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Gerard B. Hawkins
Works at GBH Enterprises - Entrepreneuring Chemical Engineer, engaged in Catalysis and Process Technology Consultancy, process catalyst sales and technical services to the Petrochemical, Refining, Gas Processing markets.
Lives in The Americas
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Cultivating Happiness

About a year ago, a young man named Pharrell Williams released a song called "Happy" from the Despicable Me 2 soundtrack album.  It became an instant sensation, winning the Grammy Award for Best Music Video and Best Pop Solo Performance for 2015, and BET's Award for Video of the Year 2014. The song peaked at No. 1 in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and 19 other countries. It was the best-selling song of 2014 in the United States with 6.45 million copies sold for the year, as well as in the United Kingdom with 1.5 million copies sold for the year (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Happy_(Pharrell_Williams_song)).  It got me to thinking about why this became such an overnight sensation.  I would suggest that it's because happiness is such an intangible quality that's hard to define and even harder to come by.  So when I saw the article "What We Can Learn From the Four Happiest Places On Earth" in the August 2015 issue of Experience Life Magazine, I thought it was important enough to share. 
 
To read the article in its entirety you can catch it on line at: https://experiencelife.com/article/what-we-can-learn-from-the-four-happiest-places-on-earth/?et_cid=1485808&et_rid=41075986&et_attr1=.  Oh and if you want to listen to the song one more time: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6Sxv-sUYtM.  Enjoy!
 
Taking cues from the world's happiest places and people, you might find a simple shift in your attitude could make all the difference in unlocking your own true bliss.  What makes a person "happy"? And how does one define "happiness"? In 2011, we (Experience Life Magazine) reviewed four of the happiest places in the world - Denmark; Singapore; Nuevo León, Mexico; and San Luis Obispo, California - deemed "Blue Zones" by National Geographic explorer and author Dan Buettner. While the places may not look very similar in climate, language, or proximity, we unveiled characteristics that united their inhabitants as some of the happiness in the world.
 
So what do we mean by "happy"? Most often, we tie joy to specific moments and high points in life. Buettner encourages us to think differently about how we define happiness in our lives. His philosophy, to "live happiness," is derived from the ordinary, everyday acts of life like noticing the trees as you walk in the woods, feeling safe on the street at night, and enjoying your job. Although the prize-winning moments of life can cause happiness, too, he argues that they don't resonate and sustain overall life satisfaction.  As Buettner notes in our piece, his hope is for us to start looking for a prolonged kind of happiness in the right places, taking cues from the everyday habits and attitudes of happy people around the world - specifically, from those living in the Blue Zones.
 
Here's what we can glean from these happy places, according to Buettner's research.
 
1. DENMARK: CULTIVATE QUALITY TIME
Over the past 35 years, Americans have increased their average income by 20 percent and doubled the size of their homes since 1950. Yet, as a whole, the nation doesn't report being more fulfilled, according to Buettner's findings. He notes that Denmark is a great real-life case against the belief that more money = a better life. So what is Denmark doing right?
 
In large part, Buettner attributes their happiness to cultivating meaningful connections by spending quality time with one another. He discovered that 19 out of 20 Danes belonging to some kind of club - and get to experience a profound happiness-inducing effect from the group social interactions. On average, according to Buettner, "Joining a club that requires you to show up once a month has the same impact on your happiness as a doubling of your income."
 
2. SINGAPORE: GIVE SECURITY ITS DUE
Buettner is pretty straightforward in his suggestion to translate the Singaporean security lesson into an actionable American context: Take responsibility for solidifying your financial security. "Pay down your mortgage and pay off your car loan," he recommends. In other words, a more sustaining kind of happiness can be expected from long-term financial security than the momentary lift of an impulse purchase.
 
3. NUEVO LEÓN, MEXICO: HAVE SOME FAITH
Devoting time to family, friends, and faith is the most important takeaway from the people of Nuevo León. "Faith can enhance our sense of purpose and meaning in daily activities," says Buettner. While Americans and Mexicans have a similar rate of belief in a higher power, research indicated Mexicans rank their beliefs as more important to their lives.
 
4. SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA: LIVE CLOSE TO YOUR WORK
"Satisfying work" is important to people in all places. Your commute is directly tied to this, so having the ability to walk, bike, or run to work like you do in activity-inducing communities like San Luis Obispo, where sidewalks and bike lanes are abundant (rather than sitting in a traffic-stricken commute), affords you time and energy to pursue the things that matter most to you.
Source: Carol Wenom
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Life, the multiverse and everything

Science has remade the world, but scientists are not finished yet

“I SEEM to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” Those words, ascribed to Sir Isaac Newton, might still be spoken, with the appropriate correction for sex, by any scientist today.

The discipline of natural science that Newton helped found in the second half of the 17th century has extended humanity’s horizons to a degree he could scarcely have envisaged. Newton lived in a world that thought itself 6,000 years old, knew nothing of chemical elements or disease-causing microbes, believed living creatures could spring spontaneously from mud, hay or dirty bed-linen, and had only just stopped assuming that the sun (and everything else in the universe) revolved around the Earth.

Yet even today, deep problems and deeper mysteries remain. Science cannot yet say how life began or whether the universe is but one of many. Some things people take for granted—that time goes forwards but never backwards, say—are profoundly weird. Other mysteries, no less strange, are not even perceived. One is that 96% of the universe’s contents pass ghostlike and unnoticed through the minuscule remaining fraction, which solipsistic humans are pleased to call “ordinary matter”. Another is how, after billions of years when the Earth was inhabited only by single-celled creatures, animals suddenly popped into existence. Perhaps the deepest mystery of all is how atoms in human brains can consciously perceive the desire to ask all of these questions in the first place, and then move other atoms around to answer them.

Known unknowns
Over the next six weeks we will be running a series of briefs that explore these unsolved scientific questions. Some are more tractable than others. Our first brief, on life’s origin, looks at a chemical puzzle that may well be elucidated over the next decade or so (see article). The nature of the unseen 96% of the universe may start to manifest itself later this year, as the newly cranked-up Large Hadron Collider, the world’s biggest particle accelerator, begins creating things massive enough to be particles of the “dark matter” that theory predicts.

Other mysteries, such as the unidirectionality of time, probably await lightning-strikes of insight of the sort that produced the theories of relativity a century ago. By contrast, discerning the early history of animals will require a lot of hard graft—the painstaking reconstruction of a jigsaw in which the pieces include palaeontology, genetics and embryology.

Some mysteries may remain so for ever. The idea of a multiverse containing an indefinite, possibly infinite, number of universes, each with its own laws of physics, is mathematically plausible and would deal with the puzzling fact that if the physical laws of the actual, observable universe were only slightly different, life could never have come into existence. With multiverses, every possible set of laws would exist somewhere. Unfortunately, unless the separate universes intrude onto one another, the idea is untestable. As for the nature of consciousness, this is one question which science has not yet fully worked out how to ask. Studying the bits of the brain that seem to generate consciousness does not answer the question of what such perception really is.

Does it all matter, a cynic might ask? Will humans really be better off for knowing such things? The answer, written on the tomb, in St Paul’s Cathedral, of Newton’s contemporary, Sir Christopher Wren, is: “If you seek his monument, look around you.” For the monument to Newton’s pebble-collecting child is no less than the modern world.

Bacteria and Brontosaurus. Oxygen and octane. Quarks and quasars. All are the offspring of Newton’s child. Moreover, it is the manipulation of nature which science permits that has brought today’s unprecedented plenty and prosperity. Most of all, though, science has brought self-knowledge, for it has put humans in their place in two contradictory ways. It has dethroned them as the centre of the universe, by showing that mankind is a Johnny-come-lately, living on a tiny planet orbiting an ordinary star in an unremarkable galaxy that is, itself, one of more than 150 billion such galaxies. But it has also enthroned humanity, revealing the extraordinary nature of the universe’s inner workings in ways that Newton’s contemporaries were only beginning to glimpse. Simultaneously demoted and exalted by science in this unprecedented era of discovery, Homo sapiens still has oceans to survey.
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Should You Worry That the Stock Market Just Formed a “Death Cross”?

The world economy appears to be stalling…

Yesterday, we got news that South Korea’s exports dropped 14.7% since last August...their largest decline since the financial crisis. It’s far worse than the 5.9% drop economists were expecting.

