Steve: Individuals over the age of 65 seek medical care for gastrointestinal (GI) related complaints more often than any other age group. As we age, each organ associated with digestion experiences changes that are a natural part of aging, but which impact overall digestive function.
Adequate mastication and saliva form food into a bolus that can be safely swallowed and is sufficiently disintegrated for the next phase of digestion. Common changes in mastication including tooth loss, trouble swallowing, decreased bite strength, and loss of taste and smell can disrupt this initial stage of digestion by hindering the mechanical breakdown of food and reducing saliva production. This can lead to reduced nutrient assimilation.
The stomach has its own series of chemical, hormonal, and mechanical processes. Gastric juices are released, and multi-directional smooth muscles mix them together with the food resulting in a part liquid/part solid mass known as chyme. The primary players here are hydrochloric acid (HCL), intrinsic factor, and the enzymes alpha-amylase, gastric lipase, and pepsin-an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of proteins.
However, both HCl and pepsin production have been shown to naturally decline in individuals over the age of 70, which results in the reduced bioavailability of minerals like calcium, magnesium, and iron and impeding the breakdown of proteins. Vitamin B12 also requires both pepsin and HCl as they are responsible for releasing it from animal proteins.
The Small Intestine
The small intestine is where the majority of nutrient absorption occurs and hormones like secretin and cholecystokinin, and vagal and neural reflexes regulate motility and digestive secretions. Secretin and cholecystokinin stimulate the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate to neutralize acidic chyme and digestive enzymes to digest proteins, carbohydrates and fats. The gallbladder also contracts, releasing bile for the emulsification and absorption of lipids. In elderly patients, both secretions have both been shown to decrease with age.
In addition to lymphoid tissue, the mucosa of the small intestine has an epithelial layer that serves as a barrier between environmental molecules and the bloodstream and adjacent tissue. Aging also affects the immune system, which changes the composition of intestinal mucosa.
The Large Intestine
The large intestine, or colon, is the site where water and residual nutrients like vitamin K, biotin, sodium, chloride, and potassium are absorbed. This is also the site of bacterial fermentation where bacteria act on carbohydrates, generating short chain fatty acids like butyrate-a source of cellular energy. Alterations in intestinal function and microbial changes can impede this process and limit short chain fatty acid production.
Enteric Nervous System
The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is essential for its job of regulating GI function via directing activity of other GI cells and thereby controlling gut motility, absorption, secretion and the epithelial barrier. Normal age-related neuronal cell death is more predominant in the ENS than in any other place in the body. Particularly susceptible are cholinergenic nerves, which stimulate the movement of waste through the colon. Loss of these and other neurons in advanced age has been shown to affect epithelial, muscle and neural function, digestive secretions and bowel transit time.
Luckily, with the right advice from a knowledgable health professional, all of these age-related gut actions can be mitigated!
Bonnie and Steve: A study in this month's The Journal of Nutrition investigated the association of dietary acid load with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
While the researchers were familiar with the incidence of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, kidney disease, bone-mineral disorders, to name a few, they were shocked to see that not only was excess acidity associated with higher mortality, but excess alkalinity was as well. Of course, the most balanced acid to alkaline dietary ratio (60:40) showed the lowest mortality.
We have said forever that while being too acidic is more common, many people go to the other extreme. Your body needs acid, most importantly to fight off bacteria and viruses in the gut. We have seen too many clients self-prescribe an alkaline diet, and are dumbfounded when they start getting H. Pylori, C. Diff, and respiratory and sinus infections.
The key is to stick as close to a 60 percent acid to 40 percent alkaline diet.
"Don't Itch a Mosquito Bite" Is No Myth
Steve: Remember when your parents told you not to itch a mosquito bite? They had no idea how right they were!
There's a reason why mosquito bite sites are itchy, irritating nuisances. By touching the area, viral infections can spread much easier.
The new study from Immunity found that inflammation where the insect has bitten not only helps a virus such as Zika or dengue establish an infection in the body more quickly, but it also helps it to spread around the body, increasing the likelihood of severe illness.
When a mosquito bites, it injects saliva into the skin. The saliva triggers an immune response in which white blood cells called neutrophils and myeloid cells rush to the site. But instead of helping, some of these cells get infected and inadvertently replicate the virus.
In the absence of inflammation and agitation through itching the area, the viruses failed to replicate well.
