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The Hypnotherapy Station the place to go for emotional wellness
The Hypnotherapy Station the place to go for emotional wellness

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CUTTING SOCIETAL ALCOHOL USE MAY PREVENT ALCOHOL DISORDERS DEVELOPING

I learned in a very subtle way, about 18 years ago, that society and certain bodies, including some in the medical profession, not only accepts that people drink, it actually expects them to do so; how odd is that . . . . . . . . . . . . .

It was in 1999, following years of regular drinking, be it with friends, in restaurants, cafe's and bars, that I finally came to my senses and quit drinking completely. In 2002, when I had my first aviation medical exam, I was asked two questions: 1) "do you smoke?" and 2) "how many units of alcohol do you consume each week?" They ask you if you smoke but assume you drink! The aviation medical examiner, even suggested the odd glass of red wine wouldn't hurt and may actually have some benefits. And, if you drink, that may well be sage advice, the poison of least harm, so to speak! However, years later and better equipped with more factual knowledge about alcohol, when it comes to good news about it, there isn't any, it's all bad news for the brain. However, people like it and the kind of damage that is done to the brain; only happens to other people, so, the odd one or two or three won't hurt me.

Practically speaking, the closer you are to one drink per week, the safer you are because the brain is a really amazing and forgiving piece of kit, so it allows you a little pleasure without there being too much to be concerned about. To a certain extent, you can also make other adjustments, although they may not totally negate the potential harm done by alcohol, they will help you in many other ways and that may be your saving grace. So, what are those other things? Well to start with we need to focus on the basics of life, air, liquids, and food. Breathing properly, diaphragmatically, will add some value to your body and since your brain uses over one-fifth of the oxygen from each breath, it will better enable normal brain function. Liquids are next, of course, water is very essential but you can drink too much of it and that can deplete your electrolytes. Liquids hydrate us and are somewhat akin to lubricating the body and brain, a little like oil lubricates an engine. Lastly, there is the food we eat and in some sense, the brain is similar to the IT idiom, garbage in, garbage out. Food provides us with the bulk of our nutritional needs, amino acids, especially the 9 essential amino acids, we can't live a proper functioning life without them and we can only get them through food and some juices (naturally), or through supplements (artificially). There are 11 other non-essential amino acids, acids that can mostly be synthesized by the body, although 6 of those are limited in their synthesis under certain circumstances, e.g. through illness or stress.

Health is usually high on the agenda of many clients I see, yet, despite that, many of them engage in the consumption, sometimes over consumption of alcohol (14 units for women and 21 for men per week). One of the major issues with alcohol is that it works its magic across many of the neurotransmitter circuits in the brain and somewhat explains the many and diverse behaviours it produces. What is really troubling though, is that this research highlights the dangers that young people face, the earlier they start, the greater the potential risk for developing an alcohol-related issue. Ironically, as it is with smoking, young people have so much more information these days, than in days gone by, as to the harmful effects of alcohol, as well as nicotine, yet they still can't wait to get the first drink. So, in line with this research, we adults have to step up to the mark and be examples to our youth because the best way to teach, is through example!

To a certain extent, hypnosis can very effectively help people reestablish good levels of control over the habits, be it, alcohol, smoking or a bad diet and poor nutrition, want to find out more, then why not make an appointment for a free consultation?

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of too much stress, too little sleep and too little by way of clarity! So, to take back control of your mind and your life, it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative, vague and ambiguous states of mind. Hypnosis helps us to create calm relaxing states of mind that make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
Society must take collective responsibility to reduce the harm caused by alcohol use disorders, a University of Otago academic says. Dr. Charlene Rapsey, of New Zealand's Dunedin School of Medicine's Department of Psychological Medicine, says while alcohol is commonly enjoyed by many people and only a minority of people develop an alcohol use disorder, the negative consequences of such a disorder can be severe and long-lasting.

Her research paper, published in Alcohol and Alcoholism, used data from Te Rau Hinengaro, The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, to study transitions from alcohol use to disorder. Of the nearly 13,000 participants, 94.6 percent had used alcohol at least once, 85.1 percent had had at least 12 drinks in the past year, and 16 percent had developed an alcohol disorder. Of concern was that with each 10 percent rise in the number of people who use alcohol in an individual's age and gender group, there was an increased likelihood of them developing an alcohol disorder in the following year.

"We already knew that for young people, peer group norms influence drinking. If people in my peer group drink then I am more likely to drink, but it was interesting that the broad social context of general alcohol consumption -- alcohol consumption by people I don't even know -- was associated with an increased likelihood of the subsequent onset of a disorder," she says. Most people's drinking started in high school and transitioned rapidly from consuming alcohol to having an alcohol use disorder. "Considering many teenagers leave high school at 18 years of age, by then 79 percent of 18-year-olds had used alcohol, with 57 percent regularly drinking," Dr Rapsey says. Of those to develop an alcohol use disorder, 50 percent did so by age 20 and 70 percent by age 25.

Another key finding was that people live with alcohol use disorders for a long time before they experience remission -- 45 percent of people still met criteria for an alcohol disorder after 10 years. Men are also at greater risk of developing a disorder and are less likely to quit.

"This research highlights our collective responsibility to each other; by reducing the drivers of overall levels of consumption, we have the opportunity to reduce harm to others. "Relatively small inconveniences, such as limiting the availability of alcohol and higher alcohol prices, can have significant influences on reducing alcohol-related harms," she says. Dr. Rapsey argues the research adds to a body of work pushing for policies aimed at reducing overall consumption.

"The Law Commission Report Alcohol in our Lives: Curbing the Harm made a number of evidence-based recommendations to reduce alcohol-related harms in New Zealand. Unfortunately, the Sale and Supply of Alcohol Act (2012) did not adopt many of the recommendations that had the potential to change people's lives. There is clear research to guide policymakers if there is social and political will.

"This latest research also indicates that resources to prevent and to treat alcohol use disorders need to focus on those under 25 years of age in particular. "In addition, while the majority of disorders develop in young people, an alcohol disorder is a chronic condition and therefore treatment needs to be available over many years."

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/394-cutting-societal-alcohol-use-may-prevent-alcohol-disorders-developing

Story Source:
Materials provided by the University of Otago. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Charlene M Rapsey, J Elisabeth Wells, Ms. Chrianna Bharat, Meyer Glantz, Ronald C Kessler, Kate M Scott. Transitions Through Stages of Alcohol Use, Use Disorder and Remission: Findings from Te Rau Hinengaro, The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agy069
Cite This Page:

The University of Otago. "Cutting societal alcohol use may prevent alcohol disorders developing." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 October 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181031093329.htm>.
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SCIENTISTS DISCOVER THAT A FEW DRINKS CHANGES HOW MEMORIES ARE FORMED

It seems that we sometimes believe that, consciously, we make a decision to have a drink, be it wine, spirits or beers but most often we've been duped because it is the deeper machinations of our brain, our mind and our genes that ultimately make these decisions; that we are in control is often an illusion. But the brain is kind and it allows us to believe that we are in control; so cute . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This is a really interesting study, the scientists determined that alcohol hijacks the function of a certain gene's expression, rather subtly though, that leads toward addiction. Using fruit flies, because their brain is functionally like ours but easier to study, they tested their hypothesis by switching certain genes off and on. So, science has proved, in this and many other trials, that by switching genes on and off, they can alter brain function and consequently, human behaviour.

