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Erin Boykin
Attended Radford University
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Erin Boykin

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Oh I just Love to fly




Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

#cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS   #trendingnow   #lolcats
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Erin Boykin

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+GoDaddy's commercial should definitely be removed! Selling animals online is never OK! You don't know who the new owners are going to be and what they're like. 

They used a Golden Retriever (I have one btw). How could you use one of the sweetest/nicest breeds of dog in a commercial like this? 

If you haven't already, please sign the petition. This really does need to go viral. This is unacceptable. Godaddy, you should be ashamed of yourselves. 

(Thanks +Jackie Bigford for sharing this!)
 
Remove the #SuperBowl 2015 Commercial
As someone who feels incredibly strong about animal rights, I am extremely offended by this commercial. If you feel the same, let #GoDaddy   know by signing this petition, posting to their social media sites, and/or by creating a petition of your own. Whether or not this was meant to be satirical, it's offensive. Essentially, Go Daddy is encouraging private breeding/puppy mills while shelter animals wait patiently for their forever homes or worse - to be euthanized. They are also encouraging purchasing an animal online; the animal could be sold to someone who runs a fighting ring, someone who abuses animals, or to someone who cannot adequately care for the animal. Animal rights are no laughing matter and to portray them as such is cruel and irresponsible.

http://chn.ge/1zrqcbo

#GoDaddyFail #PRFail #Animalcruelty #ClosePuppyMills    #BoycottGoDaddy   #stoppuppymills
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Can you help +The Feline Foundation of Greater Washington, Inc  win a new laptop? All you have to do is go to tinyurl.com/votesantakitty and vote by "liking" their entry in the +GetResponse  Facebook contest. Purrfect way to make a difference on #caturday . They are in the lead for the moment, but we need help to stay there through Sunday!   (You can only vote from computer as it is a Facebook app. But only takes a minute and you could win $100 Amazon card just for voting.)  TELL YOUR FRIENDS! THE CATS NEED US!
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Thanks for sharing +Erin Boykin !  We need a ton of votes for #caturday  
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My dog is the happiest when she is right next to me or when she is taking up 3/4ths of my bed. 
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This weekend felt too short! 
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Pin Of The Day - Your Content Marketing Could Use Some Cheese Sauce

Today's Pin Of The Day comes from +Alisa Meredith  from +Scalable Social Media - Inbound Online Marketing 

Does your marketing need some cheese sauce? In other words, are you producing content your audience needs or that your audience wants?  There is a difference. Great thought-provoking article.

Read Alisa's full article here:  http://bit.ly/1ssGDB1 

You can also, Pin It For Later: http://www.pinterest.com/pin/39265827977480620/

#PinOfTheDay   #contentmarketing   #contentmarketingtips  
Your Content Marketing Could Use Some Cheese Sauce via @scalablesocial http://scalablesocialmedia.com/2015/01/content-marketing-makeover/
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Little late for Halloween!
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Thanks for the invitation +Sally K Witt! 
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You are so welcome +Erin Boykin - I am hoping that this group can be friendly and helpful without a lot of rules.  We will see how it goes!
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Education
  • Radford University
    BBA, Marketing, 2015
  • Northern Virginia Community College
    AS, Business Administration
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Vice President + Communications Co-Chair at Advertising Club of Radford University & Owner at Social Promenade
Introduction

Student. Professional. Blogger. Amateur Photographer. Oh My. 

I’m a Marketing Senior at Radford University (who will be graduating Summer 2015) and am involved with Radford University’s Advertising Club (aka “RadAd”) as their Vice President & Communications Co-Chair.

I am also the Owner of Social Promenade. 

No matter where you follow me, you’ll see content in the following areas:

  • Social Media (Tools, Strategy, Marketing)
  • Content Marketing
  • Design (Graphic, Web)
  • Digital Media
  • Empire Avenue
  • Blogging
  • Photography
  • Organization
  • Animals (Cats/Dogs)
  • Sewing/Arts & Crafts Projects
  • And possibly more!

If I can help you, please feel contact me at erin@socialpromenade.com or connect with me on my social networks. 

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Most of what I know in the social media/online marketing/blogging world I've learned on my own through research.
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Vice President at Advertising Club of Radford University & Owner at Social Promenade
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Social Media, Marketing, File/Database Management & Reconciliation, Office Support, Proposal Development Support, Resume (Editing/Formatting), Editing, Word Processing, Photography, Web Design
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Erin R. Boykin, "Tech Support"
Erin Boykin's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
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