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Dale Modisette
Worked at Host of The Helping Wiccan
Lives in Livingston, Texas
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Livingston, Texas
Previously
Channelview, Texas - Houston, Texas - Livingston, Texas - Beaumont, Texas - Nacogdoches, Texas - Baytown, Texas - La Porte, Texas
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281-301-5326
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To be or not to be is not the "?" but the answer!
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Green Party (owner)

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I'm 6'7" 183 lbs (was 265 lbs 4 years ago) hazel eye's w/ a blue ring around them when happy.


I've been a Wiccan for over 18 years. 

Well I've lived 42 years and lived in 104 places and had 101 jobs (out of them 5 were my own company's : Computer repair, Wholesale coffee, Mobile detailing business from cars, yachts as well as personal aircrafts, Lawn care service and Web Design. From the time I was 10 years old  till age 13 I lived at Boys and Girl Harbor in La porte, Texas  I'm human again. Of all my family throughout history I was the first person to ever graduate high school. I went  3 different colleges/universities starting with  San jacinto college North,  Kingwood College; now known as _Lone Star College_ after 2007 and last was Stephen F. Austin State University. I've been on disability for the past 3 years and in that time I have read/listen to just over 750 book, I have been working on designing sustainable village just for starters but I'm hoping once thing are more clear in my mind I will once again be a part of the the world at large.  This will not be my last move or my last business for I have way to much stuff to do before I am reincarnated and have to start again. Hell it be my luck I have to go through multiple reincarnation before I'm human again.
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Favorite Books, Movies, Music, Tv Shows, Food, Podcast, Anime, Games and Websites
I have read/listen to 750 books since 2010, now only I knew how to write well I'd have one hell of book review blog.I know I need a ghostwriter for my reviews, hmmmmmm someone who like to write but does like to read and like to work for only $1 a review. (evil grin)

*2010 : 80 books*
http://www.goodreads.com/review/list/4526526-dale-modisette?utf8=%E2%9C%93&utf8=%E2%9C%93&read_at=2010&view=covers&per_page=30

*2011 : 91 books*
http://www.goodreads.com/review/list/4526526-dale-modisette?utf8=%E2%9C%93&read_at=2011&view=covers&per_page=30

*2012 : 196 books*
http://www.goodreads.com/user_challenges/326517

*2013 : 185 books*
http://www.goodreads.com/user_challenges/589635


I loved the book, I gave it 5 stars and wish I could've given it more. To me this series is one of my 6 favorite heroine series.*

1. Jane Yellowrock series by Faith Hunter
2. Mercy Thompson series by Patricia Briggs
3. Elemental Assassin series by Jennifer Estep
4. Anita Blake, Vampire Hunter series by Laurell K. Hamilton
5. Kitty Norville series by Carrie Vaughn
6. Kate Daniels series by Ilona Andrews

(B) The Game, Matrix, A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, The Craft, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Harry Potter (all of them), Life is Beautiful, Grease 2, The Notebook, Dr. Horrible Act-1-2-3, Kung Fu Panda, Sneakers, The Game, The.Transformers-The.Movie (1986)

(C) Enya, Mozart, NIN (Pretty Hate Machine), Peal Jam (Black CD) Blue Grass,The Ting Tings, Lady Sovereign, Miley Cyrus, Dar Williams, Avril Lavigne, 4minute 

(D) Fried Chicken, Homemade Biscuits, Pot Roast, homemade Apple pie, Ice cream, Mexican

(E) (Podcast) Security Now, Lance & Graal Pagan pod cast, CoffeeGeek and Celtic Myth Podshow

(F) (TV Show) 
Angel, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Blade, Eureka, Stargate SG-1, Battlestar Galactica, Charmed, The West Wing, Smallville, Falling Skies, Commander in Chief, The Sopranos, Pretty Little Liars, Stargate Atlantis, True Blood (HBO), Big Love (HBO), Being Human US, Bones, Teen Wolf, Castle, Chuck, Fairly Legal, Necessary Roughness, Hellcats, Hells Kitchen, House, Hung, Leverage, Royal Pains, NCIS, Merlin, Nikita, Sanctuary US, Stargate Universe, Supernatural, The Big Bang Theory, The Colbert Report, The Daily Show, The Gates, The Vampire Diaries, Top Gear UK, Warehouse 13, The Arrow, 

