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Denise Case
Attends Kansas State University
Lived in Minnesota
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A Year in Space: Preparation for missions to Mars.  

In March 2015, American Astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko will begin collaborative investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). They will reside on the ISS for a year, which is twice as long as typical U.S. missions. These investigations are expected to yield beneficial knowledge on the medical, psychological and biomedical challenges faced by astronauts during long-duration spaceflight.

7 research areas:


Behavioral Health

Visual Impairment


Physical Performance


Human Factors


Thanks +Ciro Villa for sharing. 

#nasa   #twins   #spaceexploration   #stem #research
One year mission close to the beginning!  Watch the exciting trailer!
See a preview of TIME's unprecedented new series
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Denise Case

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Interactive journey that quite literally is beautiful internet 
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This is beautiful.  Not just because the question is so helpful, but because "adventure for solutions" is such a perfect way to describe the request. :)

#solutions  #comfort #adventure #friendship  
Are you looking for solutions, or comfort?

There may not be a more important question to ask someone who's not feeling his or her best. Offering solutions, my natural response, can come across as overbearing or manipulative when comfort is wanted. Conversely, comfort can seem distant or shallow to someone looking for solutions. 
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Michael J. Coffey's profile photoSabrina Beavers's profile photoPatrice Chalin's profile photoTristan Vogler's profile photo
+Bill Trowbridge
This is a good question in theory but in cases where one is somehow supposed to know (don't ask me how) it can make things worse.
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Denise Case

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The Missing Ocean on Mars.  Recent measurements indicate that  water once covered ~20% of the planet's surface. 13% of the original water remains in the polar ice caps while 87% has been lost to space. Curiosity found evidence that Mars may had water for 1.5 billion years - plenty of time for something interesting to happen. (It only took about 1 billion for simple-celled life to develop here on Earth.) :)

For decades, planetary scientists have suspected that ancient Mars was a much warmer, wetter environment than it is today, but estimates of just how much water Mars has lost since its formation vary widely. Now, new isotopic measurements by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center reveal that an ocean once covered approximately twenty percent of the Martian surface. This new picture of early Mars is considerably wetter than many previous estimates, raising the odds for the ancient habitability of the Red Planet.

NASA - Measuring Mar's Ancient Ocean

More videos and images at:

This research was presented in a paper entitled “Strong water isotopic anomalies in the Martian atmosphere: probing current and ancient reservoirs”, by G. VIllanueva et al., to appear online in Science on 5 March 2015.

- from Mars: The Planet that Lost an Ocean’s Worth of Water
European Southern Observatory

Thanks +NASA Goddard+Corina Marinescu , and others for sharing.

#NASA   #ESO #Mars  #stem#scienceeveryday
Chris Fraser's profile photoKenneth Harris's profile photoGene Bird's profile photoMichael Oneill's profile photo
+Denise Case Thank you, I can hardly wait to learn more. It is amazing how much we know and how much is left to learn.
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The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic.  An interesting glimpse into the human side and key events in our growing understanding of computation, memory, visual processing, neural nets, AI, and more. 

“None of us would think of publishing a paper without his corrections and approval,” McCulloch wrote. “[Pitts] was in no uncertain terms the genius of our group,” said Lettvin. “He was absolutely incomparable in the scholarship of chemistry, physics, of everything you could talk about history, botany, etc. When you asked him a question, you would get back a whole textbook … To him, the world was connected in a very complex and wonderful fashion.”

Pitts’ despair turned lethal. He began drinking heavily and pulled away from his friends. When he was offered his Ph.D., he refused to sign the paperwork. He set fire to his dissertation along with all of his notes and his papers. Years of work—important work that everyone in the community was eagerly awaiting— he burnt it all, priceless information reduced to entropy and ash. Wiesner offered Lettvin increased support for the lab if he could recover any bits of the dissertation. But it was all gone.

