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Primary & secondary windings

The primary winding is a part of the network, carrying the actual load current. The transformer’s secondary circuits usually consist of several units, each of them having its own magnetic core and winding. The transformer has a rated current transforming ratio, like for example 200/1 A, stating the rated primary current and the corresponding rated secondary current.

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/understanding-the-ratios-of-magnetic-hv-instrument-current-transformers
It is often desired that the transformer should have multiple ratios. This can mean that all or some of the windings have more than one
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The purpose of this guidelines is to ensure the continuing operational integrity of generators. Operating conditions (startup and shutdown) that have forced units off-line or have damaged or shortened the life of turbine (or generator) components in the past are highlighted in the guideline to prevent recurrences in the future.

- Startup Operation
- Shutdown Operation

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/important-guidelines-to-startup-and-shutdown-a-large-generator
Operating conditions that have forced units off-line or have damaged or shortened the life of turbine (or generator) components in the past are
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Why have built-in motor protection, when the motor is already fitted with overload relays and fuses? Sometimes the overload relay does not register a motor overload.

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/basics-of-built-in-motor-protection-for-beginners
Why have built-in motor protection, when the motor is already fitted with overload relays and fuses? Different types of thermal protection exist TP
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Field data interface devices form the “eyes and ears” of a SCADA system. Devices such as reservoir level meters, water flow meters, valve position transmitters, temperature transmitters, power consumption meters, and pressure meters all provide information that can tell an experienced operator how well a water distribution system is performing.

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/field-data-interface-devices-as-eyes-and-ears-of-a-scada-system
Field data interface devices form the “eyes and ears” of a SCADA system. Devices such as reservoir level meters, water flow meters, valve position
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In order for an overcurrent protective device to operate properly, the overcurrent protective device ratings must be properly selected. These ratings include:

1. Voltage rating
2. Ampere rating and
3. Interrupting rating (incl. Minimum Interrupting Rating)

Of the three of the ratings, perhaps the most important and most often over-looked is the interrupting rating.

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/3-overcurrent-protective-device-ratings-you-must-properly-select
In order for an overcurrent protective device to operate properly, its voltage, ampere and interrupting ratings must be properly selected.
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When designing electrical distribution systems, required maintenance and testing of the overcurrent protective devices is a very important consideration.

The electrical system reliability, component and circuit protection, and overall safety are directly related to the reliability and performance of the overcurrent protective device and can depend upon whether the required testing and maintenance are performed as prescribed for the overcurrent protective device utilized.

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/maintenance-and-testing-of-the-overcurrent-protective-devices
When designing electrical distribution systems, required maintenance and testing of the overcurrent protective devices is very important consideration
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Certain load types are characteristic in the industrial world. Knowing the load profile (speed range, torque and power) is essential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter for the application.

Some common load types are shown. There may also be combinations of these types.

1. Constant Torque
2. Quadratic torque
3. Constant power
4. Constant power/torque
5. Starting/breakaway torque demand

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/5-most-common-motor-load-types
Knowing the load profile (speed range, torque and power) is es- sential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter for the application
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FIX XPERTS Pty Ltd - FOR ALL YOUR PLUMBING, ELECTRICAL, APPLIANCE REPAIRS  www.fixxperts.co.za CALL 0113910989/7  - GAUTENG
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NEW ELECTRICAL STUFF IS OUT!
Electrical Plan Review Booklet // by Cooper Bussmann

By reviewing this brochure, the Electrical Inspector, Electrical Contractor, Plan Examiner, Consulting Engineer and others will be able to:

Understand and discuss //

- The critical National Electrical Code® requirements regarding overcurrent protection.
- Short-circuit currents and the importance of overcurrent protection.
- Three ratings (voltage, ampere, and interrupting) of overcurrent protective devices.
- That the major sources of short-circuit currents are motors and generators.
- That transformers are NOT a source of short-circuit current.
- Calculation of short-circuit currents using the simple POINT-TO-POINT method and related charts.
- Current-limitation and use of let-through charts to determine the let-through current values (peak & RMS) when current-limiting overcurrent devices are used to protect electrical components.
- Series rated combinations and proper application of series rated combinations.
- Selective coordination of overcurrent protective devices.
- The meaning and importance of electrical terms commonly used relating to overcurrent protection.
- Maintenance, testing, resetting, and replacement requirements of overcurrent protective devices.

download //

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/download-center/books-and-guides/relays/electrical-plan-review-booklet
Electrical Plan Review Booklet deals with overcurrent and component protection and devices, short-circuit calculations, selective coordination
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Star-delta (Y-Δ, wye-delta) starting

Star-delta (in North America the designation “wye-delta” is commonly used instead) starting is the simplest method for reducing the starting current of a motor. The technique can be used with all squirrel-cage induction motors that are delta-connected for normal operation and whose windings ends are individually connected to terminals.

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/motor-connection-for-clockwise-and-counterclockwise-direction-of-rotation
When the delta contactor connects at adverse vectorial positions of the supply voltage and the rotor field, transient processes could occur in motor
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NEW ELECTRICAL STUFF IS OUT!!
Guide to protection against indirect contact and earth fault
(// BY ABB)

The earth fault, caused by an insulation loss between a live conductor and an exposed conductive part, represents a plant engineering problem which may cause damage to the electrical installations and above all may jeopardize people; as a matter of fact, people could get in touch with an exposed-conductive-part not normally live but which, due to the fault, might have a dangerous potential to ground.

download - http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/download-center/books-and-guides/electrical-engineering/protection-indirect-contact
The protective device shall automatically disconnect the supply so that, in the event of a fault between a live part and an exposed-conductive-part
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Paralleling is the synchronous operation of two or more generator sets connected together on a common bus in order to provide power to common loads as shown in Figure 1.

In deciding whether a single or multiple generators should be installed there are various factors to be considered, such as:

1. Reliability
2. Performance
3. Cost
4. Generator and Room size
5. Efficiency
6. Load variation
7. Flexibility

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/single-versus-parallel-generators-7-factors-to-consider
In deciding whether a single or multiple generators should be installed there are various factors to be considered, such as reliability, load types
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NEW #ELECTRICAL STUFF IS OUT!!
Guide to SCADA Systems and Industrial Control Systems Security (DCS, PLC)

SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) systems are highly distributed systems used to control geographically dispersed assets, often scattered over thousands of square kilometers, where centralized data acquisition and control are critical to system operation.

They are used in distribution systems // such as water distribution and wastewater collection systems, oil and natural gas pipelines, electrical power grids, and railway transportation systems.

download guide

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/download-center/books-and-guides/automation-control/scada-systems-ics-security-dcs-plc
SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) systems are highly distributed systems used to control geographically dispersed assets, often
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