(G) (Anime)
1. Bamboo Blade
2. Bleach
3. Blood +
4. Claymore
5. Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion
6. Crest of the Stars
7. Familiar of Zero
8. Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood
9. Initial D
10. Log Horizon
11. Naruto Shippuden
12. Psycho-Pass
13. Soul Eater
14. Sword Art Online

(I) (Games) MineCraft, Bejeweled Twist,Magic: The Gathering and AD&D 2nd 
 
                          

Bragging rights
I have moved 104 times and have had 101 jobs, that said I did move 35 time before I got out of high school
Work
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Consultant
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  • Host of The Helping Wiccan
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Male
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Friends, Networking
Other names
LordShrill, Lord Shrill, Damntion, Dartanyan Modisette

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Girls Eating Popsicles
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Dale Modisette
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Video recommendations  - 
 
Uploaded on Mar 30, 2009
From Eugene, Oregon, on Saturday January 31st, 2009. Featuring dance by Kelly Miller-Lopez of Woodland and Ali Armstrong and Lila McDaniel of Lumminessah. Music produced by Emilio and Kelly Miller-Lopez, invocation poetry written by Emilio Miller-Lopez.
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Dale Modisette

Solar power  - 
 
Cheap solar cells made from shrimp shells
February 18, 2015 | University of Queen Mary London
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150218191724.htm

Summary:
Researchers have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

The materials chitin and chitosan found in the shells are abundant and significantly cheaper to produce than the expensive metals such as ruthenium, which is similar to platinum, that are currently used in making nanostructured solar-cells.

Currently the efficiency of solar cells made with these biomass-derived materials is low but if it can be improved they could be placed in everything from wearable chargers for tablets, phones and smart watches, to semi-transparent films over window.
Researchers, from QMUL’s School of Engineering and Materials Science, used a process known as hydrothermal carbonization to create the carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from the widely and cheaply available chemicals found in crustacean shells. They then coat standard zinc oxide nanorods with the CQDs to make the solar cells.

Dr Joe Briscoe, one of the researchers on the project, said: “This could be a great new way to make these versatile, quick and easy to produce solar cells from readily available, sustainable materials. Once we've improved their efficiency they could be used anywhere that solar cells are used now, particularly to charge the kinds of devices people carry with them every day.
Professor Magdalena Titirici, Professor of Sustainable Materials Technology at QMUL, said: “New techniques mean that we can produce exciting new materials from organic by-products that are already easily available. Sustainable materials can be both high-tech and low-cost.”

“We've also used biomass, in that case algae, to make the kinds of supercapacitors that can be used to store power in consumer electronics, in defibrillators and for energy recovery in vehicles.”
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owner

Notes & Ideas  - 
 
Cheap solar cells made from shrimp shells
February 18, 2015 | University of Queen Mary London
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150218191724.htm

Summary:
Researchers have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

The materials chitin and chitosan found in the shells are abundant and significantly cheaper to produce than the expensive metals such as ruthenium, which is similar to platinum, that are currently used in making nanostructured solar-cells.

Currently the efficiency of solar cells made with these biomass-derived materials is low but if it can be improved they could be placed in everything from wearable chargers for tablets, phones and smart watches, to semi-transparent films over window.
Researchers, from QMUL’s School of Engineering and Materials Science, used a process known as hydrothermal carbonization to create the carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from the widely and cheaply available chemicals found in crustacean shells. They then coat standard zinc oxide nanorods with the CQDs to make the solar cells.

Dr Joe Briscoe, one of the researchers on the project, said: “This could be a great new way to make these versatile, quick and easy to produce solar cells from readily available, sustainable materials. Once we've improved their efficiency they could be used anywhere that solar cells are used now, particularly to charge the kinds of devices people carry with them every day.
Professor Magdalena Titirici, Professor of Sustainable Materials Technology at QMUL, said: “New techniques mean that we can produce exciting new materials from organic by-products that are already easily available. Sustainable materials can be both high-tech and low-cost.”