Principia Mathematica, Bertrand Russell and Alfred Whitehead

The Ego and the Id, Freud

A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity, McCulloch and Pitts

First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, von Neumann

What the Frog’s Eye Tells the Frog’s Brain, Lettivin, Maturana, McCulloch, Pitts

In celebration of scientists and #sciencesunday  +ScienceSunday 

#logic #computerscience #cs   #cybernetics   #computation  #turingmachine #brain  #neurophysiology #memory #ai  #ml #neuralnets #ouroboricloops

via the G+ Neuromporphic Engineering Community
Interesting article on McCulloch and Pitts - I had no idea of the back story on their work or personalities...
Walter Pitts was used to being bullied. He’d been born into a tough family in Prohibition-era Detroit, where his father, a boiler-maker,…
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A decade ago, Clive Thompson wrote a book review for the New York Times about a new biography of Norbert Weiner, which touches on aspects of this same story.

'Dark Hero of the Information Age': The Original Computer Geek
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Denise Case

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How well do you know Einstein? Short, interactive quiz that ranges from the basics of his most famous work to some obscure and surprising details of his life.

Thanks physicist +Sabine Hossenfelder​ for sharing.
How well do you know Einstein? Test your knowledge of the 20th century's most celebrated genius.
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Bob Lai's profile photoDenise Case's profile photoSatyr Icon's profile photo
Nice +Bob Lai - beats me. :)
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World fact book: incredibly detailed information by country

#gdp #population #economy #health #government #languages #labor #geography

Thanks +Kevin Clift​​ and +Nick Benik​​ for passing this on.
World Factbook
on +Android 

Redditor gray_dorian has put the CIA World Factbook onto Android.  Thanks to open government the CIA does not provide an API for the World Factbook (so that the data could be read programmatically) so the data had to be scraped via a zip file, then more recent data added from CSV files. A custom parser was created, the data cleaned and then the rationalised data was loaded into an SQLite database.

NO PERMISSIONS, NO TRACKERS, NO ADS. CIA World Factbook app does not spy on you!

This a FREE app to browse World Factbook, a guide prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for use by US Government officials.

Now, there are already a few similar apps on Play Store, what makes this app unique is:
- Designed for phones and tablets
- Speed, the app is super fast
- Only one click to see the country details
- Countries sorted by GDP by default, no longer Afghanistan is at the top place
- Tabbed interface to quickly switch between continents and categories
- Drawer menu to sort countries by any measurable indicator (GDP, Area, Population etc)
- Compare North vs South Korea or any other two countries side-by-side
- Browse through country flags in grid-mode
- See Guide for fields

Note: this application is not associated with the CIA

More here (Google Play):

The World Factbook 2013-14. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013:

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Denise Case's profile photoNick Benik's profile photoJohn Coppola's profile photoTohho 1972's profile photo
+Nick Benik​​ that all depends on how things are defined. all the interested paid on debt funnels to Germany somehow. zerohedge has a great chart on it. don't believe the propaganda there is only one or two countries that want the euro, that's Germany and France.
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Will you buy a lady a drink?  A beautiful and educational campaign from  

Thanks and +Chad Haney  for sharing. :)
Will you buy a lady a drink?
In many areas we take water for granted. However, in some parts of the world, it takes enormous effort to get water. Stella Artois and are working together so that 1 limited edition chalice equals 5 years worth of clean drinking water. I missed out on the design from Honduras but I purchased one of the designs from India and Ethiopia. So, will you buy a lady a drink?
Stella Artois is partnering with to help provide access to clean water for women in the developing world. Learn how you can help at
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Thanks for the re-share +Denise Case​
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Denise Case

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"I feel intensely alive." One of my favorite authors and scientists, Dr. Oliver Sacks, on learning his cancer is terminal.

Author of "The man who mistook his wife for a hat". :)

Neurologist Oliver Sacks on learning he has cancer:
Read our cover story on Sacks:
I am now face to face with dying. But I am not finished with living.
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Skunk Works claims continued progress on compact fusion.

Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works claims the ability to generate cheap energy from nuclear fusion with little waste or global warming is within its grasp.