South Korea’s exports are important because they’re considered a “canary in the coalmine” for the global economy. South Korea is a major exporter to the largest economies in the world including China, the US, and Japan. South Korea also releases its export numbers much earlier than other major countries. That’s why a bad reading for South Korean exports is often the first sign that the global economy is in trouble.

The ugly news slammed stocks around the world. Chinese stocks dropped 1.3%…Japanese stocks dropped 3.8%…and the major indexes in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Spain all lost at least 2%.

•  These big drops came one day after the worst month for global stocks in over three years…

readers know last month’s selloff hit every major stock market on the planet. China’s Shanghai index lost 12%...Japan’s Nikkei lost 7.4%…and Europe’s STOXX 600 lost 8.5%.

The MSCI All-Country Index, a broad measure of the global stock market, fell 6.8%...its worst month since 2012.

US stocks also fell hard. The S&P 500 lost 6.3% in August. And the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 6.6%. It was the Dow’s worst month since May 2010, and its worst August in 17 years.

•  Bearish signs are popping up everywhere…

Last month’s crash dropped the S&P 500 below an important long-term trend line.

A long-term trend line shows the general direction the market is heading. Many professional traders use it to separate normal market gyrations from something bigger. Think of it as a “line in the sand.”

The market is constantly going up and down…but as long as we’re above the long-term trend line, the dominant trend is still “up.” But when a selloff knocks the stock market below its long-term trend line, it’s a sign the trend might be changing from up to down.

As you can see from the chart below, there have been a few “normal” selloffs since 2011. On Friday, however, the S&P dropped below its long-term trend line for the first time in about 4 years.

•  The broken trend line isn’t the only bearish sign we see right now...

US stocks are also very expensive.

Robert Shiller is an economics professor at Yale University and a widely respected market observer. Shiller is best known for creating the CAPE (Cyclically Adjusted Price Earnings) ratio. It’s a cousin of the popular price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio.

The P/E ratio divides the price of an index or stock by its earnings-per-share (EPS) for the past year. A high ratio means stocks are expensive. A low ratio means stocks are cheap.

The CAPE ratio is the price/earnings ratio with one adjustment. Instead of using just one year of earnings, it incorporates earnings from the past 10 years. This smooths out the effects of booms and recessions and gives us a useful long-term view of a stock or market.

Right now, the S&P’s CAPE ratio is 24.6…about 48% more expensive than its average since 1881.

•  US stocks have only been more expensive a handful of times…

Shiller explained why he’s worried in a recent New York Times op-ed:

The average CAPE ratio between 1881 and 2015 in the United States is 17; in July, it reached 27. Levels higher than that have occurred very few times, including the years surrounding the stock market peaks of 1929, 2000 and 2007. In all three of these instances, the stock market eventually collapsed.

For the S&P’s CAPE ratio to decline to its historical average, the S&P would have to drop to around 1,300. That would be a disastrous 34% plunge from today’s prices.

To be clear, this doesn’t mean a crash is imminent. Like any metric, the CAPE ratio isn’t perfect. CAPE is helpful for spotting long-term trends, but it can’t “time” the market.

But the high CAPE ratio is one more reason you should be extra cautious about investing in US stocks right now.
Source: Casey Daily Dispatch
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Newer fracking methods offer potential for more and cheaper natural gas
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Soon after Iran deal, Air Force looks for new ways to find and attack deeply buried targets

ROME,. U.S. Air Force researchers are asking industry for ideas on how to assess, locate, and characterize hard and deeply buried targets (HDBT) like underground bunkers containing enemy weapons or nuclear research facilities.

Officials of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Information Directorate in Rome, N.Y., issued a broad agency announcement Tuesday (BAA-AFRL-RIK-2015-0017) for the Super Hard and Deeply Buried Facility Identification and Characterization (SHDBFIC) project, which seeks technologies for finding and classifying deeply buried targets.

This solicitation comes less than a week after announcement of a nuclear weapons negotiation with Iran that seeks to prevent that country from developing nuclear weapons in a network of buried, hardened, and geographically scattered research facilities.

The Air Force Research Lab's Munitions Directorate has conducted a significant amount of work to neutralize hard and deeply buried targets, yet scientists at the Information Directorate want a better understanding of how to identify, locate, and characterize these kinds of facilities. Work may include the integration of existing technologies.