“We've also used biomass, in that case algae, to make the kinds of supercapacitors that can be used to store power in consumer electronics, in defibrillators and for energy recovery in vehicles.”
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Published on Apr 4, 2015
In which John Green teaches you about the end of World History, and the end of the world as we know it, kind of. For the last hundred years or so, it seemed that one important ingredient for running an economically successful country was a western-style democratic government. All evidence pointed to the idea that capitalist representative democracies made for the best economic outcomes. It turns out that isn't the only way to succeed. In the last 40 years or so, authoritarian capitalism as it's practiced in places like China and Singapore has been working really, really well. John is going to look at these systems and talk about why they work, and he's even going to make a few predictions about the future. Also, thanks for watching this series. It has been amazingly fun to create, and we appreciate all of you.

Citation 1: John Micklethwait & Adrian Woolridge. The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State. Penguin, New York 2014 p. 68
Citation 2: Han Fook Kwang, ed., Lee Kuan Yew: The Man and His Ideas. Times Edition: 1997 p194
Citation 3: Quoted in Micklethwait & Woolridge, p155
Citation 4: Micklethwait & Woolridge, p159

Crash Course is now on Patreon! You can support us directly (and, for the next month, have your contributions matched by Patreon!) by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

TO: Noura M. AlMohaimeed
FROM: Bodour K. AlGhamdi

Happy Birthday to my easily excitable friend and companion, Noura.

TO: Hank & John Green
FROM: Owain Blackwood

MESSAGE: Thanks a billion for helping me get into medical school!

Thank you so much to all of our awesome supporters for their contributions to help make Crash Course possible and freely available for everyone forever:

Sam Caldwell
Sam Caldwell, again
www.justplainsomething.com
Leanne Gover
Moti Lieberman
Julie Anne Mathieu
Jessica Baker
Teodora Miclaus
Christopher Keelty
Anthony "Fishbot Engineer" M.
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Published on Apr 22, 2015
As the world moves to become more environmentally friendly, some countries outshine others. Which country is the most eco-friendly?

Read More:
The 2014 Environmental Performance Index 
http://epi.yale.edu/about

Sweden ‘Most Sustainable Country in the World’
http://www.environmentalleader.com/2013/08/19/sweden-most-sustainable-country-in-the-world/
“Sweden is the most sustainable country in the world, a ranking it earned for its use of renewable energy sources and low carbon dioxide emissions, as well as social and governance practices such as labor participation, education and institutional framework, according to a report by sustainability investment firm Robecosam.”

The World's 5 Most Environmentally Friendly Countries
http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/01/19/the-worlds-5-most-environmentally-friendly-countri.aspx
“The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD, maintains the ‘Better Life Index,’ an interactive tool that enables a user to compare well-being among the 34 OECD member countries, as well as OECD partners Russia and Brazil.”

Terrestrial protected areas (% of total land area) in Costa Rica
http://www.tradingeconomics.com/costa-rica/terrestrial-protected-areas-percent-of-total-land-area-wb-data.html
“Terrestrial protected areas in Costa Rica was last measured at 26.94 in 2012, according to the World Bank.”
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Dale Modisette

Discussion  - 
 
Girls Eating Popsicles
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Now this is the ultimate happy meal. Though I don't know what think about nutmeg in a cheeseburger.

Published on Apr 24, 2015
Very easy and cute idea to enjoy your lunch or snack :D

I used 100% beef, avocado, and cheese, but the filling can be your choice!!!
__________________________________________
Rilakkuma Avocado Cheeseburger

Difficulty: Patience
Time: 30min
Number of servings: 2

Ingredients:
250g (8.8oz.) ground beef 
1 sliced avocado
2 sliced cheddar cheese
2 sliced onions
2 sliced tomatoes
lettuce
1 tsp. salt
black pepper
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
hamburger buns
frankfurter (sausage)
sliced cheese
Nori seaweed sheet

Directions:
1. Put ground beef, salt, pepper, and nutmeg in a bowl, and mix well by hand until all ingredients are combined and smooth. Divide it into half, then form each into flat and round shape, little bit larger than the hamburger buns (because they shrink when they are cooked). In a frying pan or on a BBQ grill, cook the hamburger steaks and sliced onions to desired doneness.
2. Slice the hamburger buns and toast them in a frying pan or a BBQ grill. Place lettuce, sliced tomato, hamburger steak, sliced cheddar cheese, sliced onion, and avocado between the hamburger buns.
3. Make Rilakkuma's ears with boiled sausage and sliced cheese, then attach them with toothpicks. Make eyes, nose, and mouth with sliced cheese and Nori sheet.

