New material harder than diamond
We've all heard that diamonds are the hardest substance, but that's not strictly true. Wurtzide boron nitride was discovered in 1995 and can handle 18% more stress than diamonds, and pure lonsdaleite 58% harder on the Mohs scale (the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material).
Lonsdaleite can be formed when meteorites containing graphite hit Earth (but won't be pure). While wurtzite boron nitride is formed in the very high temperatures and pressures inside volcanic eruptions.
And though diamond is very strong in terms of tensile (stretching) strength osmium
has a higher compressive (squeezing) strength.
Graphene and the other wonder carbon based wonder material, buckminsterfullerenes, are also very very strong indeed. Which brings us to the new discovery.
A mix of carbon-60 (Buckyballs) and a solvent called m-xylene when compressed to 600,000 atmospheres creates a new material that sits between crystalline and amorphous, not before seen. The new material was able to dent diamond and compares to diamond in compressability. http://www.gizmag.com/diamond-dent/23805/