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JE Spear Consulting, LLC

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Potential adverse effects of manganese include damage to the lungs, liver, kidney, central nervous system (CNS), and an elevated risk of male infertility.

Potential neurological effects appear to be the most sensitive adverse effect. Prolonged occupational exposure to concentrations more than one milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3) has been associated with an increased risk of neurological disorders and the development of a form of Parkinsonism known as manganism (Taube, 2013; Montgomery, 1995; Feldman, 1999; Kirkey et al., 2001; Olanow, 2004; Sriram et al., 2010).

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Exposure Monitoring for Hexavalent Chromium

When employees are potentially exposed to Cr(VI), the exposures should be assessed by exposure monitoring and/or through the use of objective data. When conducting exposure monitoring, be sure to use the appropriate sampling and analytical method (i.e., OSHA ID-215 or equivalent) and segregate potential exposures by Similar Exposure Groups.

Exposure factors such as the welding process, chromium content in the welding wire, chromate coatings on the base metal, welding rate, welding position, use of local exhaust ventilation, welding environment, general/dilution ventilation and natural air currents, and other welding (or allied processes) performed in the area should be considered when developing an exposure monitoring strategy.

Visit to learn more or give us a call at 281.252.0005.
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Looking for an Industrial Hygiene expert? JE Spear Consulting can help!

Industrial hygiene is the study and art of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling occupational and environmental health hazards. At J.E. Spear Consulting, your safety and industrial hygiene experts are committed to protecting worker health.

Give us a call 281.252.00051
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Understanding Confined Space Standards

According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), one death occurs in every 10 confined space accidents.

Injuries and fatalities involving confined spaces often involve successive fatalities when “would-be” rescuers succumb to the same problem as the initial victim. Almost every kind of industry has some type of confined spaces. Tanks, storage bins, tunnels, pipelines, utility vaults, pits, storm drains, and silos are examples of confined spaces.

More than 1.5 million workers enter these spaces each year for the purposes of maintenance, repairs, installations, and inspections. Employees who work in confined spaces face an increased risk to serious physical injury from hazards such as entrapment, engulfment and/or hazardous atmospheric conditions. Evaluating potential hazards and understanding applicable confined space standards is the first step to preventing confined space accidents.

More information on confined space standards, please visit or call (281) 252-0005,
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J.E. Spear Consulting, LP provides legal clients with expert witness services. Our core team of consultants possess a combined total of more than 185 years of experience.

Our subject matter experience includes:

Industrial Hygiene
Asbestos Exposure
Confined Spaces
Welding Fume & Gas Exposure
Hexavalent Chromium
Aluminum Dust and Fumes
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Indoor Mold
Indoor Air Quality
Workplace Safety
Personal Injuries and Fatalities
Heat-Related Illness
DOT Compliance
Incident Investigations and Root Cause Analysis
Construction Safety
Fall Protection
OSHA Compliance
Forklift Safety
Crane & Rigging Safety

We provide expert witness services throughout the United States. Call J.E. Spear Consulting at 281.252.0005 for more information.

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