It is slightly salty, so it is up to you to eat with ketchup!

レシピ(日本語)
http://cooklabo.blogspot.jp/
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Dale Modisette

Dossier Energy  - 
 
Cheap solar cells made from shrimp shells
February 18, 2015 | University of Queen Mary London
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150218191724.htm

Summary:
Researchers have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

The materials chitin and chitosan found in the shells are abundant and significantly cheaper to produce than the expensive metals such as ruthenium, which is similar to platinum, that are currently used in making nanostructured solar-cells.

Currently the efficiency of solar cells made with these biomass-derived materials is low but if it can be improved they could be placed in everything from wearable chargers for tablets, phones and smart watches, to semi-transparent films over window.
Researchers, from QMUL’s School of Engineering and Materials Science, used a process known as hydrothermal carbonization to create the carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from the widely and cheaply available chemicals found in crustacean shells. They then coat standard zinc oxide nanorods with the CQDs to make the solar cells.

Dr Joe Briscoe, one of the researchers on the project, said: “This could be a great new way to make these versatile, quick and easy to produce solar cells from readily available, sustainable materials. Once we've improved their efficiency they could be used anywhere that solar cells are used now, particularly to charge the kinds of devices people carry with them every day.
Professor Magdalena Titirici, Professor of Sustainable Materials Technology at QMUL, said: “New techniques mean that we can produce exciting new materials from organic by-products that are already easily available. Sustainable materials can be both high-tech and low-cost.”

“We've also used biomass, in that case algae, to make the kinds of supercapacitors that can be used to store power in consumer electronics, in defibrillators and for energy recovery in vehicles.”
1
Add a comment...

Dale Modisette

Shared publicly  - 
 
Cheap solar cells made from shrimp shells
February 18, 2015 | University of Queen Mary London
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150218191724.htm

Summary:
Researchers have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have successfully created electricity-generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first time.

The materials chitin and chitosan found in the shells are abundant and significantly cheaper to produce than the expensive metals such as ruthenium, which is similar to platinum, that are currently used in making nanostructured solar-cells.

Currently the efficiency of solar cells made with these biomass-derived materials is low but if it can be improved they could be placed in everything from wearable chargers for tablets, phones and smart watches, to semi-transparent films over window.
Researchers, from QMUL’s School of Engineering and Materials Science, used a process known as hydrothermal carbonization to create the carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from the widely and cheaply available chemicals found in crustacean shells. They then coat standard zinc oxide nanorods with the CQDs to make the solar cells.

Dr Joe Briscoe, one of the researchers on the project, said: “This could be a great new way to make these versatile, quick and easy to produce solar cells from readily available, sustainable materials. Once we've improved their efficiency they could be used anywhere that solar cells are used now, particularly to charge the kinds of devices people carry with them every day.
Professor Magdalena Titirici, Professor of Sustainable Materials Technology at QMUL, said: “New techniques mean that we can produce exciting new materials from organic by-products that are already easily available. Sustainable materials can be both high-tech and low-cost.”

“We've also used biomass, in that case algae, to make the kinds of supercapacitors that can be used to store power in consumer electronics, in defibrillators and for energy recovery in vehicles.”
1
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Published on Apr 23, 2015
This week, Stan Muller launches the Crash Course Intellectual Property mini-series. So, what is intellectual property, and why are we teaching it? Well, intellectual property is about ideas and their ownership, and it's basically about the rights of creators to make money from their work. Intellectual property is so pervasive in today's world, we thought you ought to know a little bit about it. We're going to discuss the three major elements of IP: Copyright, Patents, and Trademarks. 

