Scientists and economists estimated the health costs for the following events from 2000 to 2009:

- U.S. ozone air pollution, 2000-2002, $6.5 billion;
- West Nile virus outbreak in Louisiana, 2002, $207 million;
- Southern California wildfires, 2003, $578 million;
- Florida hurricane season, 2004, $1.4 billion;
- California heat wave, 2006, $5.3 billion;
- Red River flooding in North Dakota, 2009, $20 million.
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