In the 7th Century, Islamic militants defeated the superpowers of both the East and West, then seized Mesopotamia and the Levant and implemented a maximally austere version of Islamic law. The destabilizing effects of that massive military intervention led to a generations-long civil war between Sunni and Shi'a in Iraq and to the systematic persecution of non-Abrahamic religious minorities. It would take 200 years for the Middle East to recover -- and the superpowers that challenged Mohammad would never recover their pre-Islamic status.
Is that not what he meant?
Regardless of why the drugs may not be available, the suggestion that we should consider using a frankly ineffective method of execution, effectively punishing the prisoner for the penal system's supply chain difficulties, is mind-boggling. Even worse is the suggestion that we should be open to punishing prisoners with the explicit goal to pressure people, organizations, and countries which have chosen not to participate in executions.
There are several names for that line of thinking, and none of them are pretty. One of them is "ineffective", as one of the major supply issues is that European drug companies will not sell these drugs and I have an extremely hard time believing that the US even frankly torturing people to death would cause the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU) and the European Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe to be overturned.
"Let's be honest about what's going on here," Justice Samuel Alito interjected. "This court has held that the death penalty is constitutional."
In view of that, Alito asked, "Is it appropriate for the judiciary to countenance what amounts to a guerrilla war against the death penalty, which consists of efforts to make it impossible for the states to obtain drugs that could be used to carry out capital punishment with little, if any, pain?"
Justice Antonin Scalia echoed that sentiment, saying that the best anesthetics to use in executions have been rendered unavailable by the "abolitionist movement putting pressure on" the drug manufacturers.
Justice Anthony Kennedy, whose vote could be critical in the case, asked just one question: Is it relevant that the preferred drugs are not available because of opposition to the death penalty?
Extra kudos to Sotomayor for tearing the lawyer a new one in response to him dragging out "facts" about the effectiveness of the drugs in question that were contradicted by his sources.
Hat tip to , who do a fantastic job posting interesting stories in a way that is easily readable on G+.
Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.
The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.
Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.
Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).
Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.
Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.
The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.
The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".
Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.
One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.
It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.
The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.
Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.
Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.
Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication
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The source code is here: https://github.com/google/password-alert
The blog post about it is here: http://googleonlinesecurity.blogspot.com/2015/04/protect-your-google-account-with.html
It is possible to memorize all of Emily Post and still be a jerk. And that happens when you forget that manners are about making people more comfortable. Not about being correct.
CERN Building 40-3-B01 1211 Genève 23 Switzerland
- CERNPhD student, 2012 - presentWork on the upgrade for the CMS Level-1 trigger.
- CatalystsJava developer, 2012 - 2012Work on a anti-phishing mail server acting as a relay between customers on Austria's biggest platform for classified ads.
- Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of SciencesUndergrad working on the Trigger of the CMS Experiment, 2011 - 2012Development of a protocol buffer-based communications protocol on top of TCP/IP.
- University of Vienna2008 - 2011Teaching assistant for the Physics for Biologists lab course.
- Caritas Vienna2005 - 2008
- University of ViennaPhysics, 2012 - presentWork on upgrading parts of the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS Experiment. This involves development in VHDL as well as C++.
- University of ViennaPhysics, 2006 - 2012Emphasis on software in high energy physics with some courses taken in Computational Physics.
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