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Hervé Musseau
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SciTech #ScienceSunday Digest - 39/2016.
Permalink here: http://www.scitechdigest.net/2016/09/fixing-dna-damage-modular-synbio.html

Fixing DNA damage, Modular synbio pellets, Towards head transplant, Custom acoustic holograms, Advanced drone systems, Wireless emotion detection, Atomically precise molecular syntheses, Metastasis gene therapy, Wireless MEMS, Sewing robot.

1. Compensating for DNA Damage
New work by the SENS Research Foundation has successfully achieved stable allotropic expression (in the nucleus), import (into mitochondria), and assembly into functional protein complexes able to rescue the cell and metabolism from mutations in the mitochondrial copies of these genes http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/09/04/nar.gkw756.full. With some additional work and tricks the group hope the demonstration will allow all 13 mitochondrial genes to be moved to the nucleus and so solve one of the seven causes of aging damage, which will be important for things like sarcopenia https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2016/09/mitochondria-in-muscle-aging-and-sarcopenia/. In related work human cells engineered to contain a copy of the Dsup gene from tardigrades suffered 50% fewer DNA mutations as a result of prolonged exposure to X-rays http://www.u-tokyo.ac.jp/en/utokyo-research/research-news/demystifying-the-resilience-of-water-bears.html; the group hope to discover related protective genes that grant tardigrades their resilience and the possibility is open to gene therapies to reduce DNA mutation rates in humans.

2. Modular DNA Expression Pellets
You can now produce bulk freeze-dried pellets containing the key cellular components needed for translating DNA to proteins - all of the enzymes, ribosomes, tRNA, etc that you need to do this basic protein production process http://news.mit.edu/2016/to-produce-biopharmaceuticals-on-demand-just-add-water-0922. The idea is that you’d have a supply of these pellets (room temp shelf-life > 1 year) and when you needed to conduct a test or produce a protein you’d synthesise your gene or DNA of interest and add it to a pellet in some water. Such cell-free synthesis is an exciting technology, another tiny step towards atomically-precise synthesis, and something that would be immediately useful for remote or at-home applications above and beyond those demonstrated: protein vaccines, antimicrobial peptides, multi-enzyme production for metabolic pathway to create a complex organic drug molecule, antibodies for diagnostics, etc.

3. Towards Human Head Transplant
Recent previous work in mice and recent work in dogs a modified solution of polyethylene glycol has been used to at least partially restore the neural connections in animals whose spines have been almost completely severed https://www.newscientist.com/article/2106382-head-transplant-teams-new-animal-tests-fail-to-convince-critics/. In the recent dog experiment the dog apparently regained the ability to walk after about three weeks. Surgeon Sergio Canavero plans to use these result to press forward with the first ever human head transplant next year, using the technique to help reconnect the severed spine of the patient’s head with the donor body. Others demand that at the lack of detailed histology data of the supposedly repaired spinal interface damages the case for proceeding in humans.

4. Custom Acoustic Holograms
Three dimensional acoustic holograms take a big step forward with a new system that uses a single powerful ultrasound transducer onto which is placed a 3D printed block that has been precisely patterned to form an acoustic hologram; ultrasound passing through the block is forced into the desired custom waveform, to levitate objects for example http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/hardware/3d-printed-plastic-blocks-generate-complex-acoustic-holograms. Such a device produces an acoustic hologram with a resolution 100 times greater than previously possible with separate transducer systems. While working in air or water it can’t produce a dynamically changing waveform to move objects, although movement along fixed paths is possible. One possible way around this is to encode multiple sound fields at different frequencies to add some dynamic options.

