SREBP1 has long been known to manage fat storage. After a meal, SREBP1 is helping each of your cells decide whether to use the fat that just arrived for fuel or store it for later.
Lefai’s team found, in animals, that a buildup of SREBP1 in the cell can lead either to extreme muscle atrophy or extreme muscle growth. And that was something Jill was interested in. She sent Lefai a two-line email with a question about his work. He thought it was from a scientist or Ph.D. student and responded.
Soon, Jill told Lefai about her own history, and suggested that it is possible that he discovered the actual biological mechanism that makes her and Priscilla so different — SREBP1 interacting with lamin.
1. whether the lower socio-economic class is relatively more fertile in the US (compared to the rest of the US population) than in other developed countries, and
2. whether a lower IQ score is correlated with lower socio-economic status:
«You hear about the "haves" versus the "have-nots," but not so much about the "have-one-or-nones" versus the "have-a-fews." This, though, is how you might characterize the stark and growing fertility class divide in the United States. Two new studies bring the contrasting reproductive profiles of rich and poor women into sharp relief. One, from the Guttmacher Institute, shows that the rates of unplanned pregnancies and births among poor women now dwarf the fertility rates of wealthier women, and finds that the gap between the two groups has widened significantly over the past five years. The other, by the Center for Work-Life Policy, documents rates of childlessness among corporate professional women that are higher than the childlessness rates of some European countries experiencing fertility crises.
Childlessness has increased across most demographic groups but is still highest among professionals. Indeed, according to an analysis of census data conducted by the Pew Research Center, about one quarter of all women with bachelor's degrees and higher in the United States wind up childless. (As Pew notes, for women with higher degrees, that number is actually slightly lower than it was in the early 1990s—but it is still very high.) By comparison, in England, which has one of the highest percentages of women without children in the world, 22 percent of all women are childless. According to the new Center for Work-Life Policy study, 43 percent of the women in their sample of corporate professionals between the ages of 33 and 46 were childless. The rate of childlessness among the Asian American professional women in the study was a staggering 53 percent.
At the same time, the numbers of both unplanned pregnancies and births among poor women have climbed steadily in recent years. About half of all pregnancies in this country are unplanned, with poor women now five times more likely than higher-income women to have an unplanned pregnancy, and six times more likely to have an unplanned birth, according to the Guttmacher Institute's recent analysis of government data. »
— Sharon Lerner. Knocked Up and Knocked Down: Why America's widening fertility class divide is a problem. Slate. September 26, 2011.
Here you are:
«Inferring from the evidence on declining fertility differentials, the question arises as of whether status differentials will converge. Of particular interest is to which extent education will continue to negatively affect fertility in the coming years. For Norwegians born 1935-58, cohort fertility for women with advanced tertiary degrees fell from 2.1 to 1.9 children while for those with primary school, it fell from 2.5 to 2.1, narrowing the education-fertility gap from 0.4 to 0.2 children. However, during the last few recent decades in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Japan, the fertility gap between high and low educated has not converged (Björklund 2006, Retherford et al. 2004). Moreover, in the US 1960-1990 the gap between college and non-college educated women widened from 0.3 to 0.5 children as TFR fell from 3.7 to 2.1 children (Statistical abstract of the United States 2001, Yang and Morgan 2003). On the basis of data from 57 less developed countries, Bongaarts and Menken (1983) suggests that even where fertility approaches replacement levels, the tertiary educated will continue to have low fertility as the more educated still prefer smaller families.»
— Skirbekk V. Fertility trends by social status. Demographic Research (2008) vol. 18 (5) pp. 145-180
Norway (1958 cohort fertility):
2.1/1.9 ≈ 1.105
US (1990 fertility rate):
>2.6/2.1 ≈ 1.238
Thus, for the most recent cohort (1958), the Norwegian women with lower education level (which is in turn correlated with lower socio-economic status) were on average 11% more fertile than those with higher education level, whereas for the fertility rate of the most recent year (1990), the American women of the lower education level were on average >24% more fertile than their higher educated counterparts.
