This will be very interesting to musicians and possibly incomprehensible to everyone else. Adam Neely is discussing how musicians trained on classical versus jazz or rock perceive rhythm differently. I find it fascinating since I always thought that jazz/rock musicians just had a completely supernatural ability to parse complex rhythms, and I simply have none of the requisite musicianship skills.
But Neely is showing something much more subtle: all the types of music are just as aware of rhythm, but jazz/rock music (and really, all types of music derived from West African drum music) requires a very strong awareness of phase locking (i.e., that everyone not only be at a shared tempo, but in the same phase), because the instruments have a much sharper attack and you'll really hear phase errors. On the other hand, classical instruments have a much softer attack, which means phase locking doesn't matter as much, but instead highly non-metronomic rhythms are common and a core part of the music.
Which is totally true: when I'm playing the piano, if you put a metronome next to me it would instantly get ludicrously out of sync. Even within a single measure, it's common for the tempo to shift as part of the emphasis and phrasing. But contrarily, if you play a rhythm next to me, I can't automatically sync into it the way all my more modern musician friends do.
Neely provides a lot more explanation and detail, and a bunch of examples that really highlight it. These are two completely different schools of music, and it's the influence of drums – specifically, West African drumming – that makes the difference.