curl https://install.sandstorm.io | bash
Follow the on-screen instructions. It'll even auto-update, like Chrome.
There's also some new apps! http://sandstorm.io/apps
Full blog post:
The Microarchitecture of Crochet
The Crochet processor presents a simple yet intriguing model of computation. At heart, a hardware implementation of Crochet centers around a single functional unit (called the "hook") whose sole primitive operation consists of drawing a single bit of data (stored as a loop of yarn) through the space enclosed by an existing loop.
This simple operation (denoted "CH") is variously compounded to form a more expressive instruction set consisting of such operations as SC, HDC, DC, TC, and a variety of directional slip-stitch instructions. The hook acts as a kind of accumulator, in that all instructions implicitly act on the hook. A typical Crochet computation is bootstrapped from a single pre-computed loop loaded onto the hook at startup time by the operator.
The Crochet memory model is analogous to a Turing machine's tape, save that instead of being a single unbounded row it is organized into a grid or cylindrical configuration (depending upon implementation) with an unbounded number of rows. The units of storage are called "stitches" instead of "cells", however, and with a few notable exceptions (see below) the hook only ever advances away from the origin.
Although the Crochet processor may read any previously-written location (at a lookup cost proportional to the row distance and offset back from the PC), writes may generally occur only at the PC—i.e., the hook's current location. Some implementations support special instructions (e.g., FPxC and BPxC) that may write values explicitly tied to stitches in previous rows, but these are uncommon in most workloads. And, in any case, it is not possible to write to any given cell without first writing values to some constant fraction of all the cells closer to the origin, typically in some regular pattern. While it is possible to re-write arbitrary earlier cells, most implementations find this annoying to do, since it requires that all the subsequent stitches be recomputed.
The Crochet processor is equipped with a finite but unbounded reservoir of input loops (called the "skein") and is equivalent in expressive power to a linear-bounded automaton. However, in practice the expressiveness of the ISA—as well as the quality of its output—depends greatly upon the specific implementation of the processor, and how good the processor's control unit is at keeping track of details.
A: Because this all used to be orchards. This all made sense, fifty years ago.
Q: Right, but shouldn't they have, like, torn them down by now?
A: No. Abandoned barns in Silicon Valley are a better investment than historical stock market returns.
Q: Wouldn't they be an even better investment if there were, like, usable buildings on the land?
Q: You have got to be shitting me.
A: Proposition 13 makes abandoned barns an enormously lucrative investment. You see, the assessed value of a piece of property is capped at a rate well below the rate of increase in property values out here. So you can just get the price of the land reevaluated every year and take tax-free loans against the increase in equity. This is a huge amount of untaxable money. Especially if you're an abandoned shed that's worth seven figures, right smack dab in the middle of the Google campus.
Q: Right, but that's just about low taxes, right?
A: Yeah. Well. Uh. I was going to get to the "except" part.
Q: And what's that?
A: The increase is capped except upon the sale or the completion of new improvements. Like an apartment building, for instance, to partially solve the housing crisis out here. Or a new building on the Google campus. This means that if the value of the improvement is less than the compounded increase in the value of the property absent the improvement, then it doesn't make any sense to actually build anything.
Q: That's horrible. Why aren't people, like, vandalizing abandoned buildings to get rid of them?
A: The only way you can vandalize anything in California that solves the problem is to literally build a new improvement on the property without the landowner finding out. That resets the tax basis and gives them an incentive to stop holding the land off the market.
Q: That's... double horrible.
Today, we know of roughly two dozen ancient gospels. (There are certainly many more) The ones which were rejected tended to fall into a few major categories: "Wisdom gospels," such as the Gospel of Thomas, which are essentially collections of Jesus sayings, were rejected both for lack of narrative and because their emphasis was rather personal rather than on the social fabric of the Church. Mystical gospels (many of which are often called "Gnostic Gospels," for rather complicated but boring reasons; they aren't actually Gnostic) tended to emphasize the miraculous powers which come with holiness, and these got excluded as part of the larger struggle for political power between urban and rural elites.*
A common theme in many of the Gnostic gospels is the various other disciples of Jesus. A number of them, for example, refer to Mary Magdalene as one of his disciples, and shall we say strongly hint that she was his wife. (Which would have been perfectly consistent with the norms of the day; most men married, and being married was a near-requirement for rabbis)
So the existence of an ancient manuscript mentioning the wife of Jesus isn't actually unusual in the larger scope of gospels. It doesn't mean anything in particular about its truth: remember that the oldest gospel (Thomas) was written 30 years after Jesus' death, and many of the later ones (such as John) were written over a century after that.