Of course, that method of gene/neurotransmission intervention is nothing new, they've been doing this with SSRI's (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and SNRI's (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) for years. So, when scientists have proved, that when they play around with gene expression, they can cause behavioural changes. So, how can we translate that hypno-therapeutically? Well, let's say a client comes into my office with a problem, say alcohol, smoking, anxiety and a few sessions later, they no longer have that problem, has there been changes in the brain through mind based self-regulating gene expression? It would certainly appear that way because changes in behaviour have to reflect changes at the neurological level. Yet no drugs were used, only the mind of the client. Hypnosis-therapy, through its ability to reorganize neurotransmission, and subsequently, gene expression, for me, proves that the brain, via its language, the mind, can manage itself to alter its function and consequently learn new behaviours that change the way we experience life!

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain (tantamount to mind management), although many people perceive that alcohol has some benefits, benefits that make life seem more tolerable, more fun etc. but long term, there are no benefits! So, to take back control of your mind and your life, it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative, vague and ambiguous states of mind. Hypnosis helps us to create calm relaxing states of mind that make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
One of the many challenges with battling alcohol addiction and other substance abuse disorders is the risk of relapse, even after progress toward recovery. Even pesky fruit flies have a hankering for alcohol, and because the molecular signals involved in forming flies' reward and avoidance memories are much the same as those in humans, they're a good model for study.

A new study in flies finds that alcohol hijacks this memory formation pathway and changes the proteins expressed in the neurons, forming cravings. Just a few drinks in an evening changes how memories are formed at the fundamental, molecular level. The findings were published on Thursday, Oct. 25, in the journal Neuron.

Karla Kaun, assistant professor of neuroscience at Brown University and senior author on the paper, worked with a team of undergraduates, technicians and postdoctoral researchers to uncover the molecular signaling pathways and changes in gene expression involved in making and maintaining reward memories.

"One of the things I want to understand is why drugs of abuse can produce really rewarding memories when they're actually neurotoxins," said Kaun, who is affiliated with Brown's Carney Institute for Brain Science. "All drugs of abuse -- alcohol, opiates, cocaine, methamphetamine -- have adverse side effects. They make people nauseous or they give people hangovers, so why do we find them so rewarding? Why do we remember the good things about them and not the bad? My team is trying to understand on a molecular level what drugs of abuse are doing to memories and why they're causing cravings."

Once researchers understand what molecules are changing when cravings are formed, then they can figure out how to help recovering alcoholics and addicts by perhaps decreasing how long the craving memories last, or how intense they are, Kaun said.

Molecular manipulation:
Fruit flies have only 100,000 neurons, while humans have more than 100 billion. The smaller scale -- plus the fact that generations of scientists have developed genetic tools to manipulate the activity of these neurons at the circuit and molecular level -- made the fruit fly the perfect model organism for Kaun's team to tease apart the genes and molecular signaling pathways involved in alcohol reward memories, she said.

Led by postdoctoral researcher Emily Petruccelli, who is now an assistant professor with her own lab at Southern Illinois University, the team used genetic tools to selectively turn off key genes while training the flies where to find alcohol. This enabled them to see what proteins were required for this reward behavior.

One of the proteins responsible for the flies' preference for alcohol is Notch, the researchers found. Notch is the first "domino" in a signaling pathway involved in embryo development, brain development, and adult brain function in humans and all other animals. Molecular signaling pathways are not unlike a cascade of dominos -- when the first domino falls (in this case, the biological molecule activates), it triggers more that trigger more and so on.

One of the downstream dominos in the signaling pathway affected by alcohol is a gene called dopamine-2-like receptor, which makes a protein on neurons that recognize dopamine, the "feel-good" neurotransmitter.

"The dopamine-2-like receptor is known to be involved in encoding whether a memory is pleasing or aversive," Petruccelli said. And alcohol hijacks this conserved memory pathway to form cravings.

In the case of the alcohol reward pathway studied, the signaling cascade didn't turn the dopamine receptor gene on or off, or increase or decrease the amount of protein made, Kaun said. Instead, it had a subtler effect -- it changed the version of the protein made by a single amino acid "letter" in an important area.

"We don't know what the biological consequences of that small change are, but one of the important findings from this study is that scientists need to look not only at which genes are being turned on and off, but which forms of each gene are getting turned on and off," Kaun said. "We think these results are highly likely to translate to other forms of addiction, but nobody has investigated that."

The team is continuing its work by studying the effects that opiates have on the same conserved molecular pathways. Additionally, Kaun is working with John McGeary, assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown, to look at DNA samples from patients with alcohol abuse disorders to see if they have genetic polymorphisms in any of the craving-related genes discovered in flies.

"If this works the same way in humans, one glass of wine is enough to activate the pathway, but it returns to normal within an hour," Kaun said. "After three glasses, with an hour break in between, the pathway doesn't return to normal after 24 hours. We think this persistence is likely what is changing the gene expression in memory circuits.

"Just something to keep in mind the next time you split a bottle of wine with a friend or spouse," she added.

In addition to Kaun and Petruccelli, other authors from Brown were technician Michael Feyder; undergraduate Nicolas Ledru; undergraduate Yanabah Jaques, who is continuing her research in Kaun's lab through a Postbaccalaureate Research Education Program; and postdoctoral researcher Edward Anderson.

The National Institutes of Health (grant R01AA024434, COBRE grant P20GM103645, and RI-INBRE grant P20GM103430) funded the research.

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/392-scientists-discover-that-a-few-drinks-changes-how-memories-are-formed

Story Source:
Materials provided by Brown University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Emily Petruccelli, Michael Feyder, Nicolas Ledru, Yanabah Jaques, Edward Anderson, Karla R. Kaun. Alcohol Activates Scabrous-Notch to Influence Associated Memories. Neuron, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.10.005

Cite This Page:
Brown University. "Just a few drinks can change how memories are formed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 October 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181025142050.htm>.
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ADOLESCENT DRINKING AFFECTS ADULT BEHAVIOUR THROUGH CHANGES IN GENES

Discover the magic number of alcohol, that's right, there is a magic number and if you reach and maintain your alcohol at this magic level, you are absolutely guaranteed to have no damaging effects from your alcohol intake! So, what is this magic number? Read on to find out . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ZERO. That's right, there is no safe amount of alcohol to consume. However, scientists do agree that if you do drink, or have to, then red wine should be your drink of choice, because there are some good things in it, like resveratrol but that is not a good enough reason to start drinking, just eating grapes will do it for you!

