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Jared Eldredge
Engineer, dad, geek, and leisurely fisherman
Engineer, dad, geek, and leisurely fisherman

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An unfortunately accurate way to describe plenty of science policy in 2018: "It’s difficult to describe all the ways this is stupid."
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excellent use of EDA measurements :)
We’re not much familiar with Empatica but the company has been working on a smartband that aims to detect convulsive seizures. The wearable device is a health tracker that can help caregivers and parents to monitor the condition of a patient. It’s more of…
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Of all savior-gods worshipped at the beginning of the Christian era, Osiris may have contributed more details to the evolving Christ figure than any other. Already very old in Egypt, Osiris was identified with nearly every other Egyptian god and was on the way to absorbing them all. He had well over 200 divine names.1

He was called Lord of Lords, King of Kings, God of Gods. 2

He was the Resurrection and the Life, the Good Shepherd, Eternity and Everlastingness, the god who “made men and women to be born again." Budge says, "From first to last, Osiris was to the Egyptians the god-man who suffered, and died, and rose again, and reigned eternally in heaven. They believed that they would inherit eternal life, just as he had done.”3

According to Egyptian scriptures, "As truly as Osiris lives, so truly all his follower live; as truly as Osiris is not dead he shall die no more; as truly as Osiris is not annihilated he shall not be annihilated." 4

Osiris's coming was announced by Three Wise Men: the three stars Mintaka, Anilam, and Alnitak in the belt of Orion, which point directly to Osiris's star in the east, Sirius (Sothis), significator of his birth, Angelic voices hailed the coming of the Universal Lord on this occasion, which marked the rising of the Nile flood.

Oriental paths of the Osirian "tradition may be traced in Tibet, where the rising of the same star in the east marks the annual festival of "setting free the waters of springs," as the Egyptian festival set free the waters of the Nile, Tibetans named the star Rishi-Agastya, after a holy king of "a very ancient time." 5

Ancient Hebrews called the same star Ephraim, or the Star of Jacob. In Syrian, Arabian, and Persian astrology it was Messaeil the Messiah. 6

Certainly Osiris was a prototypical Messiah, as well as a devoured Host. His flesh was eaten in the form of communion cakes of wheat, the "plant of Truth." Osiris was Truth, and those who ate him became Truth also, each of them another Osiris, a Son of God, a "Light-god, a dweller in the Light-god." Egyptians came to believe that no god except Osiris could bestow eternal life on mortals. 7

He alone was the Savior, Un-nefer, the "Good One." Under this title he was even canonized as a Christian saint. 8

Egyptians were much afraid of death's corruption awaiting them without the kindly intervention of Osiris: "When the soul hath departed, a man seeth corruption, and the bones of his body crumble away and become stinking things, and the members decay one after the other, the bones crumble into a helpless mass, and the flesh turneth into fetid liquid.
Thus a man becometh a brother unto the decay which cometh upon him, and he turneth into a myriad of worms, and he becometh nothing but worms, and an end is made of him, and he perisheth in the sight of the god of day." 9

But Osiris could prevent all nastiness:

Homage to thee, O my divine father Osiris, thou hast thy being with thy members. Thou didst not decay, thou didst not become worms, thou didst not diminish, thou didst not become corruption, thou didst not putrefy, and thou didst not turn into worms I shall not decay, and I shall not rot, I shall not putrefy, I shall not turn into worms, and I shall not see corruption before the eye of the god Shu.

I shall have my being, I shall have my being; I shall live, I shall live; I shall germinate, I shall germinate, I shall germinate; I shall wake up in peace; I shall not putrefy, my intestines shall not perish; I shall not surfer injury; mine eye shall not decay; the form of my visage shall not disappear. . . . My body shall be stablished, and it shall neither fall into ruin nor be destroyed on I this earth. 10

The cult of Osiris contributed a number of ideas and phrases to the Bible. The 23 rd Psalm copied an Egyptian text appealing to Osiris the Good Shepherd to lead the deceased to the "green pastures" and "still waters" of the ne/er-ne/erland, to restore the soul to the body, an to give protection in the valley of the shadow of death (the Tuat). The Lord's Prayer was prefigured by an Egyptian hymn to Osiris-Ame beginning "O Amen, Amen, who art in heaven." 11

Amen was also invoked at the end of every prayer.

