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Teracom Training
Teracom Training Institute
Teracom Training Institute

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Course Update!

Course 130 Voice over IP, SIP, Security, 5G and the Internet of Everything

Two‑day vendor‑independent training course for non‑engineers, covering VoIP and SIP fundamentals, jargon, buzzwords and technologies. Plus, a comprehensive section on security, everything from encryption to Trojans, and finishing with a discussion of upcoming technologies: 5G wireless and the Internet of Everything.

You will gain a solid understanding of Voice over IP, the concepts, the jargon and technologies, plus a solid overview and update in the essential area of security. ...not to mention a head start on 5G and IoT.

check out the fluid design / responsive course web page!

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Tutorial: 5G Wireless

Now that 4G cellular mobile is settled, talk is now turning to 5G.

The first thing to know about 5G is that there are currently no standards, no detailed agreement on what exactly it will be. But we have a number of general indicators to guide the discussion:

1. 5G will employ radio frequencies well above what is currently used for cellular.
The current frequency bands for 3G/4G cellular top out at about 2.6 GHz. Proposals for frequency bands for 5G include "millimeter wave" bands, that is, wavelengths varying between 1 and 10 mm, which correspond to frequencies between about 30 and 300 GHz. No doubt, in the future, there will be unified 5G systems with variations operating in all frequency bands; but the current emphasis is on new technology in the millimeter wave bands.

2. 5G will provide very high bit rates.
With carrier frequencies at 30 GHz and above, very wide frequency bands around those center frequencies can be employed, allowing the radio frequency modems to achieve high numbers of bits per second. In addition, Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) designs can implement massive parallel communications, radically increasing the capacity available to a user. Initial designs and trials have measured 5 Gb/s (5,000 Mb/s). No doubt, this will be pushed beyond 10 Gb/s.

3. Initially, 5G will not be a replacement for 4G.
At millimeter wave frequencies, in-building penetration and refraction around obstacles is poor, and the atmosphere attenuates (diminishes) the signal to the point that line-of-sight between the antennas is necessary, and useful transmission range is measured in the hundreds of meters (yards). This means that the first deployments of 5G will be in environments where base stations can be closely spaced.

One application for all this bandwidth is traffic control: going beyond today's standalone self-driving vehicles to vehicles communicating with each other and with traffic control systems, with base stations deployed on street lights as suggested by the picture.

We'll be covering this on the last day of BOOT CAMP

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Check out the all-new Online Courses page, featuring fluid / responsive design!
It should shrink and expand to look good on phones and tablets.
(you can check out the effect by resizing your browser window)

The new page even a carousel of customer comments at the bottom!

Does it look good on your screen? Let us know in the comments!

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Fundamentals of Voice over IP is a solid introduction to everything Voice over IP.

New course! Fundamentals of Voice over IP

You’ll learn the fundamental ideas and principles of VoIP and SIP,
as well as all of the jargon and terminology – and what it all means!

This course can be taken by anyone who needs to get up to speed on all things VoIP. You will gain career-enhancing knowledge of the components and operation of Voice over IP systems, and learn what all of the jargon and buzzwords mean.

Launch special! Save $20, get this course for only $29.
Use coupon 1260

Unlimited repeats, no expiry date.
30-day 100% money-back guarantee.

more info:

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New video! This is part of the introductory lesson of CTNS Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications.

Watch on YouTube:


For more information:

Course page:

CTNS Certification page:

Wireless Telecommunications is a comprehensive course on wireless, mobile telecommunications plus wireless LANs and satellites.

We begin with basic concepts and terminology including base stations and transceivers, mobile switches and backhaul, handoffs, cellular radio concepts and digital radio concepts.

Then, we cover spectrum-sharing technologies and their variations in chronological order: GSM/TDMA vs. CDMA for second generation, 1X vs. UMTS CDMA for third generation along with their data-optimized 1XEV-DO and HSPA, how Steve Jobs ended the standards wars with the iPhone and explaining the OFDM spectrum-sharing method of LTE for 4G.

This course is completed with a lesson on WiFi, or more precisely, 802.11 wireless LANs, and a lesson on satellite communications.