This research is very important because it is in adolescence that most of us start to drink and each impressionable parent potentially plays a crucial part in the decision to start drinking; subconsciously of course! Very often, during our formative years and intrafamily dysfunctionality, only serves to exacerbate the problem. By the time many of us become adolescent, we have a psychological desire to try alcohol, accompanied by compunction, The desire often wins over the compunction and, according to this research, heads us in a direction from which some fail to recover . . . . . . . . . . . unless they reach out for some kind of groups (AA) or psychological/psychotherapeutic help. Of this type of help, hypnosis has an excellent record for those who do not feel comfortable in the group situation. Even for those that respond well to an AA type experience, hypnotherapy can really help them get ahead of their game. That's because it gets to the heart of the problem as well as its ability to reprogramme certain levels of brain function.

It is these subconscious anomalies within the child/adolescent/adult brain that create, support and maintain the need for alcohol. Alcohol stimulates the brain in ways that make it a desirable feeling to re-experience, over and over, to the point where our brain has difficulty to achieve this on its own, hence the dependency/addiction develops. Hypnosis teaches you the way to stimulate these brain states naturally, to find out more; there is a Free Consultation, an experience to discover the amazing power of self?

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain (tantamount to mind), alcohol has some short-term perceived benefits but long-term, there are no benefits! So, to take back control of your mind; your life, it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative, vague and ambiguous states of mind, hypnosis helps us create calm relaxing states of mind that make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/391-adolescent-drinking-affects-adult-behaviour-through-changes-in-genes

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
Binge-drinking during adolescence may perturb brain development at a critical time and leave lasting effects on genes and behaviour that persist into adulthood. The findings, by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine using an animal model, are reported online in the journal Neurobiology of Disease.

“This may be the mechanism through which adolescent binge-drinking increases the risk for psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism, in adulthood,” says lead author Subhash Pandey, professor of psychiatry and director of neuroscience alcoholism research at UIC. Pandey and his colleagues used experimental rats to investigate the effects of intermittent alcohol exposure during the adolescent stage of development. On-and-off exposure to alcohol during adolescence altered the activity of genes needed for normal brain maturation, said Pandey, who is also a research career scientist at the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center. The gene alterations "increased anxiety-like behaviours and preference for alcohol in adulthood,” he said. The behavioural effects, he said, were due to "epigenetic" changes -- "which previous research has shown can be influenced through environmental substances, including alcohol." Epigenetic changes can be long-lasting or permanent in an individual. Previous studies have shown that some epigenetic changes can be heritable.

Epigenetic changes are chemical modifications of the DNA or of the proteins around which DNA is wound, like thread on a spool. Modification of these proteins, called histones, can change how loosely or tightly the DNA is wound. Genes that lie within DNA that is tightly wrapped around the histones are less active than they are if the DNA is loosely wrapped. The looser the DNA is coiled, the more accessible are the genes to the cellular machinery that "expresses" them. Epigenetic changes regulate many processes, including brain development and maturation during adolescence. Changes to the histones expose the genes needed to form new synaptic connections, or to prune unneeded neurons.

To model adolescent binge-drinking in humans, the researchers gave 28-day-old rats alcohol for two days in a row, followed by two days off, and repeated this pattern for 13 days. Some rats were followed into adulthood and observed for abnormal behaviours. They were offered both alcohol and water, and their alcohol-drinking behaviour was monitored. Rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited changes in behaviour that lasted into adulthood, long after exposure to alcohol ended. They showed increased anxiety-like behaviours and drank more alcohol in adulthood. When the researchers analyzed tissue from a part of the brain called the amygdala, they found in the exposed rats that the DNA and histones appeared to be tightly wrapped. They also found increased levels of a protein called HDAC2, which modifies histones in a way that causes DNA to be wound tighter around them.

These epigenetic changes, in turn, were linked to the lowered expression of a gene that nerve cells need in order to form new synaptic connections. Pandey believes the lowered activity of this gene may be due to the tighter winding of its DNA. The diminished expression of the gene persisted in adulthood, even if alcohol exposure was stopped weeks before. The researchers observed diminished nerve connectivity in the amygdalae of these affected adult rats. “Our study provides a mechanism for how binge-drinking during adolescence may lead to lasting [epigenetic] changes ... that result in increased anxiety and alcoholism in adults,” Pandey said. Intermittent alcohol exposure "degrades the ability of the brain to form the connections it needs to during adolescence.”

“The brain doesn’t develop as it should, and there are lasting behavioural changes associated with this.” But a pharmacological experiment hinted at the possibility of a treatment. When adult rats that had been exposed to alcohol during adolescence were given a cancer drug known to block the activity of HDAC2, the drug restored expression of the gene needed for synapse formation. The DNA was observed to be less tightly coiled, as expected.

Most importantly, the rats exhibited less anxiety and reduced alcohol intake. “We aren’t sure if the drug needs to be given long term during adulthood in order to completely reverse the harmful effects of adolescent alcohol exposure,” Pandey said. Further experiments with this and other epigenetic drugs are planned.

Amul Sakharkar, Lei Tang and Huaibo Zhang of the UIC College of Medicine are co-authors on the paper.

The research was funded by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism grants AA-01997 (Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood Project), AA-010005 and AA-013341, Department of Veterans Affairs Merit Review Grant I01BX000143, and by a Research Career Scientist Award to Subhash Pandey.

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/391-adolescent-drinking-affects-adult-behaviour-through-changes-in-genes

Story Source:
Materials provided by the University of Illinois at Chicago. Originally written by Sharon Parmet. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Subhash C. Pandey, Amul J. Sakharkar Lei Tang Huaibo Zhang. The potential role of adolescent alcohol exposure-induced amygdaloid histone modifications in anxiety and alcohol intake during adulthood. Neurobiology of Disease, 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2015.03.019
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ASTROCYTE BRAIN CELLS HAVE AN UNEXPECTED ROLE IN BRAIN 'PLASTICITY'

Scientists discover an unexpected role in a very important star shaped glial cells, called astrocytes, and brain plasticity, the brain's ability to change and make new connections and build new networks, essentially the ever evolving development of memory and behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Astrocytes play an important role in the developing stages of the young infant brain but decrease over time and seemingly play an important role in the brain throughout our lives, in that, their quality and abundance are implicated, to a certain degree, towards the ageing process . This study shows that by genetic modification they could make significant progress in the way these cells function in our brain. While the research is in its nascent stages, it may be worth noting the effects of chronic stress on the way in which astrocytes function. An area of the brain that it affects is the hippocampus and is suggested as being instrumental in the causation of hippocampal shrinkage. Apart from its role in memory and spatial awareness/orientation, the hippocampus connects to many other areas of the brain, specifically those relating to stressful situations. The brain holds in memory the necessary associations of specific sensory stimuli involved in an emotionally challenging experience. The brain, which constantly scans our environment (in a stress context), responds emotionally when each sensory signal meets a relative and specific criteria thus initiating the memory and consequently, the stress response.