5. Delivery, Security, Navy, Surveillance Drones
First, a cool new long range delivery drone combines a biplane design with VTOL and fixed-wing capabilities to get the best of both worlds http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/drones/tu-delft-tailsitter. Second, Aptonomy is launching a large security drone to monitor protected areas and intercept tresspassers https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602412/drone-security-guard-scolds-intruders-from-the-sky/. Third, the Navy’s Blackwing drone platform is designed to be launched by submarine to provide wide-area surveillance and control of other drone and communications assets https://www.avinc.com/resources/view/press-releases/united-states-navy-demonstrates-cross-domain-communications-command-and-con. Finally, DARPA’s Aerial Dragnet system is being designed to provide persistent wide-area surveillance of areas such as cities via networked drone swarms http://www.kurzweilai.net/darpas-plan-for-total-surveillance-of-low-flying-drones-over-cities.

6. Detecting Emotions with Wireless Signals
EQ-Radio is a system that uses wireless signals and reflections to measure subtle changes in a person’s breathing and heart rhythms in order to determine their emotional state http://news.mit.edu/2016/detecting-emotions-with-wireless-signals-0920. In recent tests the system was able to correctly predict whether the person was excited, happy, angry, or sad 87% of the time. Capturing human emotional states in such a way, particularly when not visibly obvious, would have uses in a wide range of different areas including security monitoring crowded events, entertainment, health care, consumer preferences, etc. The system measures heartbeats as accurately as an ECG monitor with an error margin of 0.3%.

7. Atomically Precise Molecular Chains
The size of alternative atomically precise materials that can be synthesised keeps getting larger with this recent creation of atomically precise gold nanoparticles enshrouded with a functional molecular shell and linked via a precise molecular bridge https://www.jyu.fi/en/news/archive/2016/09/tiedote-2016-09-22-15-15-43-527149. Progressively building up such units would allow the creation of ever-larger precise crystalline materials with novel electrochemical properties given that the electron clouds of the metal cores become coupled. There are also efforts to build more sophisticated catalysts by precisely combining palladium with ruthenium in different mixed or shelled structures http://phys.org/news/2016-09-combining-elements-palladium-ruthenium-industry.html.

8. Gene Therapy Stops Cancer Metastasis
A gene therapy technique involving the delivery of microRNAs of a specific sequence into cancer cells is successful in preventing those cancer cells from undergoing metastatic spread through the body http://news.mit.edu/2016/gene-therapy-technique-prevent-cancer-metastasis-0919. These microRNAs specifically regulate and block the expression of the Palladin protein that helps drive metastasis, and was delivered in this case from microRNAs embedded in nanoparticles that were loaded into a hydrogel scaffold that was subsequently implanted into the mice. Such a tool is a viable approach to cancer treatment in combination with other cancer-killing approaches. In related gene editing news, Synthego launches a CRISPR kit for labs and DIYers to make CRISPR editing easier http://synbiobeta.com/news/synthego-announces-first-kind-crispr-kit/.

9. Wireless MEMS
A microelectromechanical device has been built that can be turned on and off with a nanowatt of power from three feet away, with the concept being to use the nanoresonator itself as the antenna for the device http://www.bu.edu/research/articles/wireless-microelectromechanical-systems/. The device achieved an efficiency of 15% and the group believes it might find application in optogenetics to provide a route for wireless power and communications to devices implanted in and interfaced to the brain. But such wireless MEMS could be used everywhere: for example a modified router might monitor wireless MEMS sensors placed on movable objects all over the house.

10. A Sewing Robot
Sewbo has launched a robot to automate garment sewing, such as the sewing that typically takes place en masse in sweatshops https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602423/a-robot-that-sews-could-take-the-sweat-out-of-sweatshops/. It doesn’t have the versatile flexibility of human sewing of course, and the key innovation is a method to temporarily hold the garment fabric in solid sheet form (it uses off-the-shelf sewing machines and robotic arms) that can be more easily picked up and guided by automated systems, but which when plunged into warm water removes the polymer to return it back to the soft flexible garment for sale and use. This gets us towards fully automated garment production.

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SciTech #ScienceSunday Digest - 38/2016.
Permalink here: http://www.scitechdigest.net/2016/09/beating-neurological-damage-3d.html

Beating neurological damage, Delivering bacteria, 3D electodeposition, Multicore computing accelerations, Fruit fly connectome, Characterising cell senescence, Novel semiconductor nanostructures, Nanoscale motion amplification, Machine learning tricks, Bonding etched metals.