As with any historical text, the only thing you can really trust about it is that it had a writer who had an audience in mind, and you can learn a lot about how that writer saw the world and believed that his audience did as well. (Which is just as true for all of the other gospels!) There was definitely a strain of belief in Egypt around the second century that Jesus had a wife who was also a disciple, and this was almost certainly identified with Mary Magdalene.
So if you see this story, it's not earth-shakingly revolutionary, but it is an interesting further piece in the puzzle of how religious belief (and the associated social movements) evolved in the first few centuries CE in Europe. Which is a pretty fascinating topic.
* If you want to know the story: starting around the 3rd century, as centralized Roman political power started to fall apart, local elites became more important power centers. The church became the political structure which unified them. In the cities, the leading power figure was the bishop, with his various priests, churches, etc. (Especially in the earlier days, this didn't mean so much that being the bishop made you powerful as that if you were powerful, you likely became the bishop.) In the countryside, where there weren't enough centralized people to form formal hierarchies of that scale, power instead tended to congregate around local holy men, whose authority derived from their general reputation for holiness. This tradition really started in Egypt, which was the breadbasket of the Empire and which had a very long history of holy men living in deserts, and this evolved into monastic orders. Bishops and monks proceeded to fight over power for the next thousand years.
A key issue which came up early on is what's called the "Arian Heresy." From a very technical perspective, the Arian controversy was over whether Jesus and God are of the "same substance" or "similar substance." You wouldn't think that an issue this subtle would lead to Empire-spanning riots and the near collapse of government, but it did. The real issue was this: if Jesus and God are of the "same substance," then Jesus' appointment of Peter as his successor (as the canonical gospels tell us) is a direct divine appointment, which means that priests have divinely granted power and are therefore different from monks, who don't. That means that an argument for the same substance is really an argument for urban power, often centralized in Rome, and an argument for different substance (which came to be known as the Arian Heresy, after a council of bishops decided that this was wrong) was an argument for rural power and specifically for power in Egypt. And that was something people would get very upset about.
And this is why the canonical gospels -- chosen by bishops, mind you -- are so pro-priest and pro-a certain notion of the divinity of Jesus.
If you want to know more about this early power struggle, I recommend Peter Brown's The Cult of the Saints (http://www.amazon.com/The-Cult-Saints-Christianity-Religions/dp/0226076229).
If you want to know more about the Gospels, these two Wikipedia articles are a good place to start:
If you want to actually read some of them, this is a good compendium and translation:
During the Achaemenid period -- the years before Alexander the Great -- this mine was operated seasonally, with no local settlement. Miners would instead come, heavily provisioned, mine and then leave. In the Sassanid era (the great empire which rose to become Rome's biggest challenger to the East, which ultimately fell to the Islamic caliphates) supplies were grown and acquired locally, even though nobody lived in the area. Miners apparently could stop and get provisions for the arduous seasonal operation nearby, rather than having to bring their gear all the way from a much more distant home. The empire, in short, had better infrastructure: a traveler could purchase goods locally.
But as with the ruins of Pompeii, what I find most compelling about these isn't simply the data that they bring, but the snapshot they give of the people. The man pictured below, the first of the saltmen to be found, lived around the year 500; his gold earring, still in his ear when he was found, speaks of status and wealth. And we can still see the "frown, and wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command" which yet survives, stamped on his lifeless face, thousands of years later.
- University of ViennaPhysics, 2012 - presentWork on upgrading parts of the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS Experiment. This involves development in VHDL as well as C++.
- University of ViennaPhysics, 2006 - 2012Emphasis on software in high energy physics with some courses taken in Computational Physics.
- CERNPhD student, 2012 - presentWork on the upgrade for the CMS Level-1 trigger.
- CatalystsJava developer, 2012 - 2012Work on a anti-phishing mail server acting as a relay between customers on Austria's biggest platform for classified ads.
- Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of SciencesUndergrad working on the Trigger of the CMS Experiment, 2011 - 2012Development of a protocol buffer-based communications protocol on top of TCP/IP.
- University of Vienna2008 - 2011Teaching assistant for the Physics for Biologists lab course.
- Caritas Vienna2005 - 2008
CERN Building 40-3-B01 1211 Genève 23 Switzerland
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