The way paint shops mix paint these days is analogous to this process. The mixer codes in the colour and the computer injects specific pigments into a neutral base paint. When the the right amount of each pigment (sensory stimuli) is present, you end up with the ingredients that equal the colour you want (memory/emotion); it does what it says on the tin!

So, while the scientists explore this discovery further, be on the safe side and protect your astrocytes from the scavenging effects of chronic stress with hypnotherapy!

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain (tantamount to mind). So it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative, vague and ambiguous language patterns, one that helps us create calm relaxing states that make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
Researchers have shown that astrocytes -- long-overlooked supportive cells in the brain -- help to enable the brain's plasticity, a new role for astrocytes that was not previously known. The findings could point to ways to restore connections that have been lost due to aging or trauma.

When we're born, our brains have a great deal of flexibility. Having this flexibility to grow and change gives the immature brain the ability to adapt to new experiences and organise its interconnecting web of neural circuits. As we age, this quality, called "plasticity," becomes lesser.

In a study published October 18, 2018, in Neuron, a team from the Salk Institute has shown that astrocytes -- long-overlooked supportive cells in the brain -- help to enable the brain's plasticity, a new role for astrocytes that was not previously known. The findings could point to ways to restore connections that have been lost due to aging or trauma.

"We knew from our previous work that astrocytes are important for the development of the brain; however, we knew very little about the role of astrocytes in the adult brain," says Nicola Allen, assistant professor, and the study's senior author. "To investigate this role, we used a lot of techniques in the lab to identify a signal made by astrocytes that is very important for brain maturation."

The signal turned out to be a protein astrocytes secrete called Chrdl1, which increases the number and maturity of connections between nerve cells, enabling the stabilization of neural connections and circuits once they finish developing.

To further understand the role of Chrdl1, the team developed mouse models with the gene disabled by introduced mutations. These mice had a level of plasticity in their brains that was much higher than normal. Adult mice with the Chrdl1 mutation had brain plasticity that looked very much like that of young mice, whose brains are still in the early stages of development.

"It's important to study brain plasticity because it teaches us how the brain remodels itself in response to new experiences," says first author Elena Blanco-Suarez, a research associate in Allen's lab. "Although some degree of plasticity is important, it decreases as we become older. Nature has designed these circuits to become more stable and less flexible. Otherwise, our brains would not mature and we would experience our whole life as a young child does."

Not much is known about the role of Chrdl1 in humans, but one study of a family with a Chrdl1 mutation showed they performed extremely well in memory tests. Other studies have shown the level of the gene encoding Chrdl1 is altered in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, suggesting that Chrdl1 may have important roles in both health and disease.

Future research by the team will dive deeper into the relationships between astrocytes and neurons and look for potential ways to use astrocytes as therapy.

"We're interested in learning more about what the astrocytes are secreting into the brain environment and how those signals affect the brain," says Allen. "We plan to look at this relationship both early in development and in situations where those connections are lost and you want to stimulate repair, like after someone has had a stroke."

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/390-astrocyte-brain-cells-have-an-unexpected-role-in-brain-plasticity

Story Source:
Materials provided by Salk Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Elena Blanco-Suarez, Tong-Fei Liu, Alex Kopelevich, Nicola J. Allen. Astrocyte-Secreted Chordin-like 1 Drives Synapse Maturation and Limits Plasticity by Increasing Synaptic GluA2 AMPA Receptors. Neuron, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.09.04

Cite This Page:
Salk Institute. "Brain cells called astrocytes have an unexpected role in brain 'plasticity': Researchers show protein made by astrocytes enables the brain's maturation and regulates its flexibility." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 October 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181018141035.htm>.
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IS FREE THINKING REAL OR ILLUSION? ORIGINS OF FREE WILL IN THE BRAIN

The future starts in the mind:
I like to think of consciousness as our ability to negotiate and appreciate the world from within and the world from without, it is the sense of a lack of purpose from the within that causes us to be over-reliant on the without . . . . . . . . . . . . .

From the moment we are born our future is being shaped, be it by parents, teachers, societal and cultural norms and later on, our peers. In the midst of all this, we rarely get to discover our true self. The things that shape the way we respond to life are a mix of genetics and experience. Our brain begins to take charge of the way we react to others and situations (our emotional life). And our ability to learn, to assimilate knowledge, and develop motor skills is more or less on board at birth. All that is lacking is opportunity, exposure and training/education. In that sense, no one can outperform their natural ability. Put 10 people through the same driving school, using the same car and instructor and you likely get 10 different levels of driving capability. One will be better than the other nine; that's ability. Training and experience can improve on that. Maybe they could all be trained to the same level of qualification, as in, reach a determined level of competence according to standards, ability determines the level of ease or difficulty they each experience

imagine you were born to the same parents but in a different country, would you be a different person? No, you’d still have the same innate potential but you would likely experience life differently because of the above mentioned parameters. So, if our life is determined by experience (the genetics being fixed) and that creates mindset, then how can we change? It all starts with an understanding of how the brain works and how thinking develops from the way our brain is wired from there we can learn to use our mind (instead of it using us).

one thing that I have found that is immensely influential in preventing us developing new states of mind, is in the way we use language. Most often I find clients language steeped in negativity, vagueness and/or ambiguity (NVA) the brain/mind needs clarity but we give it NVA. It is within this linguistic state of NVA, that we find the greatest challenges that prevent us achieving all that we want and when we can state what that is, clearly, that we begin the journey towards our greatest achievement; the discovery of “the self!”

the essence of free will surely is the culmination of having what you want, that moment when one realises the reality meets the expectation!

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain (tantamount to mind). So it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative, vague and ambiguous language patterns, one that helps us create calm relaxing states that make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
Long the domain of philosophy and religion, free will has also been defined by scientists as a combination of two cognitive processes -- the desire to act (or volition) and the sense of responsibility for our actions (or agency.) Together, these processes create the perception of free will, and damage to volition or agency can leave patients without the desire to move or speak or the sensation that their movements are not their own, respectively.

Neuroscientists led by Michael Fox, MD, PhD, of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) used brain lesion network mapping -- a technique pioneered by Fox at BIDMC -- to find the anatomical origins of the perception of free will. Their findings were published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"Lesion network mapping is a recently validated technique that allows scientists to map symptoms caused by brain injury to specific brain networks," said Fox, Director of the Laboratory for Brain Network Imaging and Modulation at BIDMC and an Associate Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. "In this study, we used this network localization approach to determine the neuroanatomical basis for disordered free will perception."

