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Gerard B. Hawkins
Works at GBH Enterprises - Entrepreneuring Chemical Engineer, engaged in Catalysis and Process Technology Consultancy, process catalyst sales and technical services to the Petrochemical, Refining, Gas Processing markets.
Lives in The Americas
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Qatar’s LNG exports fall for first time since 2006 as Australia, US expand
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Total to convert La Mède refinery to biodiesel plant
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Celanese, Mitsui mull extra Texas methanol plant
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Mitsubishi unveils $1B Trinidad methanol project
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Asian refiners struggle to process light Mexican oil
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Bolivia expands petrochemical capability with Bulo Bulo ammonia complex
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El impacto en el rendimiento del catalizador por envenenamiento y ensuciamiento de los mecanismos
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Theory of Carbon Formation in Steam Reforming 
Contents
1 Introduction
2 Underpinning Theory
2.1 Conceptualization
2.2 Reforming Reactions
2.3 Carbon Formation Chemistry
2.3.1   Natural Gas
2.3.2   Carbon Formation for Naphtha Feeds
2.3.3   Carbon Gasification
2.4 Heat Transfer
3 Causes
3.1 Effects of Carbon Formation
3.2 Types of Carbon
4 What are the Effects of Carbon Formation?
4.1 Why does Carbon Formation Get Worse?
4.1.1   So what is the Next Step?
4.2 Consequences of Carbon Formation
4.3 Why does Carbon Form where it does?
4.3.1   Effect on Process Gas Temperature
4.4 Why does Carbon Formation Propagate Down the Tube?
4.4.1   Effect on Radiation on the Fluegas Side
4.5 Why does Carbon Formation propagate Up the Tube?
5 How do we Prevent Carbon Formation
5.1 The Role of Potash
5.2 Inclusion of Pre-reformer
5.3 Primary Reformer Catalyst Parameters
5.3.1 Activity
5.3.2 Heat Transfer
5.3.3 Increased Steam to Carbon Ratio
6 Steam Out
6.1 Why does increasing the Steam to Carbon Ratio Not Work?
6.2 Why does reducing the Feed Rate not help?
6.3 Fundamental Principles of Steam Outs

TABLES
1 Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Typical Reformer
2 Typical Catalyst Loading Options

FIGURES
1 Hot Bands
2 Conceptual Pellet
3 Naphtha Carbon Formation
4 Heat Transfer within an Reformer
5 Types of Carbon Formation
6 Effect of Carbon on Nickel Crystallites
7 Absorption of Heat
8 Comparison of  "Base Case" v Carbon Forming Tube
9 Carbon Formation Vicious Circle
10 Temperature Profiles
11 Carbon Pinch Point
12 Carbon Formation
13 Effect on Process Gas Temperature
14 How does Carbon Propagate into an Unaffected Zone?
15 Movement of the Carbon Forming Region
16 Effect of Hot Bands on Radiative Heat Transfer
17 Effect of Potash on Carbon Formation
18 Application of a Pre-reformer
19 Effect of Activity on Carbon Formation
Theory of Carbon Formation in Steam Reforming Contents 1 Introduction 2 Underpinning Theory 2.1 Conceptualization 2.2 Reforming Reactions 2.3 Carbon Formation Chemistry 2.3.1 Natural Gas 2.3.2 Carbon Formation for Naphtha Feeds 2.3.3 Carbon Gasification 2.4 Heat Transfer 3 Causes 3.1 Effects of Carbon Formation 3.2 Types of Carbon 4 What are the Effects of Carbon Formation? 4.1 Why does Carbon Formation Get Worse? 4.1.1 So what is the Next Step? ...
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Why Chesapeake Energy Is A Buy For The Long Term
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707 people
Event Sharer's profile photo
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WUSHU KUNGFU FEDERATION OF INDIA's profile photo
Dylan Vukich's profile photo
Jake Ruana's profile photo
yasser mahmud's profile photo
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Work
Occupation
Chemical Engineer - Managing Director, responsible for International Business Development
Employment
  • GBH Enterprises - Entrepreneuring Chemical Engineer, engaged in Catalysis and Process Technology Consultancy, process catalyst sales and technical services to the Petrochemical, Refining, Gas Processing markets.
    Chemical Engineer - Managing Director, responsible for International Business Development, present
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Other names
Don Gerardo
Story
Tagline
Passionate Chemical Engineer, Gemologist, Jewelry Designer, Martial Artist, and Scuba enthusiast
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
The Americas
Previously
Chicago - 5 Continents