The Chromium OS Team seems to be experimenting with password-free screen unlock. Last Hint is the proposal of a new Chrome API called "chrome.screenlockPrivate" which aims to allow Chrome Apps to lock or unlock the screen on ChromeOS, monitor when the screen is locked or unlocked by other means, and show messages to the user if the app decides not to unlock the screen for some reason.

Best part of the proposal¹ are the Use Cases: 
A platform app may use the USB, NFC, and/or Bluetooth APIs to communicate with a secondary trusted device such as a phone, ring, watch, or badge, thereby allowing that trusted device to serve as an alternative form of authentication for the user.

¹ https://docs.google.com/document/d/1kSxngeyBPZIB7kK-QfDXgpzrDBvnVBcJfbK3HMFQIZg/edit

Source: https://codereview.chromium.org/60583003
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