Our "go to" for mosquito bites to limit itching and inflammation is peppermint essential oil. As soon as you realize there is a mosquito bite, take a Q-tip and dab a little of the essential oil on the bite. In almost every case, relief is realized almost immediately! We also like B&T Sting Stop.
Carbs and Cancer
Steve: The role of carbohydrates in our diets and the differences between healthy and unhealthy carbs, most often in the context of weight control have been magnified in the last decade, finally!
A new study presented at the American Society for Nutrition Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting is one more reason to avoid sugary beverages, processed foods and other energy-dense carbohydrate-containing foods: lowering intake may help reduce your risk of cancer.
Regular consumption of sugary beverages was associated with a three times greater risk of prostate cancer and higher intake of processed lunch foods such as pizza, burgers and meat sandwiches doubled prostate cancer risk. By contrast, healthy carbohydrate-containing foods like legumes, non-starchy vegetables, fruits and whole grains were collectively associated with a 67 percent lower risk for breast cancer.
What is reaffirming is the type of carbohydrates you consume impacts your cancer risk. Healthy carbohydrate sources, such as fruit, vegetables, and legumes tend to protect us from cancer.
What's extra special about this study is that researchers tracked the eating habits of over 3,000 volunteers since the early 1970s.
Eating foods with a higher glycemic load was associated with an 88 percent higher prostate cancer risk. The risk increase was most pronounced for people who regularly consumed processed lunch foods or sugary beverages, a category that includes sugar-sweetened soft drinks in addition to fruit juices.
Among individual foods, legumes such as beans, lentils and peas were associated with 32 percent lower risk of all overweight- and obesity-related cancers, including breast, prostate and colorectal cancers.
The findings are in line with previous studies, which have shown that malignant cancer cells seem to feed on sugar, and that diets high in refined carbohydrates may lead to a range of adverse health effects primarily due to their impacts on body fatness and on the dysregulation of insulin and glucose, both of which are factors that may increase cancer risk.
MSG Toxic to White Blood Cells
Bonnie and Steve: One food additive we have always denounced since it became ubiquitous in food is MSG, or monosodium glutamate.
While many public health experts have supported MSG, as has some research, we have held steadfast in our belief because we have seen the cause and effect in our clientele. A new study from the May issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology backs us up.
The aim was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of MSG. Five different genotoxicity tests were performed in human white blood cells, called lymphocytes. As most of you know, white blood cells are crucial for our immune system.
The results showed that MSG has genotoxic effects on human lymphocytes in vitro.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the most widely used flavor enhancers throughout the world. Six concentrations (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg) of MSG were used.
The results indicated that MSG significantly and dose dependently increased the frequencies of chromosome aberrations, causing major DNA damage at all MSG concentrations after one hour of exposure.
The results demonstrate that MSG is genotoxic to the human white blood cells. If you want a properly working immune system, then you should try to avoid MSG whenever possible.
How Antibiotics Promote C. Difficile
Bonnie: New research from mSphere finds that bile acids which are altered by bacteria normally living in the large intestine inhibit the growth of Clostridium difficile, or C. diff.
C. diff is a harmful bacterium that can cause painful and sometimes fatal infections. The work sheds light on the ways in which some commonly used antibiotics can promote C. diff infections by killing off the bile acid-altering microbes.
To colonize the gut, C. diff. spores need to germinate and become growing bacteria that produce toxins and damage the large intestine. Primary bile acids are made in the liver and travel through the intestinal tract. In the large intestine, bacteria convert these to secondary bile acids, of which found many have an inhibitory effect on C. diff growth.
This is why it is crucial to take not only sacchromyces boulardii when on an antibiotic, but a probiotic with acidophilus and bifidus. This will help control the growth of C. diff in the large intestine. The other method is to avoid antibiotics unless it is a last resort.
mythbusterVegetarians and Vegans Do Not Have Lower Cancer Risk?
Bonnie: Participants in a study from the March issue of British Journal of Nutrition found that those who followed a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of breast cancer as compared with non-vegetarians.
In another study, scientists have found that a vegetarian diet has led to a mutation that - if they stray from a balanced omega-6 to omega-3 diet - may make people more susceptible to inflammation, and by association, increased risk of heart disease and colon cancer.