Fox and colleagues, including lead author, R. Ryan Darby, MD, PhD, formerly a fellow in Fox's lab at BIDMC and now of Vanderbilt University Medical Center, identified 28 cases in the medical literature in which brain injury disrupted volition, leaving patients with akinetic mutism -- a lack of motivation to move or speak. They also identified 50 cases in which brain injury disrupted agency and caused patients to feel their movements were not their own, a syndrome known as alien limb syndrome.

Network mapping revealed that, while the brain injuries were quite diverse in their locations, the lesions fell within one of two distinct brain networks. All of the injuries disrupting volition were functionally connected to the anterior cingulate cortex, a region of the brain associated with motivation and planning. Ninety percent of lesions causing alien limb fell within a brain network functionally connected to the precuneus cortex, part of the brain associated with agency.

Finally, the authors showed that their findings were relevant beyond patients with brain injury. Brain stimulation to these same sites altered free will perception in healthy research participants, and neuroimaging of psychiatric patients with altered free will perception revealed abnormalities fell with these same brain networks.

"Our study was focused on patients with disorders of free will for movements; however, free will is commonly discussed as it relates to social, legal and moral responsibility for decisions, not just movement," said Fox. "It remains unknown whether the network of brain regions we identify as related to free will for movements is the same as those important for moral decision-making."

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/389-is-free-thinking-real-or-illusion-origins-of-free-will-in-the-brain

Story Source:
Materials provided by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
R. Ryan Darby, Juho Joutsa, Matthew J. Burke, Michael D. Fox. Lesion network localization of free will. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018; 201814117 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1814117115

Cite This Page:
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. "Free thinking: Origins of free will in the brain." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 October 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181002123943.htm>.
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Having positive feelings is one thing; keeping them is another!

Imagine watching a beautiful sunset and then discovering the awareness of the positive emotions that flow from it! This kind of mental imagery is now linked to improved well-being! What perplexes scientists though, is, why and how are some people better than others in keeping the feeling alive . . . . . . . . . . . .

How hypnosis works has mystified people for ages and ages but slowly scientists are teasing it out into the open! Another mystery that eluded mankind was the old adage the magical healing powers of an apple, "an apple a day keeps the Doctor away", yet it has only been relatively recent that science has proved the immense health benefits of eating apples.

In the same vein, hypnosis has been around for hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years. Of course, it was not known by its current name, "hypnosis" until James Braid coined the name back in 1842. However, Braid merely uncovered the mysterious process we call hypnosis but because the mystical art is a natural part of the human condition, it is likely to be as old as mankind itself.

Hypnosis is descriptive of natural trance states and it is from within these states the mind/brain creates changes that can enhance the way we experience life. It can turn a tragedy into a triumph or a bad life into a joyful one. This region of the brain, the ventral striatum, which consists of the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja, function as part of the brain's reward system. So, at last, science is providing a fundamental understanding of what occurs in hypnosis and, more specifically, why it can be so effective as a form of mental healing and emotional wellness!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here

The Research:
Aaron Heller, former graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Investigating Healthy Minds (CIHM) at the Waisman Center and current assistant professor of psychology at the University of Miami. Says, "It's important to consider not just how much emotion you experience, but also how long these emotions persist," "We're looking at how one person can savour a great deal from that beautiful sunset or a memorable meal, but how another person who might be susceptible to depression can't savour that sunset and those positive emotions subside quickly." Heller and colleagues' findings, published in The Journal of Neuroscience, suggest that the duration of activity in specific circuits of the brain, even over relatively short periods of time such as seconds, can predict the persistence of a person's positive emotion minutes and hours later. The results and the study's unique design contribute to a growing understanding of how mental disorders such as depression might be manifested in the brain. Depression affects more than 350 million people globally, according to the World Health Organization.

Until now, researchers have examined savouring and the impact of emotions on individuals either in the laboratory or in a real-world setting, but not in both with the same people and prompts. Heller says the study is one of the first of its kind to take the same experiment from the lab into the field while linking emotional responses in both settings to neural activity in the brain. Over the course of the study, roughly 100 adult participants played a short guessing game and answered questions about their emotions when prompted by a smartphone over a 10-day period. The guessing game provided participants with the following instructions: "The computer chose the number 5. Please guess whether the next number will be higher or lower than 5."

Participants would win money or win nothing based on their response. Winning was intended to give people bursts of positive emotion, while not winning was intended to create negative feelings. In addition, Heller and colleagues wanted to learn how long these emotions lingered after the game, so they asked a series of questions on average every 15 minutes afterwards to get a sense of whether people were savouring positive or negative emotion -- or neither. The same participants played the guessing game while scientists collected functional MRI scans of their brains during the game. Individuals with more persistent activation in the part of their brain associated with reward and reward learning -- called the ventral striatum -- reported positive emotion that was sustained for longer periods of time after the game. The magnitude of activation in another area of the brain responsible for executive functioning, the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, predicted how much a person's positive emotion increased immediately following a reward.

Richard Davidson, the senior author of the paper and founder of CIHM, says the neural pattern observed in the new study, particularly in the ventral striatum, has also predicted higher levels of well-being in previous studies. He adds that practices such as "loving kindness" and compassion toward others, which aim to cultivate certain forms of positive emotion, might help to increase savouring. "The methodological innovations showcased in this study can be applied to study the impact of simple forms of meditation on both reports of sustained positive emotion sampled in real-world contexts as well as sustained ventral striatal activation measured in the laboratory," he says.

Heller emphasizes that in order to draw larger conclusions, the research needs to be replicated and taken in new directions to include negative emotion, too, but notes that the work creates opportunities to explore the "dose" or amount of exposure to a positive experience that can yield lasting positive emotions. "Most patients spend only one hour per week in psychotherapy. That's less than 1 per cent of their waking time, so the fact that anything changes at all is pretty remarkable," he says. "The idea is if we can use cell phone technology to provide similar prompts to help people sustain positive emotion throughout the week, we may be able to create faster changes in brain networks that give rise to improved mood."

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/387-having-positive-feelings-is-one-thing-keeping-them-is-another

Story Source:
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
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Hypnosis, belief, expectation and Suggestion it's all in the mind

The mind plays tricks on us, quite frequently but did you know that two can play at that game, you being option two. To find out more about how you can play tricks on your mind or how you can turn a tragedy into a triumph, please read on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

In therapy, including hypnotherapy, the only thing that ever changes, is perception and it that change which reorganises the way the various brain systems, that are implicated with the difficulty, express themselves. Perhaps one of the largest perceptions that changes in quitting smoking, is that it is highly addictive, some feel it is an impossible mountain to climb. Despite that, thousands of people have quit, effortlessly, using hypnosis! Sometimes they quit without even the slightest mention of cigarettes, simply because, for them, smoking wasn't the issue, merely the identifiable component of the real issue.

However, that aside, this piece of research is a gem, a gem because it proves that the power of the mind, though suggestion alone, can override brain systems that hitherto allowed someone to remain trapped within a cycle of behaviour that was based on a false or erroneous premise! Hypnotherapy can do the same for almost any condition that is treatable. That is so because, to varying degrees, the same mental and emotional illogic is at the root of most psychological conditions.