This is the same Skunk Works created by the near-mythical Kelly Johnson, an aerospace engineer able to head teams that built the SR-71 Blackbird reconnaissance jet years before any other organization even thought Mach-3 flight was possible.

The Lockheed Martin project is designed to take advantage of the practice of rapid prototyping that the Skunk Works pioneered by building relatively small, easily improved incremental projects that lead to a finished product that actually works.

Currently Lockheed Martin is in the process of testing a magnetic confinement bottle, where the Skunk Works team has apparently made significant progress. In terms of how a fusion reactor would be created, the magnetic bottle is the primary hurdle.
If that's accomplished successfully most of the science and engineering is known. However, that doesn't mean that building the prototype fusion reactor is a done deal. Lockheed Martin is looking for industry partners to help develop the Compact Fusion reactor into a real product.



Lockheed Martin: Compact Fusion Research & Development


Nuclear fusion is the process by which the sun works. Our concept will mimic that process within a compact magnetic container and release energy in a controlled fashion to produce power we can use.

- from their website:

How did Skunk Works® get its name?

[EDIT] I couldn't find any other "new news" - this might be based on the same announcement that came out last October. 

The possibility holds enough benefit that it's worth watching. :)

#energy #innovation #compact #fusion #skunkworks  
Peter Zsurka's profile photoJesus Christ's profile photoابوسلطانة الرويلي's profile photoNick Benik's profile photo
Thanks for the reply. I am skeptical, but I definitely believe that it is possible. In other words, I want to believe. You said that others have built things while others were still saying "it's not possible". I agree. Arthur C. Clarke said, "The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into the impossible".
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What is gravity, really? Physicist +Brian Koberlein writes an interesting and accessible article on our understanding of gravity. 

"...we found gravity wasn’t a force at all...[it's] a warping of spacetime. Basically, mass tells space how to bend, and space tells mass how to move."

[emphasis mine]

#physics  #gravity #spacetime
Cradle to Grave

Gravity is perhaps the best known of the four fundamental forces. It’s also the one that’s easiest to understand. At a basic level, gravity is simply the mutual attraction between any two masses. It’s the force that lets the Sun hold the planets in their orbits, and the force that holds the Earth to you. The force is always attractive, and the strength of the force between two masses depends inversely on the square of their distances, making it an inverse square force. But gravity’s simplicity is just a veneer that hides a deeply subtle and complex phenomenon.

When Newton proposed his model of universal gravity, one criticism of the model was how gravity could act at a distance. How does the Moon “detect” the presence of Earth and “know” to be pulled in Earth’s direction? A few ideas were proposed, but never really panned out. Since Newton’s model was so incredibly accurate, the action-at-a-distance problem was largely swept under the rug. Regardless of how masses detected each other, Newton’s model let us calculate their motion. Another difficulty came to be known as the 3-body problem. Calculating the gravitational motion of any two masses was straight forward, but the motion of three or more masses was impossible to calculate exactly. The motion could be approximated to great precision, and was even used to discover Neptune, but an exact, general solution for three masses would never be found. Newton’s idea was simple, but it’s application was complex.

In the early 1900s, we found that gravity wasn’t a force at all. In Einstein’s model, gravity isn’t a force, but rather a warping of spacetime. Basically, mass tells space how to bend, and space tells mass how to move. General relativity isn’t just a mathematical trick to calculate the correct forces between objects, it makes unique predictions about the behavior of light and matter, which are different from the predictions of gravity as a force. Space really is curved, and as a result objects are deflected from a straight path in a way that looks like a force.

But despite its simple approximation as a force, and its beautifully subtle description as a property of spacetime, we’ve come to realize over the past century that we still don’t know what gravity actually is. That’s because both Newton’s and Einstein’s models of gravity are classical in nature. We now know that objects have quantum properties, with particle-like and wave-like behaviors.  When we try to apply quantum theory to gravity, things become complicated and confusing. In most quantum theory, quantum objects exist within a background framework of space and time. Since gravity is a property of spacetime itself, fully quantizing gravity would require a quantization of space and time. There are several models that attempt this, but none of them have yet achieved a fully quantum model.