The discovery, in journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, shows that with little animal food in the diet, the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) must be made metabolically from plant PUFA precursors. The physiological demand for arachidonic acid, as well as omega-3 EPA and DHA, in vegetarians is crucial. With a genetic mutation that reduces the ability to transfer plant fats to usable omega-3 fats changes in the dietary omega-6 to omega-3 balance, therefore contributing to the increase in chronic disease.
Bonnie - This is one of the numerous reasons I have never touted a vegetarian or vegan diet. The vegans I have encountered as new clients are usually the sickest. Most vegetarians eat too many high glycemic grain carbs and sugar because they haven't filled up on protein and healthy fats. Thus, I am not surprised by the results. If the study had been based upon a traditional Mediterranean Diet... choosing fish, eggs, and low fat goat/sheep cheeses with lots of fruits, vegetables, and olive oil...their results would have been wonderful!
Clarifying How Saturated Fat Can Be Bad
I have told you many times that not all saturated fats are bad. Saturated fats are an essential part of our diet. However, it is what, when, and how we consume saturated fat that deems whether it affects us positively or negatively.
For example, trans fats are not just bad, they are horrible. Luckily, they have been removed from much of the food supply, but still exist in certain processed foods.
Another example is too much saturated fat from conventional animal protein. The fat structure is much more unhealthy than that of animals who are fed their normal diets.
Finally, new research from journal EBioMedicine suggests that it also may be in the timing of saturated fat consumption. While more research needs to be done, this first-of-its-kind study is fascinating.
Circadian clocks, which exist in cells throughout the body, regulate the local timing of important cellular processes necessary for normal functioning and help keep inflammatory responses in check. When you disrupt that timing, there are consequences, and this is a contributing factor in many human health disorders, especially metabolic disease. Consumption of saturated fats at certain times may "jet lag" internal clocks, resulting in inflammation.
The study found that one type of saturated fat in particular, called palmitate, is the big culprit in compromising the accuracy of our body clocks. Also called palmitic acid, it is one of the most commonly consumed long chain saturated fats in the Western diet. The most common places to find it is in conventional meat, dairy, and foods that contain palm oil.
Guess what disrupted the palmitic-acid inflammatory response? The omega-3 fatty acid DHA!
Organic Meat, Milk Blow Away Conventional
Bonnie and Steve: In the largest study of its kind, an international team of experts has shown that both organic milk and meat contain around 50% more beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, certain essential minerals, and antioxidants than conventionally produced products.
The findings, published last week in the British Journal of Nutrition, suggest a switch to organic meat and milk would go some way towards increasing our intake of nutritionally important fatty acids.
A switch from conventional to organic would raise omega-3 fat intake without increasing calories and excess saturated fat. Other positive changes in fat profiles included lower levels of myristic and palmitic acid in organic meat and a lower omega-3/omega-6 ratio in organic milk. Higher levels of fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin E and carotenoids and 40% more CLA in organic milk were also observed.
The study showed that the more desirable fat profiles in organic milk were closely linked to outdoor grazing and low concentrate feeding in dairy diets, as prescribed by organic farming standards. This is better for the cows and the environment, because the cows emit less methane gas when they are fed their natural diets.
Further evidence of the health benefits of organic food
The study builds on a previous study, also published in the British Journal of Nutrition, showing that organic crops and crop-based foods are up to 60% higher in a number of key antioxidants than conventionally-grown crops and contained less of the toxic metal cadmium.
Sunscreen That Doesn't Block Vitamin D?
Bonnie: For the first time researchers have developed a process for altering the ingredients in a sunscreen that does not impact its sun protection factor (SPF), but does allow the body to produce vitamin D. The findings, published in PLOS ONE, has led to the production of a new sunscreen called Solar D.
According to the researchers, there are several chemical compounds that are typically used in a sunscreen that efficiently absorbed varying wavelengths of UVB radiation. After removing certain ingredients the researchers compared Solar D, which has an SPF of 30, to a popular commercial sunscreen with the same SPF, and found Solar D allowed for up to 50 percent more production of vitamin D in-vitro.
Solar D is currently available in Australia and will be available in the U.S. summer 2016.
Dogs Can Affect Your Microbiome
Steve: It's probably not surprising to learn that bacteria from a dog's fur and paws is easily transferred to the skin of humans living in the same space. One person strokes the dog, leaving their bacteria behind, then the other picks it up when they also pet the pet.