ALSO, A DISCLAIMER: 
he views expressed in this video do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Copyright Office, the Library of Congress, or the United States Government.
The information in this video is distributed on "As Is" basis, without warranty. While precaution has been taken in the preparation of the video, the author shall not have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by any information contained in the work.
This video is intended for educational purposes only and is not intended to be, nor should it be construed as, legal advice. Intellectual property law is notoriously fact specific, and this video (or any other single resource) cannot substitute for expert guidance from qualified legal counsel. To obtain legal guidance relevant to your particular circumstances, you should consult a qualified lawyer properly licensed in your jurisdiction. You can contact your local bar association for assistance in finding such a lawyer in your area. 

The Magic 8 Ball is a registered Trademark of Mattel

Citation 1: Brand, Stewart. Quote from speech given at first Hackers' Conference, 1984
Citation 2: Plato, Phaedrus. 390 BC p. 157
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Dale Modisette

Shared publicly  - 
 
Bottling water without scrutiny
COMPANIES TAPPING SPRINGS AND AQUIFERS IN CALIFORNIA WITH LITTLE OVERSIGHT
by Ian James | Photos by Jay Calderon, The Desert Sun | March 8, 2015
http://www.desertsun.com/story/news/2015/03/05/bottling-water-california-drought/24389417/

Miles from the nearest paved road in the San Bernardino National Forest, two sounds fill a rocky canyon: a babbling stream and the hissing of water flowing through a stainless steel pipe.

From wells that tap into springs high on the mountainside, water gushes down through the pipe to a roadside tank. From there, it is transferred to tanker trucks, hauled to a bottling plant and sold as Arrowhead 100% Mountain Spring Water.

Nestle Waters North America holds a longstanding right to use this water from the national forest near San Bernardino. But the U.S. Forest Service hasn't been keeping an eye on whether the taking of water is harming Strawberry Creek and the wildlife that depends on it. In fact, Nestle's permit to transport water across the national forest expired in 1988. It hasn't been reviewed since, and the Forest Service hasn't examined the ecological effects of drawing tens of millions of gallons each year from the springs.

Even with California deep in drought, the federal agency hasn't assessed the impacts of the bottled water business on springs and streams in two watersheds that sustain sensitive habitats in the national forest. The lack of oversight is symptomatic of a Forest Service limited by tight budgets and focused on other issues, and of a regulatory system in California that allows the bottled water industry to operate with little independent tracking of the potential toll on the environment.

In an investigation of the industry's water footprint in the San Bernardino National Forest and other parts of California, The Desert Sun found that:

No state agency is tracking exactly how much water is used by all of the bottled water plants in California, or monitoring the effects on water supplies and ecosystems statewide. The California Department of Public Health regulates 108 bottled water plants in the state, collecting information on water quality and the sources tapped. But the agency says it does not require companies to report how much water they use.
That information, when collected piecemeal by state or local agencies, often isn't easily accessible to the public. In some cases, the amounts of water used are considered confidential and not publicly released.

Even as Nestle Waters has been submitting required reports on its water use, the Forest Service has not been closely tracking the amounts of water leaving the San Bernardino National Forest and has not assessed the impacts on the environment.

While the Forest Service has allowed Nestle to keep using an expired permit for nearly three decades, the agency has cracked down on other water users in the national forest. Several years ago, for instance, dozens of cabin owners were required to stop drawing water from a creek when their permits came up for renewal. Nestle has faced no such restrictions.

Only this year, after a group of critics raised concerns in letters and after The Desert Sun inquired about the expired permit, did Forest Service officials announce plans to take up the issue and carry out an environmental analysis.

A growing debate over Nestle's use of water from the San Bernardino National Forest parallels other arguments in places from the San Gorgonio Pass to Mount Shasta. And those debates have turned more contentious as a fourth year of drought weighs on California's depleted water supplies.

Statewide, the bottled water industry accounts for a small fraction of overall water use. The U.S. Geological Survey has estimated that roughly 1 percent of the water used in the state goes to industrial users, with bottling plants being a small portion of that. Pumping from wells can pull down groundwater levels, and drawing water from springs can reduce the amounts flowing in streams.

Bottled water companies in California are typically subject to environmental reviews only when a permit for a new project triggers a formal study. Otherwise, the impacts of bottling plants on creeks and aquifers often aren't scrutinized by government agencies.

