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**Easy as ABC? Not quite!**

A brilliant mathematician named

**Shinichi Mochizuki**claims to have proved the famous "abc conjecture" in number theory. That's great! There's just one problem: his proof is about 500 pages long, and almost nobody understands it, so mathematicians can't tell if it's correct.

Luckily another mathematician named

**Go Yamashita**has just written a summary of the proof. That's great! There's just one problem: it's 294 pages long, and it looks very hard to understand.

I'm no expert on number theory, so my opinion doesn't really matter. What's hard for

*me*to understand may be easy for an expert!

But the most disturbing feature to me is that this new paper contains many theorems whose statements are

*over a page long*... with the proof being just "Follows from the definitions."

Of course, every true theorem follows from the definitions. But the proof usually says how.

It's common to omit detailed proofs when one is summarizing someone else's work. But even a sketchy argument would help us understand what's going on.

This is part of a strange pattern surrounding Mochizuki's work. There was a conference in Oxford in 2015 aimed at helping expert number theorists understand it. Many of them found it frustrating. Brian Conrad wrote:

*I don’t understand what caused the communication barrier that made it so difficult to answer questions in the final 2 days in a more illuminating manner. Certainly many of us had not read much in the papers before the meeting, but this does not explain the communication difficulties. Every time I would finally understand (as happened several times during the week) the intent of certain analogies or vague phrases that had previously mystified me (e.g., “dismantling scheme theory”), I still couldn’t see why those analogies and vague phrases were considered to be illuminating as written without being supplemented by more elaboration on the relevance to the context of the mathematical work.*

*At multiple times during the workshop we were shown lists of how many hours were invested by those who have already learned the theory and for how long person A has lectured on it to persons B and C. Such information shows admirable devotion and effort by those involved, but it is irrelevant to the evaluation and learning of mathematics. All of the arithmetic geometry experts in the audience have devoted countless hours to the study of difficult mathematical subjects, and I do not believe that any of us were ever guided or inspired by knowledge of hour-counts such as that. Nobody is convinced of the correctness of a proof by knowing how many hours have been devoted to explaining it to others; they are convinced by the force of ideas, not by the passage of time.*

It's all very strange. Maybe Mochizuki is just a lot smarter than than us, and we're like dogs trying to learn calculus. Experts say he did a lot of brilliant work

*before*his proof of the abc conjecture, so this is possible.

But, speaking as one dog to another, let me tell you what the

**abc conjecture**says. It's about this equation:

a + b = c

Looks simple, right? Here a, b and c are positive integers that are

**relatively prime**: they have no common factors except 1. If we let d be the product of the distinct prime factors of abc, the conjecture says that d is usually not much smaller than c.

More precisely, it says that if p > 1, there are only finitely many choices of relatively prime a,b,c with a + b = c and

d^p < c

It looks obscure when you first see it. It's famous because it has tons of consequences! It implies the Fermat–Catalan conjecture, the Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem, the Mordell conjecture, Vojta's conjecture (in dimension 1), the Erdős–Woods conjecture (except perhaps for a finitely many counterexamples)... blah blah blah... etcetera etcetera.

Let me just tell you the

**Fermat–Catalan conjecture**, to give you a taste of this stuff. In fact I'll just tell you one special case of that conjecture: there are at most finitely many solutions of

x^3 + y^4 = z^7

where x,y,z are relatively prime positive integers. The numbers 3,4,7 aren't very special - they could be lots of other things. But the Fermat–Catalan conjecture has some fine print in it that rules out certain choices of these exponents. In fact, if we rule out those exponents and also certain silly choices of x,y,z, it says there are only finitely many solutions even if we let the exponents vary! Here's a complete list of known solutions:

1^m + 2^3 = 3^2

2^5 + 7^2 = 3^4

13^2 + 7^3 = 2^9

2^7 + 17^3 = 71^2

3^5 + 11^4 = 122^2

33^8 + 1549034^2 = 15613^3

1414^3 + 2213459^2 = 65^7

9262^3 + 15312283^2 = 113^7

17^7 + 76271^3 = 21063928^2

43^8 + 96222^3 = 30042907^2

The first one is weird because m can be anything: we need some fine print to say this doesn't count as infinitely many solutions.