1. Compensating for Neurological Damage
A new brain computer interface allows patients to control the movement of a cursor over a keyboard with just their thoughts, and by so doing type 12 words per minute http://news.stanford.edu/2016/09/12/typing-brain-sensing-technology/. The tests were carried out in monkeys but should translate well to people, and achieved a significant improvement in the rate of word transcription over previous systems to be conversationally useful. In other news recent quadriplegics might have significant limb movement restored by having 10 million (particular type of) stem cells injected into the site of spinal injury https://news.usc.edu/107047/experimental-stem-cell-therapy-helps-paralyzed-man-regains-use-of-arms-and-hands/, to the extent that three months later patients can feed themselves and operate their phone.

2. Controlled Bacterial Delivery to Intestines
A delivery method comprising alternately coating bacteria in layers of long chain polysaccharides chitosan and alginate, ensures their protection against stomach acids and into the intestine where these mucoadhesive sugars help adhere to the intestinal lining http://news.mit.edu/2016/delivering-beneficial-bacteria-stomach-gi-tract-0914. Coated bacteria had a survival rate six times higher than uncoated bacteria. Such improved oral probiotic delivery to the intestines could be widely beneficial considering the number diseases and treatments probiotic and even therapeutic bacteria are being proposed for.

3. Electrodeposition vs 3D Printing
The custom mass-produced devices create by Microfabrica’s electrodeposition technique are very impressive http://michaelbelfiore.com/2016/09/14/microfabricas-tiny-revolution/. Microfabrica’s process represents a synthesis of 3D printing capabilities with semiconductor electrodeposition fabrication techniques, and this enables a much greater level of device and scale precision - check out the comparison images with conventional metal sintering for example. The company is already commercially operational and sells devices for $1 - $100 depending on size and complexity.

4. Language & Hardware for Accelerated Computing
Milk is the name of a newly developed programming language that manages memory much more efficiently in programs that deal with scattered data across large data sets, so much so that it enables a four-fold speed-up in big data applications http://news.mit.edu/2016/faster-parallel-computing-big-data-0913. The Queue Management Device designed by Intel reduces certain optimisation software to a chip-based hardware design that at minimum results in core-to-core communication speed multi-core chips to be doubled http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/semiconductors/processors/new-circuits-break-bottleneck-in-microprocessors.

5. Fruit Fly Connectome
The first complete 3D map of a fruit fly brain connectome has been assembled https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602398/first-3-d-map-of-a-fruit-flys-brain-network/. This approach used x-ray tomography and worked by soaking the brain in a silver dye, then bombarding it with x-rays, measuring the x-ray scattering, and running the data through a computational model to generate a 3D map of neurons and their connections. This model has a resolution of 600nm and shows 100,000 neurons and is the first ever reproduction of a fly brain hemisphere mapped with 3D coordinates. It took 1,700 man hours to assemble so will need further automation if the technique is to tackle larger brains.

6. Characterising Genetic Causes of Cell Senescence
Recent work looked at dosing varying levels of a certain anti-cancer drug against cancer cells in order to induce varying cellular responses from senescence to apoptosis; in doing so identified 25 specific genes responsible for the senescent cell response as opposed to apoptosis or other responses https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2016/09/working-to-characterize-the-epigenetics-of-cellular-senescence/. Identifying these 25 genes provides 25 possible targets that can be investigated for targeting specific senescent cell clearance therapies - which some companies are already working on - in order to help rejuvenate aging tissues and reduce the age-related load of senescent cells.

7. Novel Semiconductor Nanostructures
An inorganic semiconducting material with a double helix nanostructure has been discovered http://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/short/article/33350/, comprising non-toxic tin, iodine, and phosphorus, has been formed into centimerter-long fibers and possess exceptional flexibility while remaining stable at up to 500C. In related news quantum dot silicon nanoparticles can replace alternative semiconductor materials in a range of useful applications in displays and optoelectronics http://phys.org/news/2016-09-silicon-nanoparticles-expensive-semiconductors.html.