In the San Bernardino National Forest, Nestle insists its bottling of spring water isn't causing any harm. Water from Arrowhead Springs has been tapped and sold for more than a century. The company says it is complying with all the requirements of its expired permit in the national forest and has been informed by the Forest Service that it can keep operating lawfully until a new permit is eventually issued. The company also says that at all of the springs where it draws water, it monitors the environment and manages its water use to ensure "long-term sustainability."

The Forest Service and Nestle have had a cooperative relationship over the years. In 2003, the Old Fire swept through the area and destroyed portions of Nestle's pipeline. A month later, deadly floods and mudslides thundered down from the mountains. As Nestle workers rebuilt the pipeline on the mountainside, Forest Service officials oversaw the work. But the agency didn't require a new permit at the time, and in the years since hasn't examined whether draining away spring water poses problems for the creek and the forest.

Two former Forest Service employees interviewed by The Desert Sun say they think it's wrong that the agency for decades hasn't studied the impacts on the national forest. During the drought, they say, there is now an urgent need to protect the water sources on public lands and reexamine Nestle's bottling operation.

"They're taking way too much water. That water's hugely important," said Steve Loe, a biologist who retired from the Forest Service in 2007. "Without water, you don't have wildlife, you don't have vegetation."

Standing on a roadside several miles from the springs, Loe motioned to the peaks in the distance, and to the steep mountainside where a natural rock formation shaped like an arrowhead marks the location of Arrowhead Springs. Beneath that arrowhead, hot springs bubble from the ground at a long-closed hotel that once attracted celebrities in the 1940s. In nearby Strawberry Canyon, cold springs gush from the mountain and into the pipes for bottling.

"When you take water from the springs that are the source of those waters, you dry up these canyons," Loe said. "And they're the most important habitats that we have."

An avid hiker and outdoorsman, Loe can rattle off a list of animals that need the water in Strawberry Creek: frogs, insects, salamanders, and birds such as Bell's vireo and willow flycatchers.

An increasingly rare species of native fish, the Santa Ana speckled dace, used to survive in Strawberry Creek. Then, after the wildfire and floods of 2003, the little fish disappeared from Strawberry Creek and other nearby streams. Scientists who surveyed the area concluded that the devastating fire and flooding had wiped out the populations.

Loe said he suspects the bottling operation contributed to their demise by leaving few spots with enough water for them to survive through the summers. "It makes everything in the stream more vulnerable having all of that water removed."

Nestle disputes that and says its use of water didn't harm the fish. But Loe said siphoning off water that could otherwise flow in the creek poses clear threats that need to be fully studied, particularly in light of the drought and climate change.

Loe first raised his concerns in an email in September to a list of federal and state officials and others, including a Nestle Waters manager. He pointed out that Nestle's permit "has long expired and needs to be reissued," requiring an analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). He suggested a meeting.

Soon afterward, Loe met with the Nestle manager and laid out his concerns. Five months later – after he and others sent additional critical letters to the government and after The Desert Sun posed questions about the expired permit – Forest Service officials met with Loe and told him they have started to evaluate the reissuance of the expired permit.

While pleased that the agency acknowledged the issue, Loe still has concerns. He wants to see an environmental study prepared by an independent third party. He also wants a review of Nestle's use of water from Deer Canyon Springs in the national forest. He said it's time for immediate measures to put more water into the streams while those environmental reviews, which can take years, are carried out.

"Because of the drought emergency, they need to go beyond just doing the NEPA," Loe said. "I would like to see the Forest Service and Nestle agree not to take water until they know if it's OK to take water. This hasn't been studied in a long time."

Ultimately, Loe said, protecting the flows of Strawberry Creek will likely require putting limits on how much water can be piped out.

"To keep taking water is just so risky if you care about the long-term health of that stream," he said. "We should be sitting down with Nestle and we should be saying, 'We've got to do something here.'"

                                             *A creek habitat*

Strawberry Creek cascades down from the mountains in a rocky canyon filled with live oaks, white alder trees and poison oak. Often, the stream is narrow enough to jump across. Running alongside it is a 4-inch stainless steel pipe supported on metal scaffolding.