It's a long way from here to the

*very first paragraph*in the summary at the start of Yamashita's paper:

*By combining a relative anabelian result (relative Grothendieck Conjecture over sub-p-adic felds (Theorem B.1)) and "hidden endomorphism" diagram (EllCusp) (resp. "hidden endomorphism" diagram (BelyiCusp)), we show absolute anabelian results: the elliptic cuspidalisation (Theorem 3.7) (resp. Belyi cuspidalisation (Theorem 3.8)). By using Belyi cuspidalisations, we obtain an absolute mono-anabelian reconstruction of the NF-portion of the base field and the function field (resp. the base field) of hyperbolic curves of strictly Belyi type over sub-p-adic fields (Theorem 3.17) (resp. over mixed characteristic local fields (Corollary 3.19)). This gives us the philosophy of arithmetical holomorphicity and mono-analyticity (Section 3.5), and the theory of Kummer isomorphism from Frobenius-like objects to etale-like objects (cf. Remark 3.19.2).*

And it's a long way from this – which still sounds sorta like stuff I hear

mathematicians say – to the scary theorems that crawl out of their caves around page 200!

Check out Yamashita's paper and see what I mean:

http://www.kurims.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~gokun/DOCUMENTS/abc_ver6.pdf

You can read Brian Conrad's story of the Oxford conference here:

https://mathbabe.org/2015/12/15/notes-on-the-oxford-iut-workshop-by-brian-conrad/

You can learn more about the abc conjecture here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture

And you can learn more about Mochizuki here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinichi_Mochizuki

*He is the leader of and the main contributor to one of major parts of modern number theory: anabelian geometry. His contributions include his famous solution of the Grothendieck conjecture in anabelian geometry about hyperbolic curves over number fields. He initiated and developed several other fundamental developments: absolute anabelian geometry, mono-anabelian geometry, and combinatorial anabelian geometry. Among other theories, Mochizuki introduced and developed Hodge–Arakelov theory, p-adic Teichmüller theory, the theory of Frobenioids, and the etale theta-function theory.*

#bigness

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**Domain Models - Late Evaluation buys you better Composition**

In the last post we talked about early abstractions that allow you to design generic interfaces which can be polymorphic in the type parameter. Unless you abuse the type system of a permissive language like Scala, if you adhere to the principles of parametr...

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**Domain Models - Early Abstractions and Polymorphic Domain Behaviors**

Let's talk genericity or generic abstractions. In the last post we talked about an abstraction Money , which, BTW was not generic. But we expressed some of the operations on Money in terms of a Money[Monoid] , where Monoid is a generic algebraic structure. ...

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**Domain models, Algebraic laws and Unit tests**

In a domain model, when you have a domain element that forms an algebraic abstraction honoring certain laws, you can get rid of many of your explicitly written unit tests just by checking the laws. Of course you have to squint hard and discover the lawful a...

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Originally shared by ****

**The Machine Learning Master Algorithm**

This is a great, accessible talk on machine learning, the five major learning paradigms, and efforts to combine them all into one

*Master Algorithm*that uses the strengths of all five approaches to create the best, most flexible, and most effective learning machines.

**The five approaches are:**

- Identify and Fill Knowledge Gaps

- Neural Network Learning

- Evolutionary Learning

- Bayesian Learning

- Learning by Analogy

There are good examples of where each is used, what their strengths are, and discussion of how the core practitioners or tribes of each tend to think that their way is best. Thanks to whoever first shared this one here, I've had this in Watch Later for a while and can't remember who it was.