8. Nanoscale Motion Amplified to Microscale
A microelectromechanical system developed by NIST is able to measure the transfer of motion at nanometer scales https://www.nist.gov/video/measuring-nanoscale-motion-transfer-through-microscale-machine. As long as the electrical input driving the system was free of noise then the device performed reliably and repeatedly, and offer a platform that the team hopes to extend to far more complex systems with many moving parts. Advances like this have application in fabricating and operating various micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems used in sensors, switches, and automatic robotic systems.

9. Latest Machine Learning Tricks
Machine learning algorithms for driving autonomous vehicles are being accelerated and rapidly tested in consumer video games such as Grand Theft Auto, taking advantage of realistic environments, and enabled by a new way for extracting useful training data from the game environment for automatic object classification https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602317/self-driving-cars-can-learn-a-lot-by-playing-grand-theft-auto/. Machine learning algorithms are now generating short videos from static photos, aiming to predict what happens next in the scene captured in the image http://www.theverge.com/2016/9/12/12886698/machine-learning-video-image-prediction-mit, take a look for some “interesting” results.

10. Bonding Metals with Any Other Surface
A new electrochemical etching process produces metal surfaces with roughened micrometer scale features that allow metals to be joined with nearly all other materials, become water repellent, and exhibit improved biocompatibility http://www.uni-kiel.de/pressemeldungen/index.php?pmid=2016-285-nanosculpturing&lang=en. The etching process affects only the top 10 - 20 micrometers of the surface, removing those metal grains that are less chemically stable, creating a complex three dimensional surface that can be strongly bonded with polymer adhesives to connect other similarly-etched metal surfaces; in tests the metal or polymer would break before the interface. In thinking about the laminated wood being considered to build wooden skyscrapers because of its strength http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-16/the-race-for-the-wood-skyscraper-starts-here, I’m wondering about laminated interleaved metals and what you might build with them?

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Aubrey de Grey, who should need little introduction here, is cofounder of the SENS Research Foundation, while Matthew O'Connor leads the foundation's in-house research efforts. O'Connor's focus is on the allotopic expression of mitochondrial genes, the complicated form of gene therapy needed to copy versions of these genes from the vulnerable mitochondrial genome into the much more secure nuclear genome, but altered in such a way that the resulting proteins can find their way back to the mitochondria where they are needed. Earlier today de Grey and O'Connor stopped by /r/futurology at Reddit to answer questions on this and other SENS rejuvenation research initiatives.
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SENS Scientists Successfully Transferred Two Mitochondrial Genes Into The Nucleus !!!

Since mitochondrial genes are related to the aging process but they are subject to deleterious mutations that accelerate aging, by relocating them inside a chromosome they can be more protected and they also serve as a backup copies which might retard the aging process.

http://www.longevityreporter.org/blog/2016/9/9/breakthrough-in-transferring-mitochondrial-genes-to-the-nucleus
In an exciting paper, researchers from the SENS Foundation have demonstrated that two mitochondrial genes can be successfully transferred into nucleus; an important first step in preventing age-related mitochondrial dysfunction
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Looking back across history, it is hard to find a better barometer of social trends than the Servant Problem. The sudden expansion of domestic labor in the past 30 years and the reappearance of the Servant Problem in the wealthy West (albeit in a new form) are among the most revealing transformations of our times.
The West is edging back toward what it was before 1930 -- a world of masters and servants.
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Just how cheap parking will get
Some people have wondered about my forecast in the spreadsheet on Robotaxi economics about the very low parking costs I have predicted. I wrote about most of the reasons for this in my 2007 essay on Robocar Parking but let me expand and add some modern notes here.
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In a total nuclear exchange where the entire worlds arsenals are used, how long would the nuclear winter last and would we survive?

"...both the quantities and yield of the world's nuclear arsenals has dropped precipitously from the all time high in 1986. The arsenals today are only 20% the size they were in 1986 and the total megatons available is less than 10% of the peak."

