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New Chrome OS Wallpapers have been added recently. 

If you don't own a Chrome Device yet, you still can browse and download them.
All you have to do is install the Chrome OS Wallpapers App available at
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This does not show all wallpapers currently available in Chrome. Are there licensing issues for the rest?

Also, where are downloaded Chrome wallpapers stored locally?
Strange, because I definitely can not see them (tried on two different platforms). Is this geolocation-dependent?
Well, it is dependent on some unknown factor. When I use the app from Chrome on Ubuntu or Windows, I don't see any of the flickr, g+, or mikereyfman images (and perhaps others). When I use it on my Chromebook, I can see at least some of the flickr and g+ images, and exactly one mikereyfman image. From your screencap, it seems you can see a different subset (possibly the whole set) of the images. 
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