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Congratulations to Research Scientist David Silver (Google DeepMind) and Software Engineer Sylvain Gelly (Google Research, Europe), who received the Artificial Intelligence Journal’s 2016 Prominent Paper Award for their 2011 paper

Given at the IJCAI Conference in New York this week (http://goo.gl/GF8R7d, #IJCAI16 ), this award was given to recognize the impact of the research into augmented Monte-Carlo Tree Search algorithms (part of Sylvain's PhD thesis while at Université Paris Sud) that eventually led to the recent defeat of Go player Lee Se-dol by Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo.#

*“Monte-Carlo tree search and rapid action value estimation in computer Go”*(http://goo.gl/3Qq5L4).Given at the IJCAI Conference in New York this week (http://goo.gl/GF8R7d, #IJCAI16 ), this award was given to recognize the impact of the research into augmented Monte-Carlo Tree Search algorithms (part of Sylvain's PhD thesis while at Université Paris Sud) that eventually led to the recent defeat of Go player Lee Se-dol by Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo.#

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My pleasantly alliterative talk at the Salt Lake Data Science Meetup. Schwartz-Zippel-DeMillo-Lipton, algorithms with a bad gambling habit, near neighbor search and more !

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I found this blog post very useful, you might as well.

http://www.marekrei.com/blog/26-things-i-learned-in-the-deep-learning-summer-school/

http://www.marekrei.com/blog/26-things-i-learned-in-the-deep-learning-summer-school/

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**Critique of Paper by "Deep Learning Conspiracy" (Nature 521 p 436)**

Machine learning is the science of credit assignment. The machine learning community itself profits from proper credit assignment to its members. The inventor of an important method should get credit for inventing it. She may not always be the one who popularizes it. Then the popularizer should get credit for popularizing it (but not for inventing it). Relatively young research areas such as machine learning should adopt the honor code of mature fields such as mathematics: if you have a new theorem, but use a proof technique similar to somebody else's, you must make this very clear. If you "re-invent" something that was already known, and only later become aware of this, you must at least make it clear later.

As a case in point, let me now comment on a recent article in Nature (2015) about "deep learning" in artificial neural networks (NNs), by LeCun & Bengio & Hinton (LBH for short), three CIFAR-funded collaborators who call themselves the "deep learning conspiracy" (e.g., LeCun, 2015). They heavily cite each other. Unfortunately, however, they fail to credit the pioneers of the field, which originated half a century ago. All references below are taken from the recent deep learning overview (Schmidhuber, 2015), except for a few papers listed beneath this critique focusing on nine items.

1. LBH's survey does not even mention the father of deep learning, Alexey Grigorevich Ivakhnenko, who published the first general, working learning algorithms for deep networks (e.g., Ivakhnenko and Lapa, 1965). A paper from 1971 already described a deep learning net with 8 layers (Ivakhnenko, 1971), trained by a highly cited method still popular in the new millennium. Given a training set of input vectors with corresponding target output vectors, layers of additive and multiplicative neuron-like nodes are incrementally grown and trained by regression analysis, then pruned with the help of a separate validation set, where regularisation is used to weed out superfluous nodes. The numbers of layers and nodes per layer can be learned in problem-dependent fashion.

2. LBH discuss the importance and problems of gradient descent-based learning through backpropagation (BP), and cite their own papers on BP, plus a few others, but fail to mention BP's inventors. BP's continuous form was derived in the early 1960s (Bryson, 1961; Kelley, 1960; Bryson and Ho, 1969). Dreyfus (1962) published the elegant derivation of BP based on the chain rule only. BP's modern efficient version for discrete sparse networks (including FORTRAN code) was published by Linnainmaa (1970). Dreyfus (1973) used BP to change weights of controllers in proportion to such gradients. By 1980, automatic differentiation could derive BP for any differentiable graph (Speelpenning, 1980). Werbos (1982) published the first application of BP to NNs, extending thoughts in his 1974 thesis (cited by LBH), which did not have Linnainmaa's (1970) modern, efficient form of BP. BP for NNs on computers 10,000 times faster per Dollar than those of the 1960s can yield useful internal representations, as shown by Rumelhart et al. (1986), who also did not cite BP's inventors.