[...]

"Using every bomb in existence today [...], the area of assured destruction would only amount to 1/3 of the USA’s total land mass. If it was Canada, many might not even notice. That’s it. On a global scale that isn’t hardly a scratch at 1/42 of the world's total land mass."

[...]

"...nuclear winter was always a stretch because the science was unfounded and we never had enough high-yield bombs in reality to cause it ever, but for sure in 2016 because we don’t have any in the high yield range required within the active arsenals of the nuclear nations at all (other than a small quantity of bombs held by China, around 50 and not enough to change these outcomes)."

https://www.quora.com/In-a-total-nuclear-exchange-where-the-entire-worlds-arsenals-are-used-how-long-would-the-nuclear-winter-last-and-would-we-survive/answer/Allen-Hall-12?srid=XBYj
Allen Hall's answer: Pending rewrite with some critical new facts … check back in a day or two Flashback to the 1980’s … Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) A lot has changed….. In 2016 a nuclear winter isnt possible even in an all out nuclear war. This is because both the quantities and yield ...
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Powering the U.S. with 500 wind and 500 CSP farms, at 500 MWavg apiece.
Steel ………………..  503 Million tonnes (5.6 times annual U.S. production)
Concrete …………..  1.57 Billion t (3.2 times annual U.S. production)
CO2 ………………….  3.3 Billion t (all U.S. passenger cars  for 2.5 years)
Land …………………  91,000 km2 (302 km / side)
35,135 sq. miles (169 mi / side)
(the size of Indiana)
60-year cost ………  $29.25 Trillion

Or, we could power the U.S. with 500 AP-1000 reactors.
Steel ……….  2.9 Million t (0.5% of W  &  CSP / 0.36% of CSP)
Concrete …  46.5 Million t (3.3% of W  & CSP / 1.8% of CSP)
CO2 ………..  59.8 Million tonnes (2% of W & CSP / 1.5% of CSP)
Land ……….  20.8 km2 (4.56 km / side) (0.028% W & CSP / 0.07% of CSP)
1.95 sq. miles (1.39 miles / side)
(1.5 times the size of Central Park)
60-year cost ………  $2.94 Trillion
That’s 2.9 times the 2014 federal budget.
Let’s Run the Numbers Nuclear Energy vs. Wind and Solar by Mike Conley & Tim Maloney April 17, 2015 (NOTE: This is a work in progress. It will be a chapter in the forthcoming book ̶…
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The company will be building upon work carried out at the SENS Research Foundation in order to create a therapy for age-related macular degeneration, as the existence of these waste compounds appears to be an important root cause of retinal damage.
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SciTech #ScienceSunday Digest - 37/2016.
Permalink here: http://www.scitechdigest.net/2016/09/optical-soliton-waves-microbiome-tissue.html

Sand into soil, Optical soliton waves, Microbiome tissue repair, Stem cell gun, RNA genome regulators, Prion structures, Deep learning speech, Thermal solid superatoms, Sophisticated drones, Synthetic wine.

1. Turning Sand into Soil
A formulation of plant cellulose added to sand helps the mixture retain water, nutrients, and air, with sandy hectares of land in Mongolia treated with the mixture proving successful in trials by growing rice, corn, tomatos, watermelon, and sunflowers http://english.cas.cn/newsroom/china_research/201609/t20160905_167428.shtml. This would be interesting not just for turning deserts into productive agricultural land, but also facilitating the recovery of native vegetation and forests onto desertified land, rejuvenating tired soils and even, at a futuristic stretch, helping to terraform the surfaces of other planets.

2. Optical Soliton Waves
A new optical phenomenon has been observed for the first time in the form of a new type of soliton wave https://www.caltech.edu/news/new-breed-optical-soliton-wave-discovered-52001. I’ve always found solitons fascinating; localised waves that act as particles, holding their shape as they travel instead of dispersing like standard waves. This new phenomena involves soliton waves riding the wake and path of another soliton wave, and the group can design microcavities to guarantee the properties of the solitons that will be produced; applications include optical clocks, navigation and radar systems, magnets, neurobiology, and fiber optic signalling generally.