Correlation between IQ scores and future life outcomes (e.g., later socio-economical status):
«The intent was to examine, over an extended period of years, the relationship between social origin and measured intelligence (IQ), the role that IQ and other psycho-social factors play as predictors of social and economic status in adulthood, and the stability of IQ. The question posed by the “Warsaw Studies” was whether, given the virtual absence of educational, health service, and community distinctions (Warsaw in the 1970s was an ideal laboratory for such a sociological undertaking), would Warsaw schoolchildren still show the usual association between parental occupation and offspring intellectual functioning? The results from a series of follow-up studies indicate that the IQ score at age 13 could be viewed as a relatively good indicator for future life outcomes, defined in terms of attained education, occupational status, and material well being. Dramatic differences in this attainment between the groups of respondents with high and low IQ scores attest to this conclusion. Smaller, yet still significant, differences between talented teenagers and their counterparts from the two control groups who apparently did not have the high IQ advantage also support the thesis that IQ matters much for life success.»
— Firkowska-Mankiewicz A. Adult Careers: Does Childhood IQ Predict Later Life Outcome? Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities (2011) vol. 8 (1) pp. 1-9
Hopefully, they still bothered to correct/adjust for potential confounding factors such as the socio-economic status of their families.
• Charlton BG. Social class differences in IQ: implications for the government's 'fair access' political agenda.
• Nisbett RE et al. Intelligence: new findings and theoretical developments. Am Psychol (2012) vol. 67 (2) pp. 130-59
• Bill Gardner. The new consensus on IQ. Inequalities. May 22, 2013.
Granted, the combined effects suggested by both correlations (fertility and socio-economic status, and socio-economic status and IQ scores) might still cancel out the effect caused by the differences between nations in the relative fertility gap difference between socio-economic classes.
On the other hand, the possible correlation between IQ scores and fertility rates might be exclusively dependent on the environmental/non-genetic component that explains part of the differences between IQ scores.
- UCLADeveloping a new math curriculum for biology majors, 2012 - present
I love ecology, networks, geography, and anything that makes me see the world a little differently. I have been described as being "more interesting than an attack goose".
I'm happy when a post inspires active discussion. Please note, however, that non-standard definitions of standard words tend to impede communication. If you insist on such definitions, I will start a new post where you can discuss them to your heart's content and leave the original post to more substantive conversation.
- University of GeorgiaEcology, 2006 - 2012
- UCLAEcology, Behavior and Evolution; Geography, 2001 - 2005
- North Hollywood Zoo Magnet1997 - 2001
Reddit Users Gather to 3D Print a Weightlifting Prosthesis for Recent Am...
3D printed prostheses have been garnering a lot of attention as of late. Whether it is the hands and arms being created on a daily basis by
'Silent' Polio Cases Could Reignite Epidemics, Study Warns
Only a few hundred cases of paralytic polio still exist worldwide, thanks to massive vaccination campaigns. ; But a new study concludes that
Ryan Teague’s “Cascades” music video features the... | Fuck Yeah Fluid D...
Ryan Teague’s “Cascades” music video features the enchanting process of ice growth. A chamber full of supercooled water vapor subject to a s
White-nose syndrome has almost completely wiped out some North American ...
Researchers see declines of up to 98% in some locations
The Sneakiest Way Prosecutors Get a Guilty Verdict: PowerPoint | WIRED
In Washington state earlier this month, an appeals court threw out a murder conviction based on shoddy work by the defense. But the court al
Despite the UN climate summit, fossil fuel firms are still in for the lo...
Either the world is gearing up to tackle climate change, or there are long-term profits for companies exploiting oil, gas and coal reserves.
Broadband commission expects half of world connected by 2017
The United Nations Broadband Commission has released its world report on the availability of broadband worldwide and believes that by 2017,
Global Population Predicted to Reach Nearly 11 Billion by 2100
A new study says the global population is growing faster than expected and projects the number of people globally will rise to just under 11
As Ebola Crisis Spreads in West Africa, Liberia's Deterioration Stands Out
The country has more deaths than any other affected nation, prompting a quarantine and curfew in the capital.
Preventive Monthly Treatment Reduces Severe Malaria Risk in Young Children
Protecting young children from malaria in countries where the mosquito-borne illness is endemic can include preventive drug treatment during
Helsinki's ambitious plan to make car ownership pointless in 10 years
Finland's capital hopes a 'mobility on demand' system that integrates all forms of shared and public transport in a single payment network c