Jesus's words, "Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit" (John 12:24), were taken from an Osirian doctrine that a dying man is like a corn of wheat "which falls into the earth in order to draw from its bosom a new life." 12

Jesus's words, "In my Father's house are many mansions" (John 14:2) came from an Osirian text telling of numerous Arits ("Mansions") in the blessed land of Father Osiris. 13

Stories about Osiris turned up in Christian legends. Jesus's healing of a nobleman's daughter was based on a tale of an Osirian priest who cured a princess. 14

Worshippers of Osiris were promised that they would rule the spirit-souls (angels) in heaven, foreshadowing St. Paul's promise to his followers that they would rule even angels (1 Corinthians 6:3). The bishop's crozier was the Osirian shepherd-crook. The Christian cross itself was a variant of the Egyptian ankh, symbolizing "the Life to Come." 15

One significant difference between Osiris and Christ was that Osiris was restored to life not by his divine father but by his divine mother who was also his bride, Isis. She put his dismembered body back together and raised him from the dead. She married him and conceived his reincarnation, the Divine Child Horus who became Osiris again.
She also took him to heaven where he reigned as Father Ra. Sometimes Ra was called Osiris's father, sometimes Osiris was called Ra's father, sometimes they were the same god, named Osiris-Ra. They were cyclically reincarnated as father-son and son-father, dwelling in the Mother as fetus, lover, corpse. 16

Thus Osiris's cult centered on the theme of divine incest, apparent also in a Christianity that declared the Father and Son identical, and the Mother of God the same individual as God's bride. Osiris plainly expressed the archetypal wish for union with the mother, found in all men's religions. He was restored to life as the ithyphallic Min, Men, or Menu, "Moon-god," hailed as a Bull of lust, "the mummy with a long member," or "the Lord Who impregnates his Mother." 17

A symbol of Osiris's sacred marriage was the menat, "moon- Osiris charm," in hieroglyphics a phallus-shaped jar pouring fluid into a wider pot or vase, signifying sexual intercourse with a deity. 18 The menat amulet was borne by nearly every Egyptian god; it was also a title of Isis. 19

The same sexual image of the two vessels was found in the tombs and temples of Babylon and Assyria. 20 The male water-jar represented the seminal spirit of the Savior in all the lands of the Middle east and Egypt. In his processions, the god was preceded by a jar bearer like the man with a jar of water who preceded Jesus in the Passover procession (Luke 22:10).

The Jews' Passover meal called Seder may have descended from the Egyptian Sed, the oldest festival of Osirian regeneration and fertility. 21

At the Sed, Osiris's masculinity was erected in the form of the Dyed column, originally a simple phallic obelisk, later a representation of Osiris's sacrum, the "sacred bone" so called because it was once regarded as the source of seminal fluid. When Isis brought Osiris pack to life, her first care was to make him "stand up," which meant restoration of his phallic spirit. 22

Primitive elements in Osirian myth show its extreme antiquity, dating back to Neolithic Egypt. Before re-conceiving Osiris, the Goddess apparently devoured him as she hovered over his corpse in the guise of the archaic Vulture-mother (see Vulture). 23

Like similar images of devouring Kali, this points to an age predating even the discovery of fatherhood, when reincarnations were believed to be brought about by cannibalism. Indeed, Osiris may have begun as one of the numerous forms of Shiva, for his name came from Ausar or Asar, meaning "the Asian" just like the Aesir or "Asian" gods of northern Europe. 24

About 4000 years ago, Osiris's cult was established at Abydos, |where he was called Osiris Khenti-Amenti, Lord of Death or Lord of me Westerners, meaning those who had "gone west" into death's sunset land. He was incarnate in a succession of sacred kings who seem to have served as sacrificial victims.

