In this case, if you want to use the "?op=1" URLs as canonicals, then the hreflang URLs should refer to those URLs. Alternately, if you want to use just "/page", then the rel=canonical should refer to that too.
Finally, don't use a rel=canonical across languages/countries, only use it on a per-country/language basis (don't specify the "de" page as the canonical for the "en" version, otherwise we won't index the "en" version).
There's much more about using hreflang on homepages at http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.ch/2014/05/creating-right-homepage-for-your.html & a lot of information in our help center at https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/189077
Edit: Some people asked about ways to recognize these issues on their site -- you can do that by using the hreflang tool as described in http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.ch/2014/07/troubleshooting-hreflang-annotations-in.html
Sometimes responsive web design pages will need the Vary HTTP header (even though most guides may say they don't).
- Portent, Inc.SEO Strategist, 2012 - present
- Sesame CommunicationsSEO Specialist, 2009 - 2012
- Cascadia Region Earthquake WorkgroupWeb Consultant, 2007 - 2010
- BuddyTVFreelance Staff Columnist, 2007 - 2008
- University of KansasEnglish, 1997 - 2003
- Bellevue CollegeTechnical Writing and Communication, 2008 - 2008
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