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to redesign the way our deeper mind encodes beliefs. The many behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysfunctional neurotransmission in and across the brain. It is important to consider first dealing with any stress and anxiety, which are almost always present in many disorders that I treat, then to deal with the underlying issues, So it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating these conditions. If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
Scientists have discovered that what you believe can regulate the effects of nicotine in our brain. Two identical cigarettes led to this new discovery. The study participants inhaled nicotine, yet they showed significantly different brain activity. Why the difference? Some subjects were du[ped into believing their cigarettes contained no nicotine. This discovery goes way beyond the placebo effect, said researchers.

"Our research group has begun to show that beliefs are as powerful a physical influence on the brain as neuro-active drugs," said Read Montague, director of the Computational Psychiatry Unit at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and lead author of a study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Nicotine has formidable effects throughout the brain, especially in the reward-based learning pathways. Nicotine teaches the brain that smoking leads to reward. Once the brain learns that correlation, the addictive chemical cycle is difficult to break. In this study, scientists tracked the brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging. "We suspected that we would be able to see neural signals based on the subjects' belief rather than their actual nicotine intake," said Montague, who is also a professor of physics in Virginia Tech's College of Science. After smoking cigarettes, volunteers played a reward-based learning game while their brains were scanned. The subjects viewed a historical stock price graph, made an investment, and repeated the cycle multiple times.

Researchers used computational models of learning signals thought to be generated by the brain during these kinds of tasks. In each subject, the individually tracked signals were specifically influenced by beliefs about nicotine. Montague and his team found that the people who believed they had smoked nicotine cigarettes made different choices and had different neural signals than the other participants, despite the fact that both groups had consumed the same substance.

The scientists also found people who believed they had smoked nicotine had significantly higher activity in their reward-learning pathways. Those who did not believe they had smoked nicotine did not exhibit those same signals. "It was the belief alone that modulated activity in the learning pathway," Montague said. "This goes beyond the placebo effect." Multiple studies support the placebo effect, showing sham treatments can improve a patient's condition simply because the person believed it would be helpful. In the current study, however, researchers found belief alone could actually erase or enhance the effects of nicotine in participants who were under the influence of the active drug.

The study was featured in an editorial commentary by Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "The current findings extend the relevance of dopamine-guided learning processes to the experience of how drug intoxication influences the way the human brain works and orchestrates our behaviors," Volkow wrote in the commentary. Volkow suggested previously shrouded mechanisms behind beliefs and learned responses could be manipulated as a target for new addiction treatments. "Nothing is more convincing than how a drug can make you feel differently," Montague said. "A drug can induce a belief state, which itself causes the change." Scientists might be able to harness this belief system, capable of inducing physiological changes, to reverse-engineer addiction. "Just as drugs micromanage the belief state," Montague said, "maybe we can micromanage beliefs to better effect behavior change in addiction."

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/215-hypnosis-belief-expectation-and-suggestion-it-s-all-in-the-mind

Watch source Video here: http://research.vtc.vt.edu/videos/2015/feb/24/virginia-tech-carilion-research-institute-scientis/
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DAY-TIME NAPS HELP US ACQUIRE INFORMATION NOT CONSCIOUSLY PERCEIVED

While we may think we are conscious beings, consciousness forms a very small part of the world we live in and much of our life experience is in responding to things we were not consciously aware of . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The brain never stops processing, even while we are asleep it is highly active. In some sense the world we are aware of, is merely snippets of what is being processed below the surface. The way the brain processed information when we were younger has a lot to do with how we perceive the world we live in. Lots of our daily decision making is in fact done by areas of the brain that are responding non-consciously to sensory stimuli that elicit memories that then initiate behavioural responses. Another name for these responses is habits, anxiety is a kind of habitual response to false or ambiguous information.

So, this research goes some way towards explaining what goes on in hypnosis. Many of the issues that create difficulty in living a normal life are things we learned non-consciously. The brain creates some really weird behaviours, take a spider phobia for example. I have never had a client with this condition that did not know it was irrational, some even say it's stupid. They know they should not be frightened of a small spider but they are. Clearly the brain has learned something related to spiders that is outside of our logical, rational and analytical control. Many of the other conditions people suffer from, follow this same illogical logic.

How does hypnosis fit into this then? Hypnos was the Greek God of sleep and a nap is a short sleep. Hypnosis, therapeutically, is akin to a short nap, but it can be very deep and even though short in nature, hypnosis has all the attributes that occur during sleep. It works by re-consolidating memories and, as a consequence, allows memories to play out in a different way. In this study, the participants remembered things they had no awareness of seeing. Their ability to see things they could not have seen, due to the timeframe being too short for conscious learning, is a consequence of memory formation, be it short term, long term or working memory. By changing the perceptual memories, during hypnosis, the brain remembers the new instructions/suggestions that then change the way these other non-conscious memories express themselves! While we may be aware that we smoke, we may even think we know why but the reality is, we do not know the real reason we smoke. Even if the reason we cited was correct, it would be, at best, a lucky guess, such are the mysteries of the mind!

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain. Relaxation is one of life's most natural repair mechanisms and one that we, by and large, ignore. So it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative emotions and one that helps create calm relaxing states the make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
The age-old adage "I'll sleep on it" has proven to be scientifically sound advice, according to a new study which measured changes in people's brain activity and responses before and after a nap. The findings, published in the Journal of Sleep Research, support the advice which suggests that a period of sleep may help weighing up pros and cons or gain insight before making a challenging decision.

The Medical Research Council-funded study, led by University of Bristol researchers, aimed to understand whether a short period of sleep can help us process unconscious information and how this might affect behaviour and reaction time.

The findings further reveal the benefits of a short bout of sleep on cognitive brain function and found that even during short bouts of sleep we process information that we are not consciously aware of.

While previous evidence demonstrates that sleep helps problem solving, resulting in enhanced cognition upon waking; it was not clear whether some form of conscious mental process was required before or during sleep to aid problem solving. In this study, researchers hid information by presenting it very briefly and "masking" it -- so it was never consciously perceived -- the masked prime task. The hidden information, however, was processed at a subliminal level within the brain and the extent to which it interferes with responses to consciously perceived information was measured.

Sixteen healthy participants across a range of ages were recruited to take part in an experiment. Participants carried out two tasks -- the masked prime task and a control task where participants simply responded when they saw a red or blue square on a screen. Participants practiced the tasks and then either stayed awake or took a 90-minute nap before doing the tasks again.

Using an EEG, which records the electrical activity naturally produced in the brain, researchers measured the change in brain activity and response pre-and-post nap.

Sleep (but not wake) improved processing speed in the masked prime task -- but not in the control task -- suggesting sleep-specific improvements in processing of subconsciously presented primes.