"That's Arrowhead's pipe coming down right there," said Gary Earney, a retired Forest Service employee, standing on the bank of the creek and leaning on a walking stick.

Earney used to administer permits for the Forest Service, and he said the agency has never done an assessment of how the taking of water affects the creek. Back when the water pipes were installed in the early 20th century, he pointed out, no one conducted environmental reviews. Now, he said, it's long overdue.

"I'm not opposed to the taking of water. But the water removed needs to be surplus to the needs of the national forest," Earney said. If the water is needed for wildlife, he said, it should instead be diverted at the national forest's boundary after it has flowed through the creek.

Determining how much water is needed for a healthy ecosystem, he said, will require a thorough study. And that hasn't been done in all these years, he said, because the Forest Service lacks sufficient funding after repeated budget cuts and has a large backlog of expired permits.

"It's a national problem," Earney said. "I think it's just improper management and poor funding."

Walking among boulders, Earney said that if more water were allowed to flow in the creek, it would provide for plants and animals and would also sink into aquifers at the base of the mountains.

"We need to ensure that we have enough water to sustain the forest's health," Earney said. "I think we should look at whether or not it's a more beneficial use of this water to be bottled and sold in small bottles, or to be allowed to go down and drain off the forest and recharge the groundwater."

While Nestle's expired permit hasn't been scrutinized in nearly three decades, some other water users have been required to cut back. In the mid-2000s, as part of a regional review, the Forest Service went through the permits of hundreds of cabins on land in the national forest and reexamined their use of water from creeks. In Barton Flats, for instance, dozens of cabin owners were told they could no longer draw water from Barton Creek; instead, they would have to use wells or install tanks and truck in water. Cabin owners spent thousands of dollars putting in tanks.

"Some of these people had been using the water with water rights for 80 years, and it was very costly to make the change. Nestle takes more water from the stream in one day than the total of all of those cabin owners in a year," Loe said. "It's just so unfair."

"We made the little people do the right thing," he said, "and we're not making the big people do the right thing."

Amanda Frye, a community activist who lives in Redlands, said she finds the lack of oversight by the Forest Service disturbing, particularly during the drought.

"The U.S. government is just giving away our natural resources to an international corporation," Frye said. "I think that's really wrong."

                                                         *A big backlog, other priorities*

Employees of the San Bernardino National Forest say they oversee about 1,500 permits for various uses of national forest lands, ranging from power lines to cabins. About 360 of those permits are expired, and officials say they are gradually working on the backlog.

"The Nestle permit is just one of those 360. It's not like we've purposely held that one out," said Al Colby, a public services staff officer who oversees permits. "The thing is that Nestle continues to pay the fee that they were charged back when the permit was still valid."

Because of that, he said, the expired permit's conditions have remained in effect. "Basically as long as they're paying the fee that was established before it expired, the permit is enforceable."

The national forest has continued to collect a permit fee of $524 from Nestle Waters each year.


The permit, granted to Nestle predecessor Arrowhead Puritas Waters, Inc., was signed in 1978. An amendment said it would "expire and become void" in 1988.

The permit allows the company to maintain more than 4 miles of water pipelines in the national forest, as well as horizontal wells that tap into the springs on the mountainside. Records show the water is drawn from a dozen spring sites, and flows through separate pipes before coming together in the single pipe that runs along Strawberry Creek.

Forest Service officials said that in the 2000s there was talk of renewing Nestle's permit but that other priorities took precedence. Over the years, they said, those other priorities have included wildfires, forest thinning projects, a new rail line through Cajon Pass, and updating permits relating to Southern California Edison.

In Southern California and elsewhere, backlogs of expired permits developed as the Forest Service underwent repeated budget cuts in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. The agency has also been burdened with the growing costs of fighting larger and more destructive wildfires, cutting into the amounts of money available for activities such as reviewing permits.

Jason Collier, a lands and recreation specialist who handles special use permits, said he didn't know how much water Nestle has been using. He pointed out that when the permit was issued in the 1970s, reporting the volumes of water wasn't one of the conditions.


"If that tool was in the box," he said, "then we could exercise it."