3. LBH claim: "Interest in deep feedforward networks [FNNs] was revived around 2006 (refs 31-34) by a group of researchers brought together by the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)." Here they refer exclusively to their own labs, which is misleading. For example, by 2006, many researchers had used deep nets of the Ivakhnenko type for decades. LBH also ignore earlier, closely related work funded by other sources, such as the deep hierarchical convolutional neural abstraction pyramid (e.g., Behnke, 2003b), which was trained to reconstruct images corrupted by structured noise, enforcing increasingly abstract image representations in deeper and deeper layers. (BTW, the term "Deep Learning" (the very title of LBH's paper) was introduced to Machine Learning by Dechter (1986), and to NNs by Aizenberg et al (2000), none of them cited by LBH.)

4. LBH point to their own work (since 2006) on unsupervised pre-training of deep FNNs prior to BP-based fine-tuning, but fail to clarify that this was very similar in spirit and justification to the much earlier successful work on unsupervised pre-training of deep recurrent NNs (RNNs) called neural history compressors (Schmidhuber, 1992b, 1993b). Such RNNs are even more general than FNNs. A first RNN uses unsupervised learning to predict its next input. Each higher level RNN tries to learn a compressed representation of the information in the RNN below, to minimise the description length (or negative log probability) of the data. The top RNN may then find it easy to classify the data by supervised learning. One can even "distill" a higher, slow RNN (the teacher) into a lower, fast RNN (the student), by forcing the latter to predict the hidden units of the former. Such systems could solve previously unsolvable very deep learning tasks, and started our long series of successful deep learning methods since the early 1990s (funded by Swiss SNF, German DFG, EU and others), long before 2006, although everybody had to wait for faster computers to make very deep learning commercially viable. LBH also ignore earlier FNNs that profit from unsupervised pre-training prior to BP-based fine-tuning (e.g., Maclin and Shavlik, 1995). They cite Bengio et al.'s post-2006 papers on unsupervised stacks of autoencoders, but omit the original work on this (Ballard, 1987).

5. LBH write that "unsupervised learning (refs 91-98) had a catalytic effect in reviving interest in deep learning, but has since been overshadowed by the successes of purely supervised learning." Again they almost exclusively cite post-2005 papers co-authored by themselves. By 2005, however, this transition from unsupervised to supervised learning was an old hat, because back in the 1990s, our unsupervised RNN-based history compressors (see above) were largely phased out by our purely supervised Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) RNNs, now widely used in industry and academia for processing sequences such as speech and video. Around 2010, history repeated itself, as unsupervised FNNs were largely replaced by purely supervised FNNs, after our plain GPU-based deep FNN (Ciresan et al., 2010) trained by BP with pattern distortions (Baird, 1990) set a new record on the famous MNIST handwritten digit dataset, suggesting that advances in exploiting modern computing hardware were more important than advances in algorithms. While LBH mention the significance of fast GPU-based NN implementations, they fail to cite the originators of this approach (Oh and Jung, 2004).

6. In the context of convolutional neural networks (ConvNets), LBH mention pooling, but not its pioneer (Weng, 1992), who replaced Fukushima's (1979) spatial averaging by max-pooling, today widely used by many, including LBH, who write: "ConvNets were largely forsaken by the mainstream computer-vision and machine-learning communities until the ImageNet competition in 2012," citing Hinton's 2012 paper (Krizhevsky et al., 2012). This is misleading. Earlier, committees of max-pooling ConvNets were accelerated on GPU (Ciresan et al., 2011a), and used to achieve the first superhuman visual pattern recognition in a controlled machine learning competition, namely, the highly visible IJCNN 2011 traffic sign recognition contest in Silicon Valley (relevant for self-driving cars). The system was twice better than humans, and three times better than the nearest non-human competitor (co-authored by LeCun of LBH). It also broke several other machine learning records, and surely was not "forsaken" by the machine-learning community. In fact, the later system (Krizhevsky et al. 2012) was very similar to the earlier 2011 system. Here one must also mention that the first official international contests won with the help of ConvNets actually date back to 2009 (three TRECVID competitions) - compare Ji et al. (2013). A GPU-based max-pooling ConvNet committee also was the first deep learner to win a contest on visual object discovery in large images, namely, the ICPR 2012 Contest on Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histological Images (Ciresan et al., 2013). A similar system was the first deep learning FNN to win a pure image segmentation contest (Ciresan et al., 2012a), namely, the ISBI 2012 Segmentation of Neuronal Structures in EM Stacks Challenge.