Could it be possible that dogs might even act as a source of healthy bacteria? Could a dog in fact be a kind of probiotic? Actually, two intriguing studies do seem to point in this direction.
One study suggested that living with a dog in infancy may lower a child's risk of developing asthma and allergies, largely as a result of exposure to what they call "dog-associated house-dust".
A current study is exploring whether dogs can directly improve the health of older people by transferring good bacteria from the dogs to their new owners, along with other health-boosting benefits.
Dogs can have pretty complex oral microbiomes that are very different humans. Giving us more microbial diversity is not a bad thing.
mythbusterActs of Kindness Have Lasting Effects
Steve: Small favors can have a sizable influence on our behavior, inspiring us to spend energy to help others and lending credence to the idea that we have a drive to 'pay it forward,' according to the authors of a study in Frontiers In Psychology.
The study shows that gratitude has consequences. It is not only the recipient of the act or gift who gains; it is also the doer or giver. When you are courteous to another person, or when you offer gifts, you are doing something that is good for you. Interestingly, it can be rewarding for yourself, and it can reduce stress. It can actually be good for your health.
Researchers wanted to see how courtesy door-holding results in reciprocation ranging from a "thank you" to even larger acts of repayment. Door holders who made a high effort -- smiling and making eye contact with the strangers they were helping -- were told "thank you" more often than the door holders who behaved passively as they propped open the door with low effort, checking text messages on their cell phones.
Researchers also studied whether people will return the favor somehow. Door holders in this experiment were toting a file box that had 12 pens on top that spilled out sometime after opening the door. 64 percent helped door holders who made a high effort, versus 19 percent who made a low effort.
While people do not feel obligated to say "thank you" or help, even when they have received a favor, it still has an effect. But engaging anyone with an act of good manners, and with a smile and a thank you, is something this world can use more of!
Steve: For anyone struggling to keep up with their exercise routine, a solution may be found in a simple cup of coffee.
In the journal Sports Medicine, researchers suggest that reducing perception of effort during exercise using caffeine could help the many people who find it difficult to stick to their fitness plans.
Together with lack of time, physical exertion is one of the main perceived barriers to exercise, which is natural as humans evolved to effectively conserve energy. This inherent 'laziness' means that sustaining exercise in the long term is very difficult even when people are still motivated to improve their health and fitness as when they started.
Perception of effort is one of the main reasons why most people choose sedentary activities for their leisure time. Compared to watching television (zero effort), even moderate-intensity physical activities like walking require considerable effort.
Caffeine energizes, which reduces the perception of the effort it takes to exercise, thus making the choice to follow through easier.
Many athletes consume caffeine in some form before sporting events. Why can't you? Consuming caffeine (black coffee ideal) 30 to 60 minutes before exercise is optimal.
Bonnie and Steve: Before the 1960's, when public health experts began to vilify fat and animal protein, the research was mounting indicting sugar for its role in the development of heart disease. We now know why the calls for reducing amounts of sugar went away with nary a whisper, and fat became public enemy number one. The sugar industry meddled in medical research.
Researchers in this week's JAMA Internal Medicine discovered publicly-available documents from the 1960's showing the Sugar Research Foundation paid two Harvard scientists to produce a review of scientific literature deeming fat as the biggest cause for heart disease and downplaying any potential role other studies were beginning to find.
A study called Project 226 was funded by representatives of the sugar industry, who paid researchers at Harvard University $50,000, set the review's objective, contributed "research" to be included with the study and approved drafts as it was produced.
When the study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, its industry funding was not disclosed, obscuring significant bias that may have affected the health of millions of Americans since its publication.
There were 340 documents between sugar industry representatives and two Harvard researchers, leading to the two-part study, "Dietary Fats, Carbohydrates and Atherosclerotic Disease," published in 1967.
The study led government agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, to structure dietary guidelines based on reducing fat in the average diet, but leaving sugar relatively untouched.
As despicable as this is, we should not be surprised. The same thing happened with Big Tobacco. The same thing has and is currently happening with Big Pharma. This is why it is crucial that we always keep a healthy sense of skepticism and common sense!
This is the New York Times article they are referring to:
Bonnie and Steve: Just last week, two female clients said their doctors told them to stop taking supplemental calcium based on a recent study. This stance, coming from the same profession who overprescribed supplemental calcium, and caused irreparable harm in women for decades, is dead wrong.