Collier recalled that reissuing Nestle's expired permit was "part of the discussion" at one point – until the additional railroad track in Cajon Pass came up.

"Then the discussion became, 'There's a backlog in Long Beach (port) and we can't get our shipping containers moved. You work on the railroad,'" Collier said. "That's our reality, right or wrong."

Asked why the Forest Service reviewed the permits of more than 700 cabin owners while leaving Nestle's alone, Collier said that he couldn't speak to how the priorities were set but that the agency took up the cabin permits as part of a region-wide review.

Now that the Forest Service is considering Nestle's permit, Colby said one of the agency's first steps was to request files from the company.

"We need whatever information they have, studies that they have about the area, whatever permit files that they've got," Colby said. "Once we look at all that information, plus our own permit file, that'll help us figure out the scope of what we need to be doing."

Reissuing the permit likely will require studies to answer questions about how the water would flow if it weren't being extracted from the springs, said Robert Taylor, the forest hydrologist. Some of those questions, he said, include where a drop of water would otherwise go, whether it would in fact reach the creek, and how long its journey down the watershed would take.

Taylor said he didn't have specifics of the amounts of water used from Arrowhead Springs because the information is collected by another agency tasked with that responsibility. Taylor said he hadn't looked at Nestle's use of water from Deer Canyon Springs either.

"We have a lot to do. There are a lot of expired permits. We get direction from the regional office and the Washington office on how to handle our levels of permits," Taylor said. "I have 660,000 acres of the national forest to work on, and I'm just one guy. When it becomes a priority, I'll deal with it."

                                                              A stream of bottles

Nestle SA, headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, is the world's largest food company. Nestle CEO Paul Bulcke has made headlines warning that water scarcity poses a major threat to food security around the world. Another influential figure on Nestle's board of directors is former U.N. Children's Fund Executive Director Ann Veneman, who was U.S. secretary of agriculture from 2001-2005 and oversaw the Forest Service under President George W. Bush.

The company has invested heavily in expanding its bottled water business. Subsidiary Nestle Waters, headquartered in Paris, is the world's biggest bottled water company. And its division Nestle Waters North America is the largest bottled water producer in the United States, with a total of 29 plants in the U.S. and Canada and net sales of $4.1 billion last year.

Five of its bottling plants are located in California – in Sacramento, Livermore, Los Angeles, Cabazon and Ontario.

A display case in the lobby of the Ontario bottling plant shows early 20th century glass bottles for one of the many brands Nestle has purchased over the years: Arrowhead.

The company says water has been sold under an Arrowhead brand since 1894. Nestle has records showing that water has been collected from some of the springs it now uses since at least 1906, one year before the government in 1907 created the San Bernardino National Forest on lands that had previously been known as a forest reserve.

The story of how water bottling developed alongside the hot springs and resort is told in the book "Arrowhead Springs: California's Ideal Resort" by Mark Landis. According to the book, a sanitarium was first built at the hot springs in 1864, and by 1909 the Arrowhead Springs Company was formed to start bottling and selling water. For years, water was transported by rail in a "Water Train" of tank cars to a bottling plant in Los Angeles. Then, in the 1960s, trucks began hauling water to bottling plants.

Nowadays, water from Arrowhead and other springs arrives by tanker truck at the Ontario plant, while water from Deer Canyon Springs flows through a pipeline. Nestle says that nowhere else in the country does its spring water come from sites on national forest lands. The plant also uses purified groundwater to produce the brand Nestle Pure Life.

Inside the plant, machinery hums. A stream of empty bottles soar past on an air-driven production line. Filled and capped, the bottles emerge on conveyor belts ready to be sold.

David Thorpe, Nestle's western supply chain director, touted the company's water efficiency, saying it takes about 1.3 liters of water to produce one liter of bottled water – much less than soft drinks or beer.

"We're very, very efficient water users," Thorpe said. "One of the things we're constantly working on is how to become more efficient."

Statewide, Nestle Waters used a total of 2,164 acre-feet of water from all sources in 2014, said Larry Lawrence, Nestle's natural resource manager. That's about 705 million gallons – enough to irrigate roughly 700 acres of farmland

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