately, and so there were separate neighborhoods and separate religious buildings.
Near his palace, the king commissioned an Arian cathedral, now called the Church of Spirito Santo, but originally named Hagia Anastasis (Holy Resurrection). It was re-consecrated as the Catholic cathedral of Saint Teodoro (soldier and martyr of Amasea in Porto) in 526. Little remains of the original church after its reconstruction in 1543; some historians speculate that the original mosaics were lost over a thousand years earlier during its Catholic reconstruction due to Arian themes. During this same period, Theodoric also had the baptistry built, today referred to as "of the Arians" in order to distinguish it from the Baptistry of Neon (of the Orthodox) which is about one century older.
The Baptistry is octagonal in shape with some little apses and arched openings near the top...
The entire composition is remarkably similar to that of the Orthodox Baptistry of Neon. The walls are bare, but were not always so. During archaeological investigations, some 170 kilograms of tessera were found on the floor. Due to the lack of Arian references, it is believed that the artists who created the mosaics were orthodox Christians, as the Ostrogoths were predominately goldsmiths and not mosaic artists.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arian_Baptistry

Constantine I adopted the Chi-Rho as his emblem and wore it prominently. As I see the Chi-Rho as the Ptolemaic Ankh and an abbreviation for Chrest, the evidences point to this emperor adopting Chrestianity overtly. After, we see the Chi-Rho appear across the empire, especially in relation to baptism (and often with octagonal fonts and baptisteries).

In earlier posts and comments, I have partly addressed the question of Gothic origins and the broader: that of the tribes which went to Roman Britain and became the English, and those of the Franks and Vandals. The early English did not become Arian/Chrestian, perhaps because they had little or no contact with Constantinople; but the others did: how?

Though we in the West still talk of the fall of the Roman Empire, that bald statement covers the fact that these "barbarians" conquered virtually the whole of the Roman Empire except the Levant (which was under the control of Constantinople). The West was invaded and conquered by these nations under the authority and direction of Constantinople.

Arianism/Chrestianity with its Chi-Rho may therefore be seen as a badge of loyalty to Constantinople, against Rome and the Western Empire.
6
1
Rene Nieuwenhuizen's profile photo

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
Reposting to make this public.
John Bartram originally shared:
 
If Halloween's your thing, have a great time.
Here's something I hope is appropriate: a magic bowl of the Roman period, probably used by a magus in a fortune-telling ritual that called on Chrest to deliver the magical power.
14
1
Travis Scott's profile photo

John Bartram

Shared publicly  - 
 
Some of the best April Fool stories:
… Nottingham archaeologists find Robin Hood’s bones!
…Boudicca’s grave finally located under King’s Cross station!
… Ancient Egyptian teddy bear to go on display at Dorset museum!
…plans revealed to rebuild Hadrian’s Wall to its full height, should Scotland vote for independence!
… hippocampus skeleton found in MOLA’s Roman Walbrook excavations!
… exclusive photo of National Trust staff putting the clock forward at Avebury stone circle!
… a popular myth is confirmed, as archaeologists find the skeleton of a hanged monkey in Hartlepool!
… coin issued by a previously unknown Roman emperor found in Llanelli!
… Stonehenge will be moved closer to the new visitor centre, to improve accessibility!
… newly-published letters reveal that Henry VIII had a secret 7th wife!
… a couple of dinosaur and animal-bone related ones… in fact, lots of dinosaur ones… not strictly archaeology, but too good to ignore! The story about dinosaur bones inside the Great Pyramid is a particular highlight…
And some international offerings sent in by our sharp-eyed friends further afield:
… former Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi is set to buy Pompeii for 7million euros!
… the world’s oldest noodles found during construction work at Stuttgart station!
Every year on 1 April, the staff of CA eagerly scan as many news sources as we can get our hands on, searching for the best archaeological April Fools' Day pranks that we can spot (while keeping ev...
12
People
Have them in circles
776 people
Work
Employment
  • Archaeology, present
Story
Tagline
Studying cultural layers
Introduction
Shovelbum
Lived and worked across the world, including western Europe and various Mediterranean islands, West Africa, the Far East and Polynesia. Best for history and archaeology: Malta.
Been on television many times as both presenter and interviewee.
Started archaeology in Cambridge, late 60s, and now entering retirement in my 60s. I enjoyed getting my hands dirty.