We were vehemently against the policy of prescribing the one-size-fits-all 1500 mg. supplemental calcium for women, just as we are vehemently against those who now say we should not take any supplemental calcium.
As it always is, and always will be, the source and amount of calcium, or any supplement for that matter, should be based upon individual needs.
If you need more ammunition to use if your doctor comes at you with the no calcium stance, it has been found to be essential for learning and memory.
Learning and Memory
In a new study from Cell Reports, scientists offered new insights how calcium in mitochondria, the powerhouse of all cells, can impact the development of the brain and adult cognition.
Blocking a channel that brings calcium to the mitochondria, called "mitochondrial calcium uniporter," causes memory impairment. This is why calcium channel blocker medications have numerous side effects, especially in older persons.
In addition, when there is calcium deficiency, not enough is being transported into the mitochondria, and the same memory impairment issue can occur. Deficiency occurs when there is malabsorbed, or not enough, calcium from food and supplements.
As we have written several times already this year, calcium is a crucial part of one's supplement regimen, when taken in the proper dosage and form.
Research presented at the World Congress on Osteoporosis, involved 502,664 men and women with an average age of 58 years. After 7 years of follow-up, there were no associations between the use of calcium supplements and risk of incident hospital admission with ischemic heart disease, any cardiovascular event, or death versus those with no calcium supplementation intake.
While we are encouraged by this study, we still stick with our belief that for most individuals, between 250 mg. and 800 mg. supplemental calcium is considered the "safe zone". Finally, supplemental calcium must always be accompanied by vitamin D3 and magnesium glycinate.
A study in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition provided fascinating results on the largest and longest study ever performed on subjects taking calcium supplements and their mortality.
Not surprisingly, the results echo much of what we have said: they are beneficial for women and not beneficial for men, especially in large doses.
Roughly 180,000 men and women for followed for 17.5 years. Dietary and supplemental calcium intake was tabulated from the start through the end of the study.
Calcium from food alone had no measurable impact in men or women.
Men who took more than 1000 mg. or more of supplemental calcium during this period had a slight increased risk of all-cause mortality, much of the risk from CVD-related outcomes. In the rare instances where we recommend calcium for men, it is never even close to 1000 mg., unless there is an acute, short-term situation.
For women, there were reductions in all-cause mortality at every calcium dosage level: 1-500 mg., 500 to 1000 mg., and 1000 mg. or more. Mortality from cancer, especially colorectal and breast, was lower in all categories. Mortality from cardiovascular disease, especially from ischemic heart disease at all dosage levels, and stroke in lower dosages, were especially significant. Finally, in all other mortality causes, the risk was lower for all calcium dosages.
This should be reaffirming to many women. And for any men still taking large doses of calcium, unless specifically recommended for an acute situation, see a licensed professional about lowering dramatically, or eliminating it altogether.
While this study is not the end of the calcium discussion, it mirrors much of what we love to see in supplement studies: large number of subjects over a long period of time.
Don't forget that calcium does it's best work when accompanied with vitamin D and absorbable magnesium. Please do not ever take calcium alone.
June 29, 2016
Ethnographic and anthropological studies indicate that adult human hunter-gatherers consumed most of their calcium in the form of bones from animals, such as small and large mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. We are genetically adapted to consume a large proportion of our dietary calcium from bones, where calcium is absorbed along with a matrix of nutrients including magnesium, phosphorus, strontium, zinc, iron, copper, collagen protein, aminoglycans and osteocalcin, all of which also support robust bone formation.
While consuming animal bones may not be practical in the modern age (except for those who consume sardines with bones), taking a supplement that mirrors the bone matrix is highly recomended.
According to a study in the June issue of Open Heart, ingestion of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (supplemental calcium source that mirrors the bone matrix; you may know it as MCHC or MCHA) produces less of an acute spike in blood calcium levels compared to soluble calcium salts typically used in standard supplements. Hydroxyapatite also stimulates bone osteoblast cells and contains virtually all the essential building blocks needed to construct bone tissue.
Taking a calcium supplement from carbonate, which is sourced from rocks, and citrate, which is sourced from corn-based citric acid, do not have the same absorption capability.
The addition of magnesium and vitamin D to a whole bone supplement further enhances its effectiveness.
Finally, we can get bioavailable sources of calcium from specific foods, as evidenced by the image above. Leafy greens are particularly wonderful because they contain, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin K.