3. Microbiome Impacts Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Recent work on very simple animal model organisms suggests a link between an organism’s microbiome and its immune system and ability to repair and regenerate its tissues http://www.stowers.org/media/news/aug-29-2016. Different microbial populations in the organism can significantly inhibit or enhance the processes of tissue repair and regeneration, and the immune system plays a key role in this, for example sometimes blocking regeneration if an infection is present. While yet to find similar definitive links in humans potential applications include: new drug candidates for boosting repair and regeneration and avenues to explore the creation of healthier and more beneficial microbiome populations.

4. Gun that Shoots Stem Cells
A SkinGun device developed by RenovaCare uses the company’s CellMist system to spray a patient’s own stem cells onto skin wounds in order to rapidly speed up repair and regeneration of skin in days instead of weeks http://www.nextbigfuture.com/2016/09/stem-cells-delivered-via-skin-gun-can.html. While it won’t work for third-degree burns and very deep wounds, it is effective against second-degree burns and other infected wounds. I also wonder if such an approach might facilitate a type of skin rejuvenation treatment in future, as well as modified versions able to repair the surfaces of internal structures such as lungs, stomach, intestine, etc.

5. New Genome Regulation from “Junk DNA”
A new type of RNA called long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed from what was thought to be “junk” DNA and which does not produce proteins, has been found to play crucial roles in cellular processes and genomic regulation and gene expression http://news.mit.edu/2016/linking-rna-structure-and-function-cell-fate-0908. In this work the structure of just one type of lncRNA was deciphered, which showed how this RNA structure is crucial to interacting with a specific protein to control the development of heart muscle cells. The work was done in mice, and while human and mouse proteins are usually similar lncRNA sequences are not conserved and the human counterpart in this case has not yet been found. The group hope to build a library of lncRNA structural motifs to push the field forward and help identify targets for disease.

6. Deciphering Prion Structure and Replication
In related structural biology work we have recent advances in understanding prion structure, formation, and replication, and how this new evidence refutes conventional theories of this process http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-09/p-nds090116.php. In the case of normal protein PrPC that can turn into misfolded infectious prion PrPSc and recruit normal versions to replicate itself, it was shown how these molecules self assemble two intertwined protofilaments that create the fibrils that are typically observed. At a basic level these misfolded proteins comprise repetitive elements of beta-sheet structures - four-rung beta-solenoids - that act as templates for new, unfolded proteins build on. It is hoped this understanding will help quickly understand other prion diseases and the development of therapeutics.

7. Deep Learning for Speech Production
Google’s DeepMind has demonstrated WaveNet, a deep learning system for generating speech that mimics any human voice while sounding more natural than any current speech-to-text system and reducing the gap between human performance by over 50% https://deepmind.com/blog/wavenet-generative-model-raw-audio/. The system can also synthesise music and automatically generate sample piano pieces. All of the examples are well worth a listen, including when the system makes up words and changes the identity for the same text. In related news physicists are exploring why deep neural networks are so effective at solving complex problems and how this is linked to fundamental physics https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602344/the-extraordinary-link-between-deep-neural-networks-and-the-nature-of-the-universe/.

8. Superatoms: Thermal Solids & Precise Clusters
Crystals comprised of superatoms of buckyballs and similar-sized inorganic molecular clusters exhibit variable, controllable thermal conductivity depending on whether the buckyballs are fixed and ordered (high conductivity) or rotationally disordered (low conductivity) http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-09/coec-rds090616.php. Adding magnetic properties to the superatoms might allow thermally switchable materials for example, and a range of complex yet tunable atomically precise structures. In related atomically precise materials news, the largest ever atomically precise silver nanoclusters have been synthesised and characterised, containing precisely 374 atoms in a 3nm core surrounded by a layer of silver atoms bound to thiol molecules http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-09/aof-rsa090916.php.