The goal of this solicitation is to evaluate new sources for hard and deeply buried underground testing, including technologies to conceal facilities from reconnaissance and unauthorized access. The idea is to enhance war fighter capabilities beyond what today is considered satisfactory. This effort will conduct underground facility research.

The project should enable military experts to simulate and gather data against a wide array of targets and scenarios involving hard and deeply buried facilities, and realistically emulate the sensor signatures of super hard deeply buried facilities used for nuclear processing, biological agent engineering, and chemical production.
In addition, the effort seeks new ways to detect emerging cyber warfare and cyber security capabilities related to hard deeply buried facilities. Technology innovations that deliver new or improved operational capabilities are of high interest.

The SHDBFIC project focuses on two areas: characteristics gathering and signature analysis. Characteristics gathering involves new information collection and surveillance techniques for hard and deeply buried targets and how they might influence existing techniques, tactics, and procedures.

Signature analysis, meanwhile, involves the differences between the sensor signatures of underground facilities and above-ground traditional networked facilities, and how to simulate and analyze the electromagnetic emissions of hard and deeply buried targets.
Total funding for this project will be about $9.7 million over three years. Companies interested should send white papers no later than 28 Sept. 2015 by email to the Air Force's Capt. Richard Newkirk at richard.newkirk.2@us.af.mil, or by post to AFRL/RITF, 525 Brooks Road, Rome NY 13441-4505, and reference BAA-AFRL-RIK-2015-0017.

For technical questions contact Capt. Richard Newkirk by email at richard.newkirk.2@us.af.mil, or by phone at 518-275-3355. Direct contracting questions to Gail Marsh by email at Gail.Marsh@us.af.mil, 
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Below par US capital projects provide warning to petchems developers
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DARPA to brief industry next month cyber security defenses against denial of service

U.S. military researchers will brief industry next month on an upcoming cyber security project to develop fundamentally new defenses against distributed denial of service (DDoS) cyber attacks on U.S. military data networks.

Officials of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) will conduct industry briefings on the upcoming Extreme DDoS Defense (XD3) project from 1 to 4:30 p.m. on 2 Sept. 2015 at the DARPA Conference Center, 675 N. Randolph St. in Arlington, Va.

The DARPA XD3 program will seek to develop fundamentally new DDoS defenses that afford far greater resilience to these attacks, across a broader range of contexts, than existing approaches or evolutionary extensions can.

DDoS attacks are attempts to overwhelm and crash computer network servers with an overwhelming number of online queries from many different nodes on the Internet.

Such attacks come from sets of networked hosts that collectively act to disrupt or deny access to information, communications, or computing capabilities, generally by exhausting the target's critical resources such as bandwidth, processor capacity, or memory.

Typical victims of these attacks include information storage and computing facilities; servers that handle content distribution, message forwarding, or command and control (C2); and portions of network infrastructure.

Botnet-induced volumetric attacks, which can generate hundreds of gigabits per second of malicious traffic, are perhaps the best-known form of DDoS. Low-volume DDoS attacks, however, can be even more difficult because they target specific applications, protocols, or state-machine behaviors while relying on seemingly innocuous message transmission to thwart traditional intrusion-detection techniques.

Typical DDoS defenses today rely on combinations of network-based filtering, traffic diversion and scrubbing, or replication of stored data to dilute volumetric attacks and to provide diverse access for legitimate users.

Still, existing DDoS defenses have their problems. First, they are too slow; formulation of filtering rules often taking hours to formulate and instantiate, while military communication can't stand disruptions longer than a minute or two.

Low-volume DDoS attacks remain exceedingly difficult to identify and block, and mechanisms that rely on in-line data inspection don't handle encryption well and are difficult to scale.

In addition, DDoS defenses must work in real time; techniques that are only useful for protecting the storage and dissemination of quasi-static data are insufficient.

The XD3 program focuses on three broad areas: thwarting DDoS attacks by dispersing cyber assets to complicate targeting; by disguising defenses to confuse or deceive the adversary; and by adaptive mitigation to blunt the effects of attacks that get through initial defenses.

The industry briefings next are to familiarize participants with DARPA’s interests; identify potential proposers; and to address questions.