A new study in Cell Metabolism sheds light on the effects of artificial sweeteners on the brain in regulating appetite and in altering taste perceptions.
Researchers have identified a new system in the brain that senses and integrates the sweetness and energy content of food.
After chronic exposure to a diet that contained the artificial sweetener sucralose (Splenda), researchers saw that animals began eating a lot more.
They found that inside the brain's reward centers, sweet sensation is integrated with energy content. When sweetness versus energy is out of balance for a period of time, the brain recalibrates and increases total calories consumed.
When they investigated why animals were eating more even though they had enough calories, they found that chronic consumption of sucralose actually increases the sweet intensity of real nutritive sugar, and this then increases the animal's overall motivation to eat more food.
This is the first study to identify how artificial sweeteners can stimulate appetite. The pathway is part of a conserved starvation response that actually makes nutritious food taste better when you are starving. This effect is similar to to what happens when you eat monosodium glutamate (MSG). The food tastes saltier than it really is.
In essence, artificial sweeteners, like MSG, trick the brain.
Adding insult to injury, the researchers also found that artificial sweeteners promoted hyperactivity, insomnia and decreased sleep quality, behaviors consistent with a mild starvation or fasting state.
"These findings further reinforce the idea that 'sugar-free' varieties of processed food and drink may not be as inert as we anticipated," the lead researcher said.
I think that is an understatement!
Steve and Bonnie: There's a reason why we have always recommend that our clients eat balanced meals and snacks. The better we can suppress certain neurological signals that scream hunger, the better we can maintain balanced weight.
There has been very little research on those who have the "I'm always hungry" phenomenon. Researchers in a recent study in Nature found that specific hypothalamic neurons stimulate food-seeking behaviors to eliminate the negative feelings associated with energy deficit.
Here's the problem. Most of us are not functioning at an energy deficit. We have been hard-wired to consume larger portions than we need or eat macronutrients like sugar that trigger us to eat more. Thus, we cannot blame our neurons. Our neurons are still functioning as they were thousands of years ago when we were constantly in search for food. Unfortunately, the hunger signals are negative and create negative emotions.
The following strategies can be used to extend the amount of time it takes for these signals to activate. They are a crucial cog to achieving optimal healthspan.
Eat balanced, which means never eating a carbohydrate alone. Always accompany a carbohydrate with a protein and healthy fat. This will satiate you for a much longer period of time. Try to make the carbohydrates fibrous fruit and veggies whenever possible.
Consume mid-morning and/or mid-afternoon balanced snacks. If you choose to do this, eat a little less at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Keep the snacks balanced as well. Is an apple a healthy snack? Sure, as long as it is accompanied with a slice of turkey and/or dollop of sunflower butter. You get the idea.
Drink water in between meals. Any opportunity to expand your stomach keeps the hunger demons at bay. Hydration and flushing out junk cannot hurt either.
Consume fiber. Americans consume paltry amounts of fiber. Fiber satiates and creates bulk in the digestive system. The more bulk, the less area for your neurons to pick up hunger signals.
Use your mind to suppress the negative signals. Learn to recognize the hunger signals and channel them into positive signals. Use internal dialogue and tell yourself "be patient because it is not time to eat yet" and take a few deep breaths. It may seem corny, but it can be very helpful. You are simply being self-aware in addressing one of your body's strongest primal signals.
- Crain's Chicago BusinessMultimedia Producer, 2007 - present
- Towers ProductionsOnline/Offline Editor, 2004 - 2007
- J.H. ImagesPhotographer/Videographer/Design/Owner, 2002 - 2004
- TravelocityMultimedia/Graphic Design Manager, 1999 - 2002
- MSNBCMultimedia Producer, 1995 - 1999
- J.H. ImagesPhotographer/Videographer/Design/Owner, 1985 - 1995
Producing compelling multimedia content has been my passion for over 20 years. Although the definition of multimedia has greatly evolved over the years, its potential as an invaluable communication tool has remained unchanged. I have successfully unlocked its potential across multiple industries and solved a range of unique business challenges for companies who share my belief in the transformative powers of multimedia. I bring unparalleled commitment to the companies and teams I work with, as well as bring an artful yet strategic eye towards solving key business communication goals.
- Idaho State UniversityPhotography/Journalism, 1987 - 1991
- United States International UniversityMusical Theater, 1985 - 1987
- Pocatello High School1983 - 1985
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