The findings suggest that even a short bout of sleep may help improve our responses and process information. Therefore, the results here suggest a potentially sleep-dependent, task-specific enhancement of brain processing that could optimise human goal-directed behaviour.

Importantly, while it is already known that the process of acquiring knowledge and information recall, memory, is strengthened during sleep. This study suggests that information acquired during wakefulness may potentially be processed in some deeper, qualitative way during sleep

Dr LizCoulthard, Consultant Senior Lecturer in Dementia Neurology at the University of Bristol Medical School: Translational Health Sciences, said: "The findings are remarkable in that they can occur in the absence of initial intentional, conscious awareness, by processing of implicitly presented cues beneath participants' conscious awareness.

"Further research in a larger sample size is needed to compare if and how the findings differ between ages, and investigation of underlying neural mechanisms."

Paper: 'Nap-Mediated Benefit to Implicit Information ProcessingAcross Age Using an Affective Priming Paradigm' by E Coulthard et al in the Journal of Sleep Research [open access]

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/385-day-time-naps-help-us-acquire-information-not-consciously-perceived

Story Source:
Materials provided by University of Bristol. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Cite This Page:
University of Bristol. "Day-time naps help us acquire information not consciously perceived, study finds: 'I'll sleep on it' proves scientifically sound advice." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 October 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181004095929.htm>.




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EXPLORING LINKS BETWEEN LIFESTYLE, SENSES AND COGNITIVE HEALTH

Perhaps the two biggest concerns for older people's future are: too much life left over at the end of the money and too much life at the end of the memories. As we live longer, these fears become ever more present . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Primarily about the effects of decline of our visual, auditory and cognitive functions, there are parallels in other areas relative to cognitive decline. In this area, perhaps the best tool we have is that of effective and beneficial lifestyle changes. Things, such as, stopping (or never starting) the smoking habit, lower our alcohol intake to as close to zero every day (with zero being the goal), an increase in the presence of calmer mental states and engaging in things that challenge the physical (exercise) and tune out (relaxation). Even when we exercise, we can still remain calm.

Other important factors are diet, the idiom, "garbage in, garbage out" doesn't only apply to computers, it applies equally to us. maybe more so, since we are the ones inputting the garbage into computers? Food creates the building blocks of life, amino acids, proteins and fats essential to life and liquids essentially the hydration that keeps our brain functioning as optimally as possible.

Even though hypnosis can dramatically promote good mental states and, subsequently, behaviour, it can do so much more effectively if you are taking good measures to increase the presence of calm and peaceful states of mind. The art of mental stimulation, helps the brain, to a certain degree, to create and maintain brain reserve capacity, The brain's natural ability to rebuild and bounce back from brain damage, e.g. the negative effects of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, toxic substances (vehicle emissions), and physical damage, too many headers, contact sports or just plain old accidents. Distress appears to be a factor in diminishing the brains natural bounce back factor. So, Relax!

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain. Stress and anxiety, which are almost always present in many disorders that I treat, may play a developing role in the progression of one's difficulty in experiencing cognitive wellness. Relaxation is one of life's most natural repair mechanisms and one that we by and large, ignore. So it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative emotions and one that helps create calm relaxing states the make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

For more information on the Free Consultation - Go Here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/my-services/free-consultation-an-opportunity-to-make-an-informed-choice

Or, to book your Free Consultation today, you can do so here: http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/book-app-t

The Research:
Experts at a recent medical conference hosted by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) hope their work -- reported today in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society -- will have colleagues seeing eye-to-eye on an important but under-researched area of health care: The link between impaired vision, hearing, and cognition (the medical term for our memory and thinking capabilities, which are impacted as we age by health concerns like dementia and Alzheimer's disease).(1) With vision and hearing loss already affecting up to 40 percent of older adults(1) -- and with one-in-ten older people already living with Alzheimer's disease(2) -- the conference reviewed the current state of science regarding how these common health challenges might be connected, why the answer might matter, and what can be done to reduce sensory and cognitive impairments to preserve our health for as long as possible.

"As we live longer, we know that sensory and cognitive impairments will become more prevalent," said Heather Whitson, MD, MHS, Associate Professor of Medicine & Ophthalmology at Duke University Medical Center and one of the lead researchers for the AGS-NIA conference convened in 2017. "While we know a great deal about these impairments individually, we know less about how they are related -- which is surprising, since impaired hearing and vision often go hand-in-hand and are associated with an increased risk for cognitive trouble."

One obstacle to optimizing sensory and cognitive health is our poor understanding of the two-way street connecting both.(1) For example, we know the brain relies on sensory input to understand our environment and make decisions.(1) Researchers also know that cognitive processes -- such as connections in the brain that allow us to locate visual targets -- guide our visual and auditory attention.(1) Yet we have a limited understanding of how these inter-related processes are affected by age-related changes in the brain, eyes, and ears.

Is the connection between sensory impairment and cognitive decline linear, with one health concern leading to the other, or is it cyclical, reflecting a more complex connection? AGS-NIA conference attendees think answers to these questions are critical, which is why their conference report maps the state of sensory and cognitive impairment research while also outlining important priorities for future scholarship and clinical practice. These include answering questions tied to the mechanics, measurement, and management of impairments:

* Identify the Mechanisms Responsible for Sensory and Cognitive Impairments (and Their Connections)(1)

** Is there a cause-and-effect relationship between cognition, vision, and hearing?

** What biological factors or characteristics of our nervous system affect both sensory and cognitive health?

* Better Equip Clinicians and Researchers to Measure Forms of Sensory and Cognitive Impairment(1)

** What standards currently exist for measuring sensory impairment and cognitive decline? How are they used among diverse populations, particularly those who might already struggle with access to health care?

** How can we develop and validate new tools and protocols to measure cognition for people who also live with vision impairments, hearing impairments, or both? Similarly, how can we better measure hearing and vision health in older people managing cognitive health concerns?

** How can we work to ensure broad measures of cognitive and sensory impairment are included in existing research studies as a way to better adapt findings to the realities of older-adult health?

* Better Prepare Older Adults and Health Professionals to Address Sensory and Cognitive Impairments(1)

** How effective, feasible, and accessible are existing options for assisting older people living with cognitive impairments, hearing impairments, and/or vision impairments?

** What innovations will be necessary to develop new resources, tools, and protocols to improve cognitive and sensory health or to accommodate those who live with these health concerns?

"The evidence we have at present indicates that impaired vision, hearing, and cognition occur more often together than would be expected by chance alone," summarized Frank Lin, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Johns Hopkins Medicine and another lead researcher at the AGS-NIA conference. "Figuring out why -- and what can be done about a potential link -- represents a critical new leap for the care we all will want and need as we age."

This research was supported by the NIA of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award U13AG054139. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the NIH.