Those interested in attending the briefings should register no later than 26 Aug. 2015 online atwww.schafertmd.com/darpa/i2o/xd3/pd. Email questions or concerns to DARPA at XD3@darpa.mil.
Source: John Keller
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Stephen Hawking's answer to a 40-year-old paradox about black holes
FEW topics in physics so capture the imagination as black holes. They are the sites of wholesale gravitational collapse: stellar remnants fold in on themselves, reaching a density so extreme that it pokes an incomprehensible little hole in the fabric of space itself. The resulting gravitational pull is so great, the story goes, that anything that crosses a point of no return—the event horizon—is lost, in its entirety, forever. But even that simple formulation comes with a wrinkle that has had theorists pulling their hair out for four decades. This week Stephen Hawking, a physicist known for his work on the astronomical phenomenon, put forward a possible solution to the paradox. But what is the kerfuffle all about?
Fundamentally, the discussion is about information. Every object, every particle, every packet of light energy in the universe acts as a carrier of some information; it is a storehouse of its own physical particulars. Forty years ago, Dr Hawking suggested that when any object falls into a black hole, that information becomes irretrievable to those observing outside. But he also showed that, over time, black holes radiate energy, slowly evaporating into nothingness. The information that they had gobbled up, then, was simply destroyed. To the average scientist, that was heresy: information can be transmuted or transferred or merely jumbled up, but it is never lost. Dr Hawking's suggestion touched off a crisis that Leonard Susskind, a fellow theorist, called "a clash of basic principles like no other since Einstein was young".
Two fertile decades of debate followed, giving rise along the way to entirely new conceptions of how the universe is built (black holes, it seems, are pretty fundamental components of it). As a new branch of physics called string theory found its feet, it turned out to be good at explaining the rules of order and disorder within the event horizon. And a consensus emerged that while his "Hawking radiation" story of evaporating black holes was correct, Dr Hawking's supposition about the loss of information was not. By 2004, he was forced to concede a bet on the outcome (the winner was to receive an encyclopedia, "from which information can be retrieved at will"). Information was saved. But how? It is that question that has preoccupied theorists, not least Dr Hawking himself, since then.
So his announcement at a conference in Sweden (the Hawking Radiation Conference, no less) that he may have cracked the problem was greeted with some excitement, and a predictably enthusiastic media response. His flash of inspiration came when listening to a lecture in April about what are called super-translations, a bit of the heady branch of mathematics known as group theory. Dr Hawking thinks that incoming particles shed their information like a coat as they pass into a black hole, leaving it draped on the event horizon itself. Super-translations mathematically describe how that information influx can slightly jiggle the fabric of space at the horizon, in turn shifting around when and how the black hole radiates. Something of the incoming particle's information is turned into the when-and-how of Hawking radiation: information is transmuted, not lost. But the idea remains a suggestion, rather than a solution. It must still be scrutinised by the scientific community—and, as he noted in his talk, the paper that kicked off the debate 40 years ago was rejected at first. Probably, Dr Hawking will have better luck getting published this time around.
Source: The Economist
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Polaroid Snap camera takes instant photos without ink

Still pining for the days when snapping a Polaroid and instantly (well, almost) showing a finished printed photo to your friends was a hot thing?

Well, Polaroid is still here (more precisely, at IFA Berlin) and it just announced the Polaroid Snap, a digital camera that can immediately print out a photo, and it doesn't even need ink to do it.

The trick is in the Zero Ink printing technology developed by a company called ZINK. Instead of using ink, the camera uses special printing paper which contains cyan, yellow and magenta dye crystals under a protective polymer coating. The ZINK-enabled printer inside the Polaroid Snap camera then activates those crystals to create a full-color photo.

The photos are 2 inches x 3 inches in size — sometimes also called wallet size — which is a bit smallish but big enough for a quick, printed memory.

And while the no-ink thing sounds handy, it leaves the question of the price of ZINK papers (which, with their adhesive backs, also function as stickers). You can get a 50 pack of 2x3-inch ZINK paper for $24.99 at Amazon.

If you wish, you can have the photo printed in a larger size later, as Polaroid Snap takes 10-megapixel photos and has a microSD slot holding memory cards with up to 32GB of capacity. The camera has several simple presets — color, black and white and vintage — a selfie timer, and a photo booth mode, which takes six photos in 10 seconds.