9. Interesting Drone Capabilities
First, effective designs for low-power autonomous robotic sailboats are now scouring the oceans collecting data and accessible remotely http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/05/technology/no-sailors-needed-robot-sailboats-scour-the-oceans-for-data.html?_r=0. Second, software is getting far more sophisticated at allowing swarms of robotic drones to coordinate and adaptively avoid collisions http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/robotics-software/swarms-of-robots-manage-to-not-run-into-each-other. Third, tree-planting drones are being used to speed up reforestation efforts http://newatlas.com/tree-planting-drones-droneseed/45259/. Finally, drones are being fitted with anti-laser lasers to avoid being shot down https://www.newscientist.com/article/2105362-drones-get-first-anti-laser-lasers-to-stop-being-shot-down/.

10. Synthesising Artificial Wine
Ava Winery is a company that appears to be getting very close to creating convincing synthetic artificial wine that can fool any human taster http://www.businessinsider.co.id/ava-winery-says-its-nearly-perfected-wine-in-a-lab-2016-9/. Wine is about 85% water and 13% alcohol plus a range of hundreds of other molecules that provide flavour, aroma, colour and other properties. Earlier this year 80% of people could differentiate between a control glass of wine and a glass of the artificial wine; as of today only 10% of people can and this is set to get smaller. There are many benefits here, aside from using 50x - 100x less water to produce the wine, the possibility of powdered wine mixed with water/ethanol solution, and generally disrupting the wine industry and others.

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Why is it so hard to find female superhero merchandise? In this passionate, sparkling talk, media studies scholar (and father of a Star Wars-obsessed daughter) Christopher Bell addresses the alarming lack of female superheroes in the toys and products marketed to kids — and what it means for how we teach them about the world.
Why is it so hard to find female superhero merchandise? In this passionate, sparkling talk, media studies scholar (and father of a Star Wars-obsessed daughter) Christopher Bell addresses the alarming lack of female superheroes in the toys and products marketed to kids — and what it means for how we teach them about the world.
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The Method to Duterte's Madness
www.stratfor.com

The new Philippine president has made headlines for his populist theatrics. But his strategy stems from his status as an outsider trying to

The Method to Duterte's Madness
www.stratfor.com

The new Philippine president has made headlines for his populist theatrics. But his strategy stems from his status as an outsider trying to

Colombia: FARC Members Approve Peace Deal
www.stratfor.com

Colombia's largest rebel group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), has given its approval to a peace deal with the governmen

The Method to Duterte's Madness
www.stratfor.com

The new Philippine president has made headlines for his populist theatrics. But his strategy stems from his status as an outsider trying to

France: Migrants In Calais To Be Dispersed Across Country, President Says
www.stratfor.com

French President Francois Hollande said Sept. 24 that thousands of migrants living in the shantytown near the port city of Calais in norther

The Method to Duterte's Madness
www.stratfor.com

The new Philippine president has made headlines for his populist theatrics. But his strategy stems from his status as an outsider trying to

Staying Alive Inside the Witness Protection Program
www.stratfor.com

While participants can never go back to their old lives, their safety is virtually guaranteed.

Sudan's New Friendships Are Starting to Pay Off
www.stratfor.com

Khartoum's relationship with Washington is beginning to thaw, but several obstacles still stand in the way of closer ties between the two.

Turkey, U.S.: Gulen Will Return To Turkey If Extradited
www.stratfor.com

Fethullah Gulen said in a Sept. 23 interview with German television company ZDF that he will return to Turkey if the United States grants th

The Method to Duterte's Madness
www.stratfor.com

The new Philippine president has made headlines for his populist theatrics. But his strategy stems from his status as an outsider trying to

Yemen: Government Returns To Aden
www.stratfor.com

The Yemeni government is returning to Aden from Saudi Arabia, various Yemeni news sources including Al Mashhad al Yamani reported Sept. 23.

A Quiet End to Jordan's Potentially Volatile Elections
www.stratfor.com

The outcome of Jordan's parliamentary elections prove that the Muslim Brotherhood and the government can coexist.