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/blog/384-the-brain-region-for-stress-control-larger-in-people-with-depression-3

Story Source:
Materials provided by American Geriatrics Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Heather E. Whitson, Alice Cronin-Golomb, Karen J. Cruickshanks, Grover C. Gilmore, Cynthia Owsley, Jonathan E. Peelle, Gregg Recanzone, Anu Sharma, Bonnielin Swenor, Kristine Yaffe, Frank R. Lin. American Geriatrics Society and National Institute on Aging Bench-to-Bedside Conference: Sensory Impairment and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2018; DOI: 10.1111/jgs.15506

Cite This Page: American Geriatrics Society. "Exploring links between senses and cognitive health." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 September 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180924160940.htm>.
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SCIENTISTS IDENTIFY CELLS IN BRAIN THAT CONTROLS BODY CLOCK RHYTHMS

I often guess the time, merely to see how connected I am to reality. Surprisingly I have noticed a connection between my estimation of the time and present states of mind. When I am experiencing certain negative emotions, my estimation goes awry and when I am feeling very well, it is more accurate . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An interesting article on the importance and function of circadian rhythms, our body's 24 hour clock. Its location, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, in the hypothalamus goes some way in explaining its connection with many of the issues relating to clients with stress, anxiety, sleep, mood and depressive disorders. The hypothalamus is an integral part of the stress response and the associated regions of the body's threat detection systems play out in many of the above conditions.

Circadian rhythms affect, sleep wake cycles and via associated regions, in the hypothalamus,, water balance, blood pressure, stress response. So, dysregulation of circadian rhythms would likely affect our sleep and if we no not sleep well, the brain doesn't function as well as it could. The opposite is also likely, in that the presence of stressors, could upset circadian rhythms. It is quite common for clients to say they ruminate on life's difficulties, they worry, fret, over think etc. So, once we get into this cycle, there are so many regions of the brain that become hyperactive and this leads to the presence of large amounts of stress hormones, e.g. adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and cortisol. These hormones, which are essential for life itself, are necessary and very well intentioned when present for the right reasons, e.g. tissue repair, healing and defensive reactions to dangers or threats. It's when they are present for perceived danger or threats that could happen but in all probability won't, that it all starts to go wrong! For example, you book a flight and immediately become anxious. This is based on a perceptual reality because planes can and do crash but the odds of that happening are so remote and that makes it highly improbable. In fact, the most dangerous part of any air travel, is the drive to the airport!

One of the very best things we can learn to do, that facilitates good balance within our body clock, promotes sleep at the right time and keeps all other body functions within limits, is to practice and develop the art of mindful relaxation. All of the above systems come into force in the presence of real or perceived danger, as well as being a consequence of the absence of calm, peaceful and relaxed mind/brain states. Learning to create, maintain and experience mindful relaxation is the precursor to effective living. Experientially I have found the negative inclination, intonation, vagueness and ambiguity of our everyday language and self-talk surreptitiously feeds a negative mindset. It is the presence of these negative states of mind, that inhibit a person's ability to shift towards having a positive mindset. While positive affirmations can work, they work so much quicker and better, once we remove the negative effects of the words we use. This is not an overly difficult task, it just seems so because language is so intertwined into our linguistic DNA (my own word).

Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to redesign language representation in our deeper mind (deep language structure, as opposed to surface structure). The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of dysregulation of the neurotransmission in and across the brain. Stress and anxiety, which are almost always present in many disorders that I treat, may play a developing role in the progression of one's difficulty in experiencing a happy life So it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating this condition. If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!

The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?

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The Research:
UT Southwestern Medical Center neuroscientists have identified key cells within the brain that are critical for determining circadian rhythms, the 24-hour processes that control sleep and wake cycles, as well as other important body functions such as hormone production, metabolism, and blood pressure.

Circadian rhythms are generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located within the hypothalamus of the brain, but researchers had previously been unable to pinpoint which of the many thousands of neurons in the region were involved in controlling the body's timekeeping mechanisms.

"We have found that a group of SCN neurons that express a neuropeptide called neuromedin S (NMS) is both necessary and sufficient for the control of circadian rhythms," said Dr. Joseph Takahashi, Chairman of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator at UT Southwestern, who holds the Loyd B. Sands Distinguished Chair in Neuroscience.

The findings, published in the journal Neuron, may offer important targets for future treatments of diseases and problems related to circadian dysfunction, which range from jet lag and sleep disorders to neurological problems such as Alzheimer's disease, as well as metabolism issues and psychiatric disorders such as depression.

Key studies in the 1970s revealed that the SCN communicates and coordinates cells throughout the body to control circadian rhythms, but the SCN contains many neurons with different expression patterns of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters.

"Which of these neurons are responsible for producing circadian rhythms was a major unanswered question in neurobiology. This study marks a significant advancement in our understanding of the body clock" said senior author Dr. Masashi Yanagisawa, Adjunct Professor of Molecular Genetics, former HHMI Investigator at UT Southwestern, and current Director of the World Premier International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine at the University of Tsukuba in Japan.

NMS is a neuropeptide -- a protein made of amino acids that neurons, which are cells in the brain, use to communicate. Researchers created unique mouse models to determine that NMS-expressing neurons act as cellular pacemakers to regulate circadian rhythms. Specifically, the research team found that modulating the internal clock in just the NMS neurons altered the circadian period throughout the whole animal. In addition, the study provided new insights into the mechanisms by which light synchronizes body clock rhythms.

Dr. Takahashi identified and cloned the first mammalian gene -- called Clock--related to circadian rhythms. Since then, the Takahashi lab has determined that disruptions in the Clock and Bmal1 genes in mice can alter the release of insulin by the pancreas, resulting in diabetes, and they determined the 3-D structure of the CLOCK-BMAL1 protein complex, which are considered to be the batteries of the biological clock.

Dr. Yanagisawa first identified the important role that endothelin plays on the cardiovascular system, and later, with his discovery of orexin, showed that sleep/wakefulness is controlled by a single neuropeptide. His lab has since identified numerous receptors involved in the regulation of appetite and blood pressure, as well as other neuropeptides that play an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism, stress responses, emotions, and other functions.

http://www.trans4mationaltherapy.com/…/383-the-brain-region…

Story Source:
Materials provided by UT Southwestern Medical Center. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Ivan T. Lee, Alexander S. Chang, Manabu Manandhar, Yongli Shan, Junmei Fan, Mariko Izumo, Yuichi Ikeda, Toshiyuki Motoike, Shelley Dixon, Jeffrey E. Seinfeld, Joseph S. Takahashi, Masashi Yanagisawa. Neuromedin S-Producing Neurons Act as Essential Pacemakers in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus to Couple Clock Neurons and Dictate Circadian Rhythms. Neuron, 2015; 85 (5): 1086 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.006
Cite This Page:
UT Southwestern Medical Center. "Neuroscientists identify cell type in brain that controls body clock circadian rhythms." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 March 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150317195954.htm>.
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