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Ioannis Iliopoulos
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For those who have wondered about the relative proportions of CO2 from volcanic vs human (anthropogenic) sources, here's some data to consider. Antropogenic sources were responsible for 135 times as much CO2 emissions as volcanoes in the most recent year for which data exists. Read the original study here:

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Re-posting publicly: From the granite controversy of the 1940's in the debate between the magmatists and the granitizers, I found this gem:

"We can, indeed, for rough purposes, separate petrologists into the pontiffs and the soaks. Yet, among the pontiffs who bear the stigma of magma, there are none who do not believe that magmas contain volatile constituents of which the principal is water, that these may emanate from the magma and give rise to a liquor that pervades the invaded rocks, transforming them at times into igneous-looking rocks. The difference between the pontiff and the soak is that the latter must have his liquor in lavish quantities on nearly all occasions, but the former handles his liquor like a gentleman; he can take it or leave it according to the indications of the individual occasion, he can take it in moderation when it is so indicated, or again he can accept it in copious quantities and yet retain powers of sober contemplation of attendant circumstances." N.L. Bowen, 1947, quoted in D. Young "Mind over Magma", p. 373.


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Where on (Google) Earth #312?

Since early in 2007 the Geoblogosphere ( has played a game called "Where on (Google) Earth?". The object of the game is to identify the location (by latitude and longitude) and geologic significance of a scene from Google Earth ( The first person to correctly identify both has the honor of selecting and hosting the next WoGE challenge on their own geology blog. A full list of previous winners is tracked here:

Since I discovered Matias' Brazilian Z structure ( I'm due to post WoGE #312. My own geology blog ( has hosted lots of WoGEs in the past ( but I've been eager to bring a WoGE challenge to Google+, now that it's open to everyone. I now have that opportunity.

The image below is an oblique view, rather than the standard overhead map view (click on it for a larger view). There's clearly some interesting structural geology in there, but I leave it to you to decipher exactly what and where. Felix Bossert offers some good tips for the beginner: and a set of informal rules that have been established over the years: Since I expect this one to be somewhat challenging I will not invoke the Schott Rule.

Happy hunting!

[One more note, due to the nature of Google+ Sharing: Only comments on this original post will be eligible for consideration in the solution of this challenge. If you want to reshare this post, please consider turning off comments.]
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