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Renovascular hypertension is the most common manifestation of renal artery FMD. Multifocal stenoses with the 'string-of-beads' appearance are observed at angiography in more than 80% of cases, mostly in women aged between 30 and 50 years; they generally involve the middle and distal two-thirds of the main renal artery and in some case also renal artery branches. Cervicocranial FMD can be complicated by dissection with headache, Horner's syndrome or stroke, or can be associated with intracerebral aneurysms with a risk of subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage.
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