Usually our current understanding of gravity is just fine. We can accurately describe the motions of stars and planets. Seemingly odd predictions such as black holes and the big bang have been confirmed by observation. Every experimental and observational test of general relativity has validated its accuracy. Large objects with strong gravity can be described just fine by classical gravity. For small objects with weak gravity we our approximate quantum gravity is good enough. The problem comes when we want to describe small objects with strong gravity, such as the earliest moments of the big bang.

Without a complete theory of quantum gravity, we won’t fully understand the earliest moment of the universe. We know from observation that the early observable universe was both very small and very dense. From general relativity this would imply that the universe began as a singularity. Most cosmologists don’t think the universe actually began as a singularity, but without quantum gravity we aren’t exactly sure. Even if we put the quantum aspects of gravity aside, there is still a part of gravity we don’t understand. Within general relativity it is possible to have a cosmological constant. Adding this constant to Einstein’s equations causes the universe to expand through dark energy, just as we observe. While general relativity allows for a cosmological constant, it doesn’t require one. The cosmological constant agrees with what we observe, but there are other proposed models for dark energy that agree as well (at least for now). If dark energy is really due to the cosmological constant, then the constant must be very close to zero, at about 10-122. Why would a constant be so incredibly close to zero? Why does it even exist when general relativity doesn’t require it?

We don’t know, and without that understanding, both the origin and fate of the universe remain mysteries.

Tomorrow: Electromagnetism was the first unified theory, combining the forces of magnets and charges. The result gave us a new understanding of light, and led us down a path toward a theory of everything.
We often speak of gravity as a force. More accurately it is a feature of spacetime. Even more accurately, we don't know what it is.
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Dhiraj Kumar's profile photoMathieu Aucher's profile photoReinaldo Medina's profile photoGeri Shopova's profile photo
Well said +Steve Barker! Many of us learn about Newton's apple and gravity at a pretty young age...and generally, it makes sense.  But understanding what it really is (e.g. a "feature of spacetime") seems much more challenging. :)
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Denise Case

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
Back to the Moon For Good - The New Space Race.  Beautiful, informative overview of our history on the moon and the plans and prize for getting back.  Highly recommended.

Google Lunar XPrize Website

Prize Deadline:  31 December 2016
Total prizes: $30 million

Congratulations! $6 million milestone prizes awarded to teams from US, India, Japan, and Germany:

Lunar Exploration History

#google   #lunarxprize  #apollo #spaceexploration #backtothemoon
The +Google Lunar XPRIZE race to the moon feels like science fiction, but it's real, and the race is on. #GLXP  
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Let's start the next Lunar XPRIZE.
> Telepresence controlled lunar working robots.
> Lunar materials processing.
> Lunar solar panel manufacturing.
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Have her in circles
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“The master in the art of living makes little distinction between his work and his play, his labor and his leisure, his mind and his body, his information and his recreation, his love and his religion. He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision of excellence at whatever he does, leaving others to decide whether he is working or playing. To him he's always doing both. ” ― James A. Michener
  • Consulting Engineer, present
  • Adjunct Asst. Professor, present
  • Kansas State University
    Graduate Student, present
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Minnesota - California - Kansas
The secret of life is two words: not always so :)
A Few Favorite Quotes

"A ship in harbor is safe. But that is not what ships are for." 
- Rear Admiral (and Computer Scientist) Grace Hopper

"Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down for many generations. But after observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up to it." 
- Gautama Buddha

"There should be no boundary to human endeavor."
- Stephen Hawking

"My undergraduate experience convinced me that I was not smart enough to be a physicist, and that computers were quite neat."
- Dennis Ritchie
  • Kansas State University
    PhD Candidate Computer Science, 2013 - present
  • Kansas State University
    MSE Software Engineering, 2013
  • University of Missouri–Columbia
    BS Chemical Engineering
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