You’ll gain a solid understanding of the key principles of wireless and mobile networks:
• Coverage, capacity and mobility
• Why cellular radio systems are used
• Mobile network components and operation
• Registration and handoffs
• Digital radio
• “Data” over cellular: Internet access
• Cellular technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM
• Generations: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
• Systems: GSM, UMTS, 1X, HSPA, LTE
• WiFi, 802.11 wireless LANs
• Satellite communications

All of the news articles I have read about the "Internet outage" yesterday have the same paragraph near the end that is just plain wrong. Whoever wrote that at AP or Reuters doesn't know what they are talking about!

It says: "Dyn is a Manchester, N.H.-based provider of services for managing domain name servers (DNS), which act as switchboards connecting internet traffic. Requests to access sites are transmitted through DNS servers that direct them to computers that host websites."


DNS servers are not like switchboards connecting traffic. Those things are called routers.

DNS servers are like telephone books. Your browser can look up a server's number (IP address) based on a name (domain name).

This is like looking up someone's telephone number based on their name in a phone book.

The DNS servers are not involved in the actual communications between your computer and the web server you are talking to. Telephone books are not involved in the actual phone conversation. They do not connect things like a switchboard.

P.S. It was not an "Internet outage". The network is just fine. It was slowing down or crashing DNS servers owned by one company. If you can't look up someone's number, you can't call them...

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Tutorial: How Do IP Packets and MAC Frames Go Together?

It is important to understand how packets and frames are related, and in particular, IP packets vs. Ethernet or MAC frames.

image: simple network example

Packets are for networks. A packet is a block of user data, such as a piece of an e-mail message, with a network address on the front. The network address is the final destination. The standard for network addresses is IP.

Network equipment like routers receive an IP packet on an incoming circuit, examine the indicated destination IP address, use it to make a route decision, then implement the decision by forwarding the packet to the next router, on a different circuit.

A frame is a lower-level idea. Frames are used to communicate between stations on the same circuit. The circuit may have multiple stations physically connected onto it, like a wireless LAN, a few stations connected by a LAN switch, or only two stations like a point-to-point LAN cable. Each station has a Media Access Control (MAC) address, sometimes called a hardware address, link address or Layer 2 address.

A frame has framing to mark the beginning and end, sender and receiver MAC addresses to indicate the stations on the circuit, control information, a payload and an error detection mechanism.

The frame is transmitted on the circuit, and all stations on the circuit receive it. If an error is detected at a receiving station, the frame is discarded and might have to be retransmitted somehow.

If no errors are detected, the receiver compares the destination MAC address on the received frame to its own MAC address, and if they are the same, processes the frame, extracting the data payload and passing it to higher level software on the receiver.

If the MAC addresses are not the same, the receiver ignores it and waits for the next one.

The end result is that the payload in the frame is communicated to the correct station on the same circuit, with no errors.

image: Packet with its IP address vs. frame and its MAC address

The main purpose of packets is to append an IP address to your data. The IP address is used by network equipment to make route decisions: to relay the packet from one circuit to a different circuit. This is accomplished by receiving the packet then transmitting it to a different machine, usually the next router in the chain.

To actually transmit a packet to another router, the packet is inserted as the payload in a frame, then the frame is broadcast on the circuit that connects to the next router.

Notice that there are two addresses: the IP network address and the MAC address.

The IP address on the packet is the final destination, and so does not change. The MAC address on the frame indicates the destination on the current circuit, and so is changed as the data is forwarded from one circuit to another.

- - -

This and related topics are covered in:
• CTNS Certification Package
• CIPTS Certification Package
• Instructor-Led Course 101
Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineering Professionals
• DVD-Video V3 Fundamentals of Datacom and Networking
• Telecom 101 Textbook

get more info:

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Winter Solstice Feast Week Celebrations!  20% OFF ANYTHING

Last month, the days were getting shorter and shorter, and the sun was reaching a lower and lower height in the sky every day.

I was starting to worry that the sun would go away altogether, which would mean the starvation and death of my family.

So I put some lights in the trees and turned them on when it was dark, to encourage the sun to come back.

It worked!

Today, I am certain that the days are no longer getting shorter, they have started to get longer! The sun is coming back!

To celebrate, we are going to exchange presents and have a week of feasting, capped off with a big party!

To honor the new sun, we are offering a sacrifice of 20% off anything during Feast Week.

Use coupon 1238 at checkout for 20% off anything. 
Offer ends January 6.
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