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David Wiley
Works at Lumen Learning
Attended Brigham Young University
Lives in Pleasant Grove, UT
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David Wiley

commented on a post on Blogger.
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Phil, great story. And zero surprise if you understand the workings of the market.

Printed books are things a person can own and to which the First Sale doctrine applies:

"The first-sale doctrine creates a basic exception to the copyright holder's distribution right. Once the work is lawfully sold or even transferred gratuitously, the copyright owner's interest in the material object in which the copyrighted work is embodied is exhausted. The owner of the material object can then dispose of it as he sees fit. Thus, one who buys a copy of a book is entitled to resell it, rent it, give it away, or destroy it. However, the owner of the copy of the book will not be able to make new copies of the book because the first-sale doctrine does not limit copyright owner's reproduction right. The rationale of the doctrine is to prevent the copyright owner from restraining the free alienability of goods. Without the doctrine, a possessor of a copy of a copyrighted work would have to negotiate with the copyright owner every time he wished to dispose of his copy. After the initial transfer of ownership of a legal copy of a copyrighted work, the first-sale doctrine exhausts copyright holder's right to control how ownership of that copy can be disposed of. For this reason, this doctrine is also referred to as the "exhaustion rule." (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-sale_doctrine)

Publishers only control the price the initial sale of a printed book. When the new owner goes to sell it back, or rent it, or dispose of it in any other way, the new owner determines the pricing - not the publisher.

However, in digital land things are different. Publishers have worked hard to establish a licensing norm and copyright regime that insures that you never own any digital products - you simply license access to them. When the semester is over, there is nothing you own that you can resell to someone else - your password just stops working or your book deletes itself from your device, etc. (Some publishers provide "forever access," but this is not ownership and does not enable secondary markets.)

By waging an active war on ownership of private property in the digital resources space, publishers insure there is no First Sale, which prevents any secondary market from emerging. This allows publishers to control the pricing of each and every transaction on digital, which guarantees that prices on commercial digital materials will always be higher than the prices on used physical materials (which includes rentals). Because in digital land, there is no "used."

In terms of cost, the following relationships will generally be true:

printed commercial materials (new) > digital commercial materials > printed commercial materials (used) > OER

 
Chegg, which is in the midst of a dramatic change in their business model by moving from textbook rentals to digital student services, got slammed last week in the stock market. After reporting mixed
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I agree with your conclusion about general relationships among new, digital, used, and OER materials, David. But to me, it brings up a larger question. If OER is cheaper than all the alternatives, why isn't it used more? There are quite a few articles published about usability concerns (by faculty) and many other issues that add implicit costs to the use of OER. But the bottom line is that OER are still a lot cheaper than the alternatives, and not that much different, if at all, in terms of student satisfaction with them. To me, the central problem is that faculty choose the texts, and students are tagged with the economic consequences. Faculty like texts with lots of aids and other features, by and large, because they make the teaching process easier. If institutions were required to include the costs of texts in tuition fees, they would have a large incentive to adopt OER because of cost savings to the institution. They could then also implement changes to teaching expectations (e.g., more time to prepare ancillary teaching material) that would help faculty consider lower cost, equally-satisfactory OER for their courses.
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David Wiley

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Will these GEMs be openly licensed? Will they provide an open foundation / infrastructure for people to build new educational experiences or innovations upon? Or will they licensed encumbered in a way that will make them difficult or expensive for people to build on?
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David Wiley hung out with 3 people. <a class='ot-hashtag' href='https://plus.google.com/s/%23hangoutsonair'>#hangoutsonair</a>David Blake, Richard Culatta, and Todd Manwaring
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David Wiley hung out. <a class='ot-hashtag' href='https://plus.google.com/s/%23hangoutsonair'>#hangoutsonair</a>
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David Wiley

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Thanks!
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David Wiley

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This functionality was first available on Degreed.com, and their implementation is even better than LinkedIn's.
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Glad it helped, +John Graves. The trick is typing one letter at a time and picking from the drop down menu. It will help also when you add your courses.
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In his circles
169 people
Have him in circles
3,126 people
Jim Groom's profile photo
Ben Parker's profile photo
Kriti S's profile photo
Marcus Specht's profile photo
Alexandre Tomáz's profile photo
Wolfgang Neuhaus's profile photo
Heping Hao's profile photo
ANWER AL GDEMY's profile photo
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Work
Occupation
Co-founder and Chief Academic Officer
Skills
Reducing cost and improving the quality of education
Employment
  • Lumen Learning
    Co-founder and Chief Academic Officer, 2013 - present
  • Brigham Young University
    Associate Professor, 2008 - 2013
  • Utah State University
    Associate Professor, 2001 - 2008
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
Pleasant Grove, UT
Previously
Barboursville, WV - Nagasaki, Japan - Barboursville, West Viriginia - Logan, Utah - Pleasant Grove, Utah - Heerlen, Netherlands
Story
Tagline
increasing access to educational opportunity
Introduction
Education
  • Brigham Young University
  • Marshall University
  • West Virginia University
  • Carnegie Mellon University
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Apps with Google+ Sign-in
  • Dragon Pet
  • Hexic2048
  • Pixel Gun 3D
  • Monster Legends
  • KungFuPet
  • DragonCity
  • Angry Birds Under Pigstruction
  • Slugterra:Slug it Out!
Public - a year ago
reviewed a year ago
Super friendly. Their 3D imaging and printing process for crowns is very cool.
Public - a year ago
reviewed a year ago
2 reviews
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