Their bodies were divided up and distributed to different parts of the country to assist fertility as in Norway, up to the 9th century, where kings' bodies used to be quartered and sent to the four provinces for burial, so each locality would have
royal flesh to assist the crops. 25

As Christian churches used to be founded on spurious relics of apostles and saints, so Egyptian temples were founded on bits of Osiris's body. 26

Like the head of Orpheus on Lesbos, the head of Osiris was preserved in the temple at Abydos to serve as an oracle, providing |much of the Egyptians' detailed knowledge of the after-world. The shrine had a sacred well called Peq or Pega, the original home of the Pega-nymphs who guarded the oracular well of Pirene in Corinth. 27

Like Christians seeking burial in consecrated ground by a church, wealthy Egyptians bought burial space near the Osirian temple, so as to share the god's resurrection. Abydos therefore became the center of a great necropolis. 28

The faithful claimed on their epitaphs that "I have become a divine being by the side of the birthchamber of Osiris; I am brought forth with him, I renew my youth." 29

When human sacrifices were replaced by animals, Osiris obligingly incarnated himself in a variety of beasts, notably the Apis bull who ascended to glory, carrying away the sins of all Egypt as he died in atonement. 30 Osiris-Apis later became the composite deity Sarapis, monotheistic god of Alexandria for six centuries. 31

There were several Osirian trinities. One consisted of Osiris the father, Isis the mother, and Horus the son. Another was Ra the father, Osiris the son on earth, and Horus the son rising in heaven. Another was (1) Ptah, "Opener of the Way," a phallic consort of the Virgin and the opener of her matrix; (2) Seker, representing the male spent, dead, and hidden within the female tomb-womb; and (3) Osiris, newly incarnate as the Min-phallus and standing for resurrection. 32

The sacred lunar numbers seven, fourteen, and twenty-eight were prominent in Osiris's cult. The lunar cycle of twenty-eight days corresponded to his descent into the underworld and ascent to heaven: fourteen days each way, or fourteen steps on his mystic Ladder.

Buddha's ladder of descent to earth and return to heaven also had fourteen steps. 33 Like Buddha and Osiris, the Tibetan sage is still supposed to pass fourteen days in the after-world before encountering enlightenment in the form of "the mandala of the animal-headed deities," reminiscent of the Egyptian gods.

Some of these deities were named Heruka, a possible cognate of Osiris the sun, Heru-Harakhti. 34

Like Hindu sacred dramas, the cycle of Osirian drama seems to have been keyed to the menstrual cycle of the Goddess, incarnate in the priestess who bore the title of Divine Mother. In the month of Athyr (Hathor), Egyptian women made clay phalli as images of Osiris and threw them into the Nile when it "turned to blood" in flood time (see Moses). 35

This custom recalled the Oriental conviction that the Goddess must be menstruating at the time of her sacred marriage to the dying god. Later accounts explained Osirian lunar numbers by saying he was 28 years old at the time of his passion, or else that it took place in the 28th year of his reign on earth. 36

As Lord of Death, Osiris was sometimes identified with the Great Serpent of the underworld, and sometimes painted in the same serpentine form, bent around so his toes touched his head. 37

In Ptolemaic times the whole underworld became Osiris's province, its seven halls collectively called the House of Osiris. 38

Between 1450 and 1400 B.C. the Osirian mystery-cult took form, with hundreds of verbal formulae for making the worshipper become an Osiris. He would be born of Isis and nursed by Nephthys.

He would ride across the sky "side by side with the gods of the stars." He would be as virile as Osiris-Menu: "My palm tree (penis) standeth upright and is like Menu Therefore the Phallus of Ra, which is the head of Osiris, shall not be swallowed up." When he was in heaven, the gods
themselves would bring offerings to him. 59

The Osirian Mysteries taught words of power for bringing about these desirable effects. Such words of power were "keys" to heaven, to be concealed from non-initiates as "a great mystery." 40

The Saite Recension said with such keys, a soul could pass freely through the gates, gatekeepers, guardians, heralds, inspectors, and other spirits of the
heavenly mansions, for he would know all their names.