Polaroid Snap will be available in four colors — black, white, red and blue — in the fourth quarter of 2015 for $99.
Source: STAN SCHROEDER
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New Russian directed-energy weapon could complicate U.S. military strategic planning

HE MIL & AERO BLOG, 7 July 2015. The Russian defense industry reportedly has developed a directed-energy weapon that can destroy or disable sophisticated electronic guidance and navigation systems in manned and unmanned aircraft and precision-guided missiles.

This electronic warfare (EW) weapon, which is yet unnamed, also reportedly can take out GPS navigation signals, radio communications equipment, and even orbiting satellites.

"The system will target the enemy’s deck-based, tactical, long-range, and strategic aircraft, electronic means, and suppress foreign military satellites’ radio-electronic equipment," says Yuri Mayevsky, CEO of the weapon's developer, Radio-Electronic Technologies Group (KRET) in Moscow.

The weapon, Mayevsky says, will be based on "ground-based, air-and seaborne carriers," which means fixed-based land sites, ground vehicles, aircraft, surface ships, and perhaps even submarines.

Assuming the news reports are true, this development could complicate U.S. military strategic planning, which for the past quarter-century has relied heavily on precision-guided munitions, GPS navigation, and tactical battlefield networking.

Such a weapon has the potential to neutralize or degrade the performance of U.S. and allied combat aircraft, cruise missiles, satellite-guided munitions like the Excalibur artillery shell, network-centric warfare setups, and many other high-technology military systems.

There's no word on how widely deployed a weapon like this could be in the future, how deployable it could be in difficult terrain or away from major sources of electric power, or how rugged, reliable, and maintainable this weapon could be in battlefield conditions.

A story from the Russian news agency TASS entitled Russia developing system capable of ‘switching off’ foreign military satellites, says Russian military leaders intend the weapon for anti-aircraft warfare, electronic warfare, and to disable satellite communications (SATCOM).

Russian commanders say they will use the integrated multifunctional electronic warfare system for defensive purposes, and will deploy it to defend the country from aircraft, from cruise missiles, and from ballistic missiles.

"It will fully suppress communications, navigation and target location, and the use of high-precision weapons," says Vladimir Mikheyev, adviser to the KRET first deputy CEO. "The system will be used against cruise missiles and will suppress satellite-based radio location systems. It will actually switch off enemy weapons." Field tests are scheduled for as early as the end of this year.

This new weapon -- assuming it can be developed into a workable system -- raises a host of questions. First is when U.S. or allied military forces might be on the receiving end of a field test.

Just last Saturday, the fourth of July, U.S. jet fighters intercepted separate Russian TU-95 strategic reconnaissance aircraft off the coasts of California and Alaska. On the same day Russian President Vladimir Putin phoned U.S. President Barack Obama to wish him a happy Independence Day. He probes American air defenses and then offers us best wishes; you gotta admit it's a nice touch.

These probes of U.S. and allied air defenses have become common occurrences over the past year or two. It makes me wonder when or if those Russian spy planes might use a directed-energy weapon to turn off the avionics of the intercepting jets.

Would if be an act of war if the interceptors were not shot down or seriously threatened? We just might find out, sooner than later.

Another question: what is the U.S. military doing to defend against hostile directed-energy weapons? Believe it or not, there are programs in place.

The U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) in Arlington, Va., for example, has the Counter Directed Energy Weapons program (CDEW), which is looking for new ways of defending against hostile high-energy lasers, high-power microwaves, and other directed-energy weapons in the maritime domain.

This kind of research is going on in other military services, as well as at research institutions like Georgia Tech in Atlanta. Moreover, the U.S. military also is working on its own directed-energy weapons programs that should yield technologies with similar capabilities as the new Russian weapon.

It's all a reminder of the importance of electronic warfare in this day and age -- and of the kind of dangerous world we live in.
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New PGP pipelines planned; US oil product exports surge; Mexico market to hit $1.6 bn
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US LNG export outlook stunted by markets; Pipelines respond to power generators
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Passionate Chemical Engineer, Gemologist, Jewelry Designer, Martial Artist, and Scuba enthusiast
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