7. LBH discuss their FNN-based speech recognition successes in 2009 and 2012, but fail to mention that deep LSTM RNNs had outperformed traditional speech recognizers on certain tasks already in 2007 (Fernández et al., 2007) (and traditional connected handwriting recognisers by 2009), and that today's speech recognition conferences are dominated by (LSTM) RNNs, not by FNNs of 2009 etc. While LBH cite work co-authored by Hinton on LSTM RNNs with several LSTM layers, this approach was pioneered much earlier (e.g., Fernandez et al., 2007).

8. LBH mention recent proposals such as "memory networks" and the somewhat misnamed "Neural Turing Machines" (which do not have an unlimited number of memory cells like real Turing machines), but ignore very similar proposals of the early 1990s, on neural stack machines, fast weight networks, self-referential RNNs that can address and rapidly modify their own weights during runtime, etc (e.g., AMAmemory 2015). They write that "Neural Turing machines can be taught algorithms," as if this was something new, although LSTM RNNs were taught algorithms many years earlier, even entire learning algorithms (e.g., Hochreiter et al., 2001b).

9. In their outlook, LBH mention "RNNs that use reinforcement learning to decide where to look" but not that they were introduced a quarter-century ago (Schmidhuber & Huber, 1991). Compare the more recent Compressed NN Search for large attention-directing RNNs (Koutnik et al., 2013).

One more little quibble: While LBH suggest that "the earliest days of pattern recognition" date back to the 1950s, the cited methods are actually very similar to linear regressors of the early 1800s, by Gauss and Legendre. Gauss famously used such techniques to recognize predictive patterns in observations of the asteroid Ceres.

LBH may be backed by the best PR machines of the Western world (Google hired Hinton; Facebook hired LeCun). In the long run, however, historic scientific facts (as evident from the published record) will be stronger than any PR. There is a long tradition of insights into deep learning, and the community as a whole will benefit from appreciating the historical foundations.

The contents of this critique may be used (also verbatim) for educational and non-commercial purposes, including articles for Wikipedia and similar sites.

**References not yet in the survey**(Schmidhuber, 2015):

Y. LeCun, Y. Bengio, G. Hinton (2015). Deep Learning. Nature 521, 436-444. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v521/n7553/full/nature14539.html

Y. LeCun (2015). IEEE Spectrum Interview by L. Gomes, Feb 2015: http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/artificial-intelligence/facebook-ai-director-yann-lecun-on-deep-learning

R. Dechter (1986). Learning while searching in constraint-satisfaction problems. University of California, Computer Science Department, Cognitive Systems Laboratory. First paper to introduce the term "Deep Learning" to Machine Learning.

I. Aizenberg, N.N. Aizenberg, and J. P.L. Vandewalle (2000). Multi-Valued and Universal Binary Neurons: Theory, Learning and Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. First paper to introduce the term "Deep Learning" to Neural Networks. Compare a popular G+ post on this: https://plus.google.com/100849856540000067209/posts/7N6z251w2Wd?pid=6127540521703625346&oid=100849856540000067209.

J. Schmidhuber (2015). Deep learning in neural networks: An overview. Neural Networks, 61, 85-117. Preprint: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.7828

AMAmemory (2015): Answer at reddit AMA (Ask Me Anything) on "memory networks" etc (with references): http://www.reddit.com/r/MachineLearning/comments/2xcyrl/i_am_j%C3%BCrgen_schmidhuber_ama/cp0q12t

#machinelearning

#artificialintelligence

#computervision

#deeplearning

Link: http://people.idsia.ch/~juergen/deep-learning-conspiracy.html

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**Baking a π can teach you a bit of Parametricity**

Even though I got my copy of Prof. Eugenia Cheng's awesome How to Bake π a couple of weeks back, I started reading it only over this weekend. I am only on page 19 enjoying all the stuff regarding cookies that Prof. Cheng is using to explain abstraction. Thi...

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