And the Majesty ofAnpu shall say unto me, "Knowest thou the name of this door, and canst thou tell it? " ... And the Majesty of the god Anpu shall say unto me, "Knowest thou the name of the upper leaf, and the name of the lower leaf?" On receiving the proper answers, the Majesty of the god Anpu shall say, "Pass on, for thou hast knowledge, O Osiris. " 4I

During the first century B.C. the Osirian religion was established in all parts of the Roman Empire. 42 Its popularity declined in the end because it became too complicated for the average mind. Necessary words of power" developed into lengthy catechisms of divine names of doorposts, lintels, bolts, panels, doorkeepers, spirits of the hour, thresholds, gods' right and left feet, etc.

Egyptians invented even a memory-god to bring back the spells and holy names if they were stolen by a spirit of forgetfulness. 43 The important ceremony of "Opening the Mouth" was performed to let the dead person speak charms and words of power freely. 44

Still, the catechisms became too long and complex to be remembered.

Budge remarks that the Egyptians believed in "the resurrection of the body in a changed and glorified form, which would live to all eternity in the company of the spirits and souls of the righteous in a kingdom ruled by a being who was of divine origin, but who had lived upon the earth, and had suffered a cruel death at the hands of his enemies, and had risen from the dead, and had become the God and King of the world which is beyond the grave.

Although they believed in all these things and proclaimed their belief with almost passionate earnestness, they seem never to have freed themselves from a hankering after amulets and talismans, and magical names, and words of power, and seem to have trusted in these to save their souls and bodies, both living and dead, with something of the same confidence which they placed in the death and resurrection of Osiris.

“A matter for surprise is that they seem to see nothing incongruous in such a mixture of magic and religion." 45

It is a matter for even more surprise that a scholar of Budge's stature failed to see exactly the same mixture of magic and religion in Christianity; for indeed he could have been talking about Christians as well as Egyptians. To this day, simple Christian folk still display the lame hankering after crucifixes and medals, agnus del, incantations, vocations of holy names and other formulae, saints' relics, holy images, even rosaries which they copied from the Egyptians.

Christian formulae of exorcism, baptism, extreme unction, absolution, etc., were words of power under different names. The notion of resurrection through identification with a resurrected god (by eating his flesh) was in itself magical rather than religious and this was the basis of the Christian salvation-idea no less than for that of Osiris's votaries.

Moreover it seems the concept of Christ was no less syncretic than the concept of Osiris. If anything, the older god had more right to claim an original system of worship or of superstition, depending on one's point of view.

1. Budge, G.E. 2, 178. 2. Book of the Dead, 650; Martello, 189. 3. Budge, G.E. 2, 126, 141. 4. Angus, 139. 5. Waddell, 509-10. 6. Martello, 190. 7. Book of the Dead, 1 56, 268, 459, 5 5 1 . 8. H. Smith, 227. "9. Book of the Dead, 462. 10. Neumann, G.M., 166. 11. Budge, E.M., 1 16. 12. Pepper & Wilcock, 50. 13. Book of the Dead, 269. 14. Budge, G.E. 2, 41. 15. Baring-Gould, C.M.M.A., 355. 16. Budge, G.E. 1, 256. 17. Erman, 304. 18. Book of the Dead, 170. 19. Budge, G.E. 2, 55. 20. James, 169. 21. James, 135-39. 22. Brandon, 126-27. 23. Hays, 257. 24. Budge, G.E. 2, 1 13. 25. Turville-Petre, 192. 26. Budge, G.E. 2, 192. 27. Budge, G.E. 2, 1 18; D.N., 276. 28. Larousse, 17. 29. Robertson, 48. 30. Budge, G.E. 2, 127. 31. Cumont, A.R.G.R., 80. 32. Budge, E.M. 84. 33. Campbell, M.I., 169. 34. Bardo Thodol, 70-71. 35. Hooke, M.E.M., 70. 36. Budge, G.E. 1, 101; 2, 188. 37. Budge, G.E. 1, 172. 38. Lethaby, 1 57. 39. Book of the Dead, 297, 469, 509-10, 518. 40. Budge, E.M., 1 16. 41. Book of the Dead, 571. 42. Angus, 197. 43. Book of the Dead, 279-80, 591-94. ] 44. Budge, E.M., 196. 45. Budge, E.M., xii-xiv.

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Poor Putin. After reading about how Trump slept with all these women right after Melania gave birth, he's got to be worried about Trump colluding with other countries